On June 28, 1919, the magnificent mirror Hall of Versailles Palace, France.
The sad and disheartened face of George Wilson, the representative of Germany, was sitting upright.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed as scheduled as the nib of the pen moved on a large stack of documents.
On the platform behind Versailles, thousands of spectators were excited.
However, this is only a carnival of a few countries, and the interests of most war participating and injured countries are not guaranteed.
China is one of the victors.
The delegation was jointly composed of officials from Beijing and Guangzhou, including Lu Zhengxiang, foreign minister of Beijing, Shi Zhaoji, minister to the UK, Gu Weijun, minister to the United States, Wei Chen, minister to Belgium, and Wang Zhengting, an official from Guangzhou.
At first, the Chinese delegation had great hopes for the peace conference and put forward seven conditions in the proposal submitted: 1.
Abandon the sphere of influence. 2. Withdraw foreign troops and patrol police. 3. Abolish the wired and wireless telegraph offices of foreign post offices. 4. Revocation of consular jurisdiction. 5. Return the leased land. 6. Return the concession. 7. The right to tariff freedom.
After that, at the strong request of Chinese students studying in Europe, the Chinese Delegation added a proposal: requesting the Paris peace conference to cancel the Sino Japanese agreement of May 25, 1915, that is, the statement of “Article 21” and exchange of letters.
“Article 21” is an unequal treaty that the Japanese imperialists forced the government to sign by means of threats and inducements, placing China’s territory, politics, military and finance under Japan’s control.
The “exchange of letters” was a “secret treaty” signed by Japan and the Beijing government under the control of Duan Qirui in 1917.
The main contents are as follows: 1.
All the Japanese troops along the Jiaoji railway, except for one unit left in Jinan, are mobilized in Qingdao. 2. On the alert along the Jiaoji Railway: the Japanese army withdrew and was replaced by the patrol team commanded by the Japanese. 3. Jiaoji railway will be jointly operated by China and Japan.
In the exchange of letters, Duan Qirui government “readily agreed” to Japan’s proposal.
Zhang Zongxiang, minister in Japan, personally delivered an exchange of letters to the Japanese government.
After the news came out, the whole country was in an uproar.
On January 27, 1919, the so-called “five person meeting” composed of representatives of the United States, Britain, France, Italy and Japan discussed the issue of German colonies.
Chinese representatives attended as nonvoting delegates.
At the meetings for several consecutive days, the representatives of China and Japan had a heated debate on the Shandong issue.
Japan first proposed that China joined the war late and did not send a single soldier, so it could not enjoy the treatment of a victorious country.
Gu Weijun listed China’s contribution to the allies and pointed out the rights that China should enjoy.
On the ground of sending troops to Shandong to drive out the Germans and actually control Qingdao in the first World War, the Japanese representative said that Jiaozhou Bay and the railway should unconditionally transfer all German rights in Shandong to Japan.
Gu Weijun explained from the perspective of Shandong’s history, geography and culture that Qingdao is entirely China’s territory and no loss is allowed.
Therefore, Shandong’s sovereignty should be returned to China directly.
The Japanese representative also cited the “Article 21” and the secret treaty signed between Japan and European powers in 1917 as the basis, and the Chinese representative argued with reason.
When the news came out, there was an uproar, and people all over the country called in support of the Chinese representative.
However, the “ten member meeting” of the “Paris Peace Conference” rejected China’s two proposals on abandoning the sphere of influence, withdrawing foreign troops, patrolling police and canceling the “Article 21” requirements on the grounds that they had nothing to do with the “Paris Peace Conference”.
In late April 1919, the United States, Britain, France and Italy summit discussed China’s Shandong issue three times.
Chinese representatives were rejected and were not allowed to read the minutes of the meeting.
On April 30, the “big three” of the United States, Britain and France held the last meeting on the Shandong issue.
Only Japanese representatives were invited to attend, once again excluding Chinese representatives.
The meeting decided that China’s Jiaozhou region, railways, mines, factories and all ancillary rights occupied by Germany “were acquired and continue to be owned by Japan”, and included this decision seriously damaging China’s sovereignty in the Treaty of Versailles.
The Beiyang government succumbed to imperialist pressure and secretly ordered Chinese representatives to sign, which aroused China’s vigorous May 4th patriotic movement.
The Chinese representative finally refused to sign the Treaty of Versailles.
At the “Paris Peace Conference”, another content that was not the formal agenda of the conference but was always planned openly and secretly was the armed intervention in Soviet Russia.
The great powers had the same goal of strangling Soviet Russia, but they had different considerations in strategy.
At the preparatory meeting for the Paris peace conference, Fuxu, commander in chief of the Allied forces of the allies and marshal of France, openly requested the organization of 2 million expeditionary forces against Soviet Russia and suggested that the United States should mainly provide troops.
Previously, 15000 US troops have been sent to northern Russia and the Far East to participate in armed intervention.
Wilson refused to send more troops.
Lloyd George believes that although Russia is easy to invade, it is difficult to conquer.
They advocated the adoption of negotiation strategies in order to be prepared to cover the armed attack.
During the whole conference, the powers discussed the issue of armed intervention in Soviet Russia for many times, approved the economic blockade against Soviet Russia, and formed a “epidemic prevention zone” in the countries along the Baltic Sea to curb the expansion of the revolutionary struggle between Soviet Russia.
The “four person meeting” also received representatives of various counter revolutionary organizations in Soviet Russia, sent military delegations from the allies, provided weapons and equipment, and discussed plans to use the armies of Soviet and Russian neighbors for armed intervention.
In April 1920, the group of allies launched an armed attack on Soviet Russia using the Polish and franger gangs as the main force.
At the instigation and support of the allies, Poland launched a war against Soviet Russia in 1920, entered Ukraine in April and occupied Kiev in May.
At the same time, franger’s army launched an attack from south to North from Crimea.
The Soviet Army turned to counter attack from late May, recovered a large area of lost land, and arrived in Warsaw and Lvov in mid August.
The Polish government was unable to continue the war, so it agreed to peace talks on October 15.
On October 20, Russia, Ukraine and Poland signed a preliminary peace treaty.
In early November, following the defeat of the Polish army, the Red Army hit the flengel army many times and finally drove it out of Crimea, thus completely defeating the three armed interventions of imperialism in Soviet Russia and basically ending the civil war.
The Paris peace conference also set up a headquarters to instigate armed intervention in the Hungarian Revolution.
On March 21, 1919, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was proclaimed.
The Paris peace conference immediately held an emergency meeting.
The headquarters of the Allies ordered a ban on trade with HungaryEconomic blockade.
Since April 16, Romanian, Serbian, French and Czechoslovak troops have launched all-round attacks from the eastern, southern and Northern lines.
Under the command of the commander in chief of the Balkan allied forces and the general of the French army, the total number of offensive forces reached 200000 to 220000.
Clemenceau, on behalf of the Paris peace conference, twice issued an ultimatum to the Hungarian government in exchange for Romania’s withdrawal and inviting Hungary to participate in the conference, asking the Hungarian Red Army to stop its attack and withdraw to the demarcation line stipulated in the armistice agreement of 1918.
On July 5, the Paris peace conference made a resolution on further armed intervention in Hungary, which finally subverted the Hungarian Soviet Republic in early August.