Section I tuthmos expedition to West Asia

in the late middle Dynasty, after the ancient Egyptians overthrew the rule of the hiksos, they created the 18th dynasty, and the history of ancient Egypt entered a new dynasty. At the beginning of the founding of the dynasty, the southern expedition and Northern Expedition, wantonly expanded outward, and ancient Egypt entered an era of super military hegemony.

background

in the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, the hiksos from northern Egypt occupied Egypt. After a long resistance struggle for more than 100 years, the Egyptians finally drove out the hiksos, restored their own rule and created the 18th dynasty, Founded in Thebes, upper Egypt, ancient Egypt entered the New Kingdom period (about 1567-1085 BC). It includes the 18th, 19th and 20th dynasties.

the 18th dynasty of Egypt established and developed a strong army in the continuous struggle with the hiksos. Relying on it, the Pharaoh regime effectively eliminated the local separatism and formed a centralized and unified situation. The victory against the Hyksos further strengthened the Pharaoh’s centralized power. In turn, the unified centralization of power was conducive to the Pharaoh’s great expansion, Northern Expedition and the establishment of a huge empire. Yahmos I once conquered Nubia in the South and occupied Palestine in the north, laying the foundation stone for the Egyptian empire.

but the real establishment of the Empire was during Thutmosis I (1525-1512 BC). He not only invaded Nubia in the south again, but also entered the hinterland of West Asia in the north, with the vanguard reaching the river Euphrates. Egypt occupies northern Syria and borders Mitani, a powerful country in Western Asia.

ancient Egyptian chariot

in the 40 years after Thutmosis I dominated Western Asia, Egyptian troops withdrew from Asia and focused on domestic construction. But during this period, Egypt’s situation in Asia gradually deteriorated. The Mitanni Kingdom, founded by the Julians, began to expand freely in Syria and Mesopotamia. In southern Syria and Palestine, the kingdom of katesh captured a large area of Galilee and the Jordan Valley of NATO on the occasion of Queen hatshepsutexie of Egypt. King kajesh gathered a militia in Megiddo city and summoned princes from all over the country to prepare to unite against Egypt. This situation poses a serious threat to Egypt’s interests in Asia. Egypt, which is booming, will never tolerate other countries occupying its territory. A war is imminent.

Thutmosis III (1504-1450 BC), the fifth Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, was in power with Queen Hatshepsut for a period of time when he was young. During this period, Thutmosis III trained an army under his direct control, with 25 people as a unit, with a total of more than 25000 people. At the age of 22, Thutmosis III began to rule alone. In May 1482 BC, he led his troops out of Egypt and launched an attack on the kajesh alliance. The two sides conducted a decisive battle in Megiddo, an important town in northern Palestine.

through

according to the chronology of Thutmosis III: “In front of Megiddo, Thutmosis III adjusted the battle sequence of the army. The archers were in front, the infantry were cut off, and then there were 500 selected chariots driven by fast as the wind. During the attack, the archers fired rows of sharp arrows to disrupt the enemy’s camp. Then Thutmosis III ordered the chariots to advance in a landslide. When the chariots met When approaching the enemy’s motorcade, the vehicle soldiers release the bowstring at the same time under the unified order. The battle sequence of the enemy soldiers finally disintegrated. There are overturned carriages, the bodies of horses and soldiers everywhere, and the cries of generals and the groans of the wounded can be heard everywhere. ”

the battle of Megiddo

also vividly and carefully describes the heroic image of Thutmosis III in this battle: “Your Majesty set out in a gold and silver chariot, equipped with his own combat weapons, like Horus, the constant winner, like the master of power, like Mount of Thebes, and his father Amun strengthened his hands.” The enemy was thrown into chaos by the attack of Thutmosis III. “When they saw that his majesty defeated them, they fled disorderly to Megiddo with a frightened face. They abandoned their horses and chariots made of gold and silver.”. In this case, if the Egyptian soldiers pursued the victory, the city of Megiddo would be readily available. However, despite Pharaoh’s screams, Egyptian soldiers only robbed gold and silver, looted booty and bound captives. As a result, Megiddo deserters climbed up the wall, grabbed the rope thrown down by the guards above, and narrowly escaped their lives.

Thutmosis III was very unhappy about this, but had no choice but to order a siege. In the next seven months, Pharaoh cut down all olive and fig trees in the suburbs, cut off food and water in the city, and finally forced Megiddo’s guards to surrender. All the leaders of the Asian alliance were captured except king kajesh who fled. They asked Thutmosis III for forgiveness and assured him that the tiehenu would never rebel. On this expedition, the Egyptians won a lot of booty. In the following three years, Pharaoh visited the occupied territories many times, collected tribute and reaffirmed his rule over these areas. After

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destroyed the kajesh alliance, Thutmosis III pointed the spearhead of the struggle at the second enemy, Tunip. After several years of recuperation, in the early summer of 1476 BC, Thutmosis III led his army northward along the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, passed through bibros, conquered the northern towns of uraza and ardata, and turned all the troops stationed by thunip on the Phoenician coast into prisoners. As the time of this expedition was just in the harvest season, the Egyptian army harvested all the local grains and transported them back to Egypt by sea on the occasion of winning the Hui Dynasty.

Thutmosis

in the spring of 1475 BC, the Egyptians returned home by boat. After landing in bibrose, cross the eastern mountains