One of the main features of the previous study of the traditional international order in East Asia by
is to carry out narration from the basic position of different countries, focusing more on grand narration, while the current research trend pays more attention to the description and analysis of the overall historical interaction between regions. At the same time, it combines the historical narration with the view of reality, and finds the “living” history from the perspective of the history of social life. Based on this starting point, on May 15, the sixth cloud academic conference hosted by the Institute of ancient history of the Chinese Academy of history “seminar on system, cultural inheritance and integration of song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties” launched a discussion on the theme of “song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties: traditional international order and society in East Asia”. The conference was chaired by Wu yungaowa and Luo Wei of the Institute of ancient history of the Chinese Academy of history.
: the confusion of modern Western understanding of the traditional international order in East Asia
in the introduction link, Shu Jian of the History Department of Shanghai University led to the discussion topic with the modern “Fujiu news event” – how to understand the ancient times under the great changes in modern times Especially the traditional international order in East Asia during the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties? George Clayton foulk, the protagonist of
and “Fujiu news event”, was a naval officer of the U.S. Embassy in the Korean Dynasty after the opening of ports in modern Korea. After Fujiu came to Korea, he promoted the missionary cause of Christian Protestantism on the Korean Peninsula without official permission, which was of great significance to the education At the same time, he encouraged the Korean Dynasty to act against the Qing Dynasty and encouraged the Korean Dynasty to get rid of the traditional suzerain vassal relationship with the Qing Dynasty. At this time, the man in North Korea was quite dissatisfied with what Fujiu did, so the relationship between the two was quite tense. At the end of 1886, Yuan Shikai saw Fujiu’s report on the political situation of the Korean Dynasty in the Shanghai foreign language newspaper, so he immediately found someone to translate it and handed it to North Korea’s Gaozong Li Xi for reading. Li Xi then ordered the foreign department to supervise Jin Yunzhi’s textual criticism.
Fujiu’s report is entitled “Lieutenant Fujiu’s report on information related to the Seoul revolution, December 4-7, 1884”, which talks about the possible coup in 1884. Around September 1886, the U.S. government published the report in American diplomatic instruments (1885-1886); After the book was published, Shanghai’s zilinxi newspaper keenly captured the news points and published Fujiu’s report publicly. However, the publication is not what Fujiu did. Yuan Shikai made a big fuss about this and kept sending letters asking North Korea to expel Fujiu because he was worried that the North Korean dynasty would be affected by Fujiu and go farther and farther on the road of self-determination. Yuan Shikai’s starting point is undoubtedly to safeguard the interests of the Qing Dynasty and save the precarious suzerain vassal relationship of the Qing Dynasty. Under his continuous pressure, Fujiu was finally forced to leave the Korean Peninsula. Behind this incident, in fact, is an epitome of the crisis faced by the traditional East Asian international order in modern times – Fujiu and the international order constructed by the modern West represented by Fujiu are disintegrating the traditional East Asian international order.
in the report
“Fujiu news event” published by zilinxi newspaper, there was a man who mediated between the Qing Dynasty, the Korean Dynasty and the United States. He was William W. Rockhill, then the acting Minister of the United States to the Korean Dynasty. Zoke Yi realized that it is a complex thing for westerners to understand the relationship between the Korean Dynasty and the Great Qing Dynasty. Taking the study of the monument of merit and virtue of the emperor of the Great Qing Dynasty (santiandu Monument) as an example, he kept thinking about how China DPRK relations operate, whether the relationship between the Great Qing Dynasty and the Korean Dynasty is a state-to-state relationship in the eyes of Westerners, and if not, what is going on between the two sides, What is the basis and how should Westerners understand it? Zoke Yi’s answer is: “tribute trade” – the Korean Dynasty paid tribute to the Chinese emperor, and the Chinese emperor received economic benefits; The Korean Dynasty mission took this opportunity to trade along the way and obtain commercial benefits. Sometimes, Zoke Yi said that this was a kind of equal relationship, without the meaning of submission. It was a bit like the relationship between middle-aged and young members of a family and their parents. The Korean Dynasty informed the Chinese emperor of the death of the new monarch and the royal family. It was just a routine to respect the elders of the family. The Ming Dynasty is like a father to North Korea, while the Qing Dynasty is like a eldest brother. The Qing emperor also said in 1882 that North Korea was a close relative. But sometimes he used suzerainty, even sovereignty and dual sovereignty (that is, North Korea had sovereignty, and the Qing Dynasty had sovereignty over the Korean Dynasty) to understand the relationship between the two sides. Zoke Yi also lamented that there was too little information to fully reveal such a complex relationship: “I am unable and do not want to determine the China DPRK relationship: please judge. Because this relationship can not be determined by our western rules in the end; because the published materials are not enough to explain this Asian relationship, it is still unknown to me.” In order to let readers understand what he called “Asian relationship”, Zoke Yi also specially translated Bai’s “Diary of the post of envoy to Korea”. After leaving Korea, Zoke Yi began to compile the treaties of the Korean Dynasty and other countries, hoping to put this incomprehensible international relations in East Asia into the Western treaty system since modern times. However, his behavior was not recognized by the U.S. authorities. It is understandable that the U.S. State Department once criticized him for being more like a Chinese. The materials used by roukeyi are all based on Chinese materials and take the Chinese perspective as the starting point.
“how to understand the confusion of modern Westerners about the international order in ancient East Asia in the monument to the merits and virtues of the Qing emperor?
. Today’s researchers should trace back to the source and explore more problems, and their eyes should not be limited to the exchanges between China and the Korean Peninsula. For the traditional study of international relations in East Asia, we need to focus on the cross temporal and spatial political, economic and cultural interaction network, war and peaceful exchanges between traditional East Asian countries, and the correlation between historical events. The research vision should be from the politics, economy, culture and Military and other broader aspects.
order and individual: the order reform of East Asia in the era of Mongolia
“KD”SPS “the emphasis of western academic circles on the traditional international order in East Asia began with the American scholar John Fairbank. From 1963 to 1965, Fei Zhengqing organized two international academic seminars in the United States to discuss” the international order in East Asia “and” China’s world order “respectively, and put the” tributary system ” As a basic model for analyzing the international order in East Asia and China’s world order. Since then, the “tributary system” has become the mainstream analytical paradigm for western academia to study China’s traditional foreign relations. However, whether the traditional international order in East Asia can be summarized by the “tributary” system still needs in-depth reflection, and many domestic scholars have put forward different views. At present, the academic circles are inconsistent in the expression of “tribute system” to explain the traditional international order in East Asia. There are also “tribute system”, “Huayi order”, “Huaxia order”, “mutual market system theory”, “celestial system theory” and so on. In ancient times, the international order of East Asia in different periods was different. Wei Zhijiang believed that there was no East Asian international order centered in East Asia from the 11th to 14th centuries, but an East Asian world of “Hua Yi Metamorphosis” centered on the Northern Dynasties Liao, Jin and Mongolia. Chen shangsheng believes that the traditional international order in East Asia is called “tribute system”, which is more comprehensive, and its essence lies in “big things” and “small words”. In this system, “shangguo” is recognized as a “dependent state” and cooperates in bilateral affairs. In fact, not only the Central Plains Dynasty tried to build an international order with the surrounding small countries, but also the surrounding North Korea, Japan and Vietnam tried to build an international order with their surrounding small states. The tributary relationship dominated by the Central Plains Dynasty was not only recognized by the neighboring countries, but also the main mechanism to maintain the stability of the international order in East Asia. However, it should be noted that the tributary system did not form a cooperative alliance among the “dependent countries” around the “shangguo”, nor did it carry out cooperation and mutual support on national security affairs around the “shangguo”. Therefore, in the face of the international order constructed by modern western countries, the structural defects of the tribute system itself are highlighted. Therefore, the traditional international order in East Asia is difficult to resist the expansion of Western powers and Japan in East Asia by using the treaty system
. Exploring the traditional international order and its evolution process in East Asia is undoubtedly of great historical significance and value in the “Mongolian era” from the 13th to the 14th century, At that time, the Mongolian forces sweeping Europe and Asia reshaped the relations among East Asian countries. Wu yungaowa, a researcher of the Institute of ancient history of the Chinese Academy of history, has made a detailed analysis of the international order and cultural exchanges among countries in East Asia from an overall perspective, taking the “Mongolian era” from the 13th to the 14th century as the time scope, China, Japan and South Korea as the regional scope, combined with ancient drawings. Wuyungova mentioned in the report that the Khitans had an important impact on Mongolia’s construction of the international order in East Asia in the 13th century. Some scholars believe that after the fall of the Liao Dynasty, Yelu Dashi established the Western Liao Dynasty to compete with the female truth; It was in the process of the confrontation between Khitan and the female reality that the Mongols gradually rose and changed the international relations in East Asia. In addition, when Mongolia attacked the Jin Dynasty, a large number of Qidan people in Eastern Liaoning left Jindi to belong to Mongolia. Later, they both surrendered and defected and fled to Korea, which forced Korea to be involved in the wars of Mongolia, Qidan and Nuzhen. Before the rise of Mongolia, Korea had diplomatic relations with song, Liao and Jin in the East Asian international order, and Korea was the great Jin Dynasty in the East Asian international order. With the rise of Mongolia in the 13th century, it sent troops to invade Korea. Korea and Mongolia established a fraternal alliance, blocking the traffic between Korea and the Jin Dynasty. The political pattern of Korea and the Jin Dynasty was broken, and the international relations and political situation of the whole East Asia changed greatly with the rise of Mongolia.
to Kublai Khan, the international order in East Asia had a new trend of change. The war between Kublai Khan and the Western Kings hindered the land transportation between China and the West. In order to explore the sea, Mongolia adopted a policy of Huairou towards Korea and expedited Japan, Annan, Zhancheng and other East and Southeast Asian countries. On the one hand, it brought the Dayuan Empire, which integrated nomadic culture and agricultural culture, into contact and integrate with marine civilization; On the other hand, it also made the northern nomadic culture and Jiangnan Zen culture spread to Korea and Japan. The deposing of Gaoli Yuanzong by Gaoli power minister Lin Yan in 1269 was a turning point in the relationship between Yuan and Li. After this incident, Gaoli Yuanzong was determined to ask for marriage. Kublai Khan agreed that the princess of the Yuan Dynasty would marry the king of Korea, and the Yuan Dynasty became an uncle and nephew of Korea. The political marriage between the Yuan Dynasty and Korea, as well as the invasion and harassment of Korea by Japanese pirates, contributed to Korea’s assistance in the invasion of Japan, forming a situation in which Mongolian and Korean allied forces invaded Japan eastward. Since the loyal king of Korea, successive kings of Korea married princesses of the Yuan Dynasty. The princesses of the Yuan Dynasty intervened in the government of Korea, and the heirs born to the princesses inherited the throne of the king of Korea. Therefore, Korea entered the “period of Mongolian intervention”. During the “Mongolian intervention period”, Mongolia asked Koryo to perform the “six things” that should be performed by its internal dependent countries: first, the monarch is in charge of the dynasty; Second, the pledge of children; Three, the registered residence of the people. Fourth, to help the army; Fifth, set up a post station; The sixth is set as daruhuachi. Generally speaking, the interference of the princess of the Yuan Dynasty in the politics of Korea is the most obvious in Kublai Khan’s period. Japanese scholar Yoshihiko Mori believes that Koryo is the “investment” of the Yuan Dynasty. Uyungaowa denies this statement and believes that in the international order of East Asia in the 13th and 14th centuries, the relationship between the Yuan Dynasty and Koryo is still state to state. Mongolia and Korea have close cultural exchanges and show a tendency of diversification. In terms of personnel, princesses, dowries, Korean literati, translators and tribute women of the Yuan Dynasty played an important role in the information and cultural exchanges between the Yuan Dynasty and Korea; In terms of content, science and technology, language, customs, painting, calligraphy, Buddhism and Neo Confucianism of the Yuan Dynasty were introduced into Korea and had a far-reaching impact. Because the loyal king and the loyal king of Korea lived in the Yuan Dynasty for a long time, especially the king Zhang of Zhongxuan, who lived in the Yuan Dynasty for a long time, traveled in Dadu, Shangdu, Jiangnan, Wutai Mountain and other places of the Yuan Dynasty, and had close contacts with scholars, painters and monks of the Yuan Dynasty, which played an important role in the exchange of Zen culture and painting art between Korea and the Yuan Dynasty. In addition, the loyal king sent Scripture copying monks to the Yuan Dynasty many times. Therefore, the Zen culture in East Asia reached its peak in the 13th and 14th centuries.
from the 10th to 15th centuries, Japan adopted the policy of locking up the country and did not have relations with neighboring countriesEstablishing diplomatic relations; However, Japan had private trade with the Southern Song Dynasty. Zen monks of the Southern Song Dynasty often traveled between Japan and the Southern Song Dynasty with trade ships, which had a great impact on the Kamakura shogunate of Japan. During the Kublai Khan period, Mongolia sent envoys to instruct Japan for many times. However, because the information about Mongolia obtained by the Kamakura shogunate mainly came from the Zen Buddhism of the Southern Song Dynasty, and the Zen monks were once hostile to Mongolia, they did not play a positive role in the information communication between Japan and Mongolia, and Japan did not actively integrate into the East Asian international order constructed by the Yuan Dynasty. Therefore, Kublai Khan sent troops to Japan twice in 1274 and 1281, but finally failed due to a typhoon. Wu yungaowa analyzed the clothing, hairstyle, weapons, flags, etc. of the Mongolian army in Japan at that time in combination with the drawing of the painting of the attack of Mongolia. Combined with her experience in Japan, she analyzed the military defense facilities established by Japan along the coast of Bodo bay at that time, which reflected the war memory left by the yuan Japanese war, It also reflects the exchanges and conflicts between the Yuan Dynasty and Japan under the international order of East Asia dominated by the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. After the failure of the Yuan Dynasty to levy Japan, although the two countries did not establish diplomatic relations, the culture of the Yuan Dynasty still had an impact on Japan, mainly in the cultural exchange of Zen. There are also some relics of the physical exchanges between the Yuan Dynasty and Japan, such as the documents of the Mongolian Yuan imperial edict to Japan, the BASBA seal held by the yuan army officers during the “attack of Mongolia” found in the submarine shipwreck of yingdao, Japan, and so on.
enemy array map (drawing words from the attack of Mongolia)
the eight SIPA copper seal
found in the submarine shipwreck of Eagle Island, Japan Zhou Sicheng of the Central Institute of party history and literature discusses the relationship between Yuan and Japan under the title of “conquering Japan: crowd flow and war memory on the edge of Yuan Empire”. Zhou Sicheng previously published the anger of the Great Khan – a brief history of the Yuan Dynasty’s expedition against Japan. In this book, he did not discuss the crowd flow and war memory in the yuan Japanese war. Therefore, in this report, he discussed the yuan Japanese war as a social and historical event in the international order of East Asia at that time, or touched on the multi-dimensional thinking of historical events.
in the battle of the first eastern expedition of the Yuan Dynasty (1274), Japanese samurai Takezaki Jichang was injured and fell off his horse. (painting of Mongolian attack) Zhou Sicheng believes that the two expeditions against Japan during the Kublai Khan period (1274 and 1281) can first be discussed from the military history, and the military history is not finished with real knives and guns on the battlefield. It can also be viewed from the current popular paradigm, such as social psychology. In the past, scholars’ research on the war of yuan and Japan was mostly based on Dynasty history documents such as the history of Yuan Dynasty and the history of Korea, and did not pay enough attention to the study of social history under the international order of East Asia at that time. Zhou Sicheng believes that paying attention to the military from the perspective of social history is a bit like watching a play. If you want to make it clear to the audience what these people are singing, what clothes they wear and how to walk, you need to spend a lot of time introducing background knowledge so that the audience can understand. As far as these two wars are concerned, there are actually no particularly large-scale battles. Unlike the later “Renchen Japanese rebellion”, there were many large-scale siege battles in North Korea, many very fierce exchanges, leaving a lot of historical materials. The first time there was a small confrontation, the two sides withdrew, and the second time they were about to land, they were swept by the storm. It can be said that the actor just came off the stage, so to make such a short war clear, we need to devote a lot of energy to introducing the secrets of the two protagonists.