On April 9, the US British coalition forces invaded Baghdad, and Iraqis took to the streets to cheer for liberation.
With the help of the US military, the huge statue of Saddam Hussein in Baghdad square was overthrown, marking the official collapse of Saddam’s regime.
But the battle is not over, Saddam is still missing, and the will of the Iraqi resistance is still there.
Since then, an important task of the US military is to search for Saddam Hussein.
On the evening of June 18, US government officials announced that the US military arrested abid Hamid Mahmoud, Saddam’s senior secretary, that day.
This person ranks fourth in the “Poker wanted” of the U.S. military – Fang Pian a, just behind Saddam Hussein, Saddam Hussein’s two sons KUSAI and Uday.
Mahmoud’s arrest excited the US military, because the US intelligence department believed that he was the most likely person in the world to know Saddam’s whereabouts, “it’s up to him to find Saddam”! Abid Hamid Mahmoud, 46, is Saddam’s distant cousin.
Like other senior officials of Saddam’s regime, he also comes from Saddam’s hometown Tikrit.
According to the US central command, Mahmoud is “Saddam’s national security assistant and senior bodyguard”.
At the beginning of his career, Mahmoud was just an ordinary official in Saddam’s private bodyguard.
Later, Saddam selected him as his senior assistant and was promoted to lieutenant general.
In the 1990s, Mahmoud held several positions of security minister at the same time, including responsible for weapons research and development.
Therefore, he is very familiar with Saddam’s personal security arrangements and the situation of biological, chemical and nuclear weapons projects.
According to the post, he was “regarded as the real number two figure in Saddam’s regime” and had higher power than Uday.
As President Saddam’s senior secretary, Mahmoud was one of the few people who gained Saddam’s full trust.
In the photos held by the U.S. intelligence agencies, he can be seen frequently around Saddam Hussein.
As a national security assistant, he has access to most confidential documents of the Iraqi government, including weapons program documents.
In Iraq, any diplomat, media or even doctor who wants to see Saddam needs to be carefully examined by Mahmoud.
There are only two sons of Saddam in the world, Uday and KUSAI, who can see Saddam directly without going through Mahmoud.
Then, the US military launched the “desert scorpion” operation on the 15th to investigate and deal with illegal weapons in Iraq and crack down on the remaining armed forces Pro Saddam.
The main area of the operation is called the “Sunni triangle” by the US military, that is, several cities in the central and western regions of Iraq.
The residents here have high loyalty to Saddam’s government.
Tikrit Town, Saddam’s hometown, is located in the north of the triangle.
Of course, whether it is the “desert scorpion” or the “Peninsula raid”, these large-scale “sweeping” activities also have an important purpose, which is to collect intelligence and strive to find the whereabouts of Saddam and his two sons as soon as possible.
Although there is no conclusive evidence that the three survived the war, a Defense Department official said intelligence analysts tend to believe that the three are still alive.
There is an inevitable relationship between Saddam’s unknown life and death and the successive attacks on the US military in Iraq.
“Saddam Hussein is still alive” is the spiritual motivation to encourage a large number of militants to constantly “challenge” the US military.
In response, the White House said it would take at least a few months or even a year to uncover the mystery of the former president’s whereabouts.
Meanwhile, the United States did not go well in interrogating senior Iraqi officials. U.S. officials said that the other party has received good training and excellent anti interrogation skills: they either give a lot of things that the United States already knows, or answer a specific question.
Even if they use “coercive means” against them, it is difficult to extract valuable things from their mouths.
However, the U.S. military still tried its best to get important information about Saddam from Mahmoud, Saddam’s most trusted man, which provided a basis for capturing Saddam alive a few months later.
“We can be sure that Uday and KUSAI have been killed.
” On July 22, 2003, lieutenant general Ricardo Sanchez of the US central command announced the news at a press conference in Baghdad.
On July 21, more than 200 heavily armed US soldiers attacked a villa in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul under the cover of armed helicopters.
In the fierce exchange of fire, Saddam’s two sons Uday and KUSAI were killed.
According to lieutenant general Sanchez, the US military in Iraq received a report on the evening of the 21st that Saddam’s two sons Uday and KUSAI were hiding in a villa in Farah District in northern Mosul.
Upon learning of this important information, the 101st air assault division of the US Army immediately launched an operation.
A small group of US soldiers came to the villa at about 9 p.m. that day and asked for a search, but was refused.
One hour after the group of American soldiers left, nearly 200 heavily armed American soldiers quickly surrounded the villa under the cover of 25 cars.
When the American soldiers approached the villa, they were resisted, and someone in the building attacked the American soldiers with light weapons.
The US military immediately fought back with heavy weapons such as machine guns and rockets, and a fierce gun battle broke out between the two sides.
Armed helicopters of the US military also came to help and fired several missiles into the building, which almost completely destroyed the villa and a nearby building.
The US army occupied the villa after more than six hours of exchange of fire. U.S. soldiers dragged out four Iraqi bodies from the villa.
At that time, Uday and KUSAI could be identified from the characteristics of the bodies, but for the sake of caution, these bodies were immediately sent to Baghdad. U.S. investigators used a variety of methods to identify the bodies, and finally confirmed that Uday and KUSAI had died.
In fact, before the war broke out, the United States managed to obtain DNA samples of Saddam and his two sons in order to confirm the life and death of the three key figures in the war.
Among the four bodies, in addition to Uday and KUSAI, another one looks only a teenager and may be the son of KUSAI, and the other adult body may be a bodyguard.
After Saddam’s two sons were killed, the U.S. military publicly displayed his cosmetic remains.
Although some Iraqis and Kuwaitis are “elated” about this, many people are extremely angry at the US military’s practice of vigorously pursuing double standards and madly trampling on Islamic traditions.
On the same day,, took a sample of his DNA.
DNA tests showed that he was indeed Saddam.
It was his relative, general Mohammed Ibrahim al moslit, who betrayed Saddam.
He anesthetized Saddam Hussein on December 13 and then snitched to the US military.
However, he is unlikely to get any benefit from the US military, because the Americans have identified him as a villain.
They will not only not receive a reward of $25 million, but also put him in prison.
Saddam Hussein was arrested and ended his eight month escape.
In fact, the escape life is no stranger to Saddam Hussein.
Saddam Hussein, who was only 22 years old in 1959, fled because he failed to assassinate the then Iraqi leader.
However, 44 years later, he fled again after reaching the peak of power, and it was a hopeless escape.
In just over 40 days, the powerful American chariot overthrew the seemingly powerful Saddam regime at the cost of the lives of only 149 American officers and soldiers.
However, it would be a big mistake to think that the situation in Iraq would be calm and the political situation would develop according to the American design when Saddam was arrested, the Saddam regime was overthrown and Bush announced the end of the Iraq war.
The Americans could not only control Iraq, but also get out.
More than three years since the end of the war, Iraq has not been calm for a moment, and now it is on the verge of civil war.
The US military is deeply trapped in the quagmire of Iraq and is difficult to get out.
The post-war reconstruction of Iraq is a difficult process.
On May 6, 2003, U.S. President Bush appointed U.S. diplomat Bremer as the president’s special envoy to serve as the supreme civilian administrator responsible for supervising the post-war political and economic reconstruction of Iraq.
His position is above Ghana, the head of the “U.S. reconstruction and humanitarian assistance office” in Iraq, and is responsible for managing all post-war political and economic reconstruction affairs of Iraq, And report directly to US Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld.
At the same time, Iraq has established an interim Governing Council and plans to form an interim transitional government by June 2004 to take over the Iraqi regime from the United States occupation authorities and “restore full sovereignty”.
After that, the signing of the new constitution and the establishment of the new government marked a big step forward in Iraq’s political process.
However, due to the numerous contradictions between Shiites, Sunnis and Kurds, and the disturbance of anti-U.S. armed forces and Al Qaeda, every step in the reconstruction process of Iraq is very difficult.
In particular, the anti US armed forces continue to create terrorist attacks, making it impossible for the US military to prevent them.
Some highly organized anti US forces also openly confronted the US military.
This is the case with the Shiite anti American forces led by Sadr.
On April 4, 2004, a large-scale demonstration against the coalition forces broke out in the main Shiite Muslim inhabited areas of Iraq, in which the demonstrations in the capital Baghdad and the Shiite Muslim holy land Najaf turned into serious bloody conflict.
A total of 10 coalition soldiers and at least 56 Iraqis were killed in the conflict on the same day, and hundreds of others were injured.
Among them, in Sadr City, Sadr’s militia forces forcibly occupied the police station and government office building in Sadr City and clashed with the US troops who came to maintain order, killing 7 US soldiers and wounding at least 24 soldiers.
This is one of the largest bloody conflicts in Iraq after the Iraq war, and it is also the first large-scale direct confrontation between Shiite Muslims, who account for the majority of the Iraqi population, and the coalition forces.
The cause of the massive bloody conflict was that the coalition authorities closed a newspaper of Shiite leader Sadr and arrested a senior aide of Sadr for involvement in a murder.
Opinion polls at that time showed that 82% of Iraqis no longer considered the U.S. military as a “liberator”, 84% of Iraqis believed that only by force could the coalition occupation be truly ended, and 20% of Iraqis firmly believed that killing U.S. soldiers was a just act.
Under such circumstances, any slight carelessness or bloodshed may make the US military face a serious situation of “national resistance to the United States” in Iraq.
The United States accused Sadr of being the “planner” of the violence.
On the 5th, Bremer, the top civilian administrator of the United States in Iraq, declared Sadr’s relevant organizations illegal.
The spokesman of the coalition forces in Iraq said that the Iraqi judicial authorities had issued an arrest warrant for Sadr as early as a few months ago on suspicion of plotting the murder of Hu Yi, an important pro american Shiite leader.
A year ago, Hu was assassinated and killed in a mosque in Najaf.
On the same day, the US military in Iraq took military action against two residential areas in the Iraqi capital Baghdad to crack down on the private armed “Mahdi Army” of Shiite leader Sadr.
American troops dispatched Apache attack helicopters to open fire on Shura city in the northwest suburb of Baghdad and Sadr City in the east suburb.
On the 12th, lieutenant general Sanchez, the top commander of the U.S. military in Iraq, issued an order that one of the tasks of the U.S. military in Iraq is to kill or capture Sadr, the leader of the Shiite anti American faction.
Until now, Sadr’s supporters are still at war with the US military.
Muqtada al Sadr is a political figure who rose rapidly in the Iraqi political arena after the end of the Iraq war.
He was born into a Shiite Muslim family in 1974.
Sadr’s father was Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq Sadr.
He was a religious leader of Shia and had a high political reputation.
Because of his public opposition to the Saddam regime, he and his two sons were killed by the Saddam regime in 1999.
Sadr is the only surviving son of the leader.
With the outbreak of the war in Iraq and the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the situation in Iraq has become increasingly volatile.
Although Sadr hated Saddam Hussein, Sadr also strongly opposed the occupation by the US British coalition forces.
“We have only one goal, which is to drive the occupiers out of Iraq,” he said With his father’s influence and his own charisma, shortly after Saddam was overthrown, Sadr quickly gathered millions of supporters and formed a private armed “Mahdi Army” with more than 3000 people in July 2003.
Because of his anti American position, he was excluded from the Iraqi interim Governing Council led by the United States.
In order to awaken more Iraqis to resist the US British occupation, Sadr also founded his own newspaper.
On 31 March 2004, the coalition occupation authorities announced the temporary closure of Sadr’s newspapers on the grounds of inciting violence.
Since then, the US military also arrested one of his senior aides on suspicion of murder.
The US military’s move aroused great anger among Shiite Muslims.
In March 2006, after the car bomb attack on Sadr City in Baghdad, another round of sectarian vendetta climaxed in Iraq.
March 13 onlyBy the 14th, the authorities had found at least 87 bodies everywhere.
Judging from the situation of the dead, most of them died of sectarian hatred.
On March 12, two markets in Sadr City, where Shiite Muslims live, were attacked by car bombs and mortars, resulting in heavy casualties.
At least 58 people were killed and more than 200 injured.
After the incident, Shiite forces in Iraq immediately launched retaliatory actions.
Since the morning of the 13th, the bodies of people killed by hostility have been found continuously, which lasted until the next day.
The most shocking thing is that on the 14th, the authorities found a collective grave in a Shiite residential area in Baghdad and dragged 29 bodies from it.
The victims were wearing only underwear.
This kind of sectarian vendetta climax also appeared before.
The previous month, after the attack on the golden roof of askari mosque, the Shiite holy land in Samarra, was destroyed, there was a climax of revenge and vendetta in Iraq.
More than 500 people were killed in this round of attack, mostly Sunni Muslims and religious figures.
In addition, dozens of mosques were destroyed.
On the 14th, the US military announced that two more US soldiers were killed in the battle in Anbar province, Iraq.
On March 16, the US Iraq coalition launched the largest military operation since 2003 to crack down on the Iraqi resistance forces entrenched in Samarra.
Samarra is located 95 kilometers north of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.
The large-scale air raid was named “operation bee swarm”.
The U.S. military dispatched 50 fighters, 1500 American and Iraqi soldiers and 200 combat vehicles.
The target of the operation was suspected militants near the central Iraqi city of Samara.
The attack began in the morning and will last for several days, the US military said in a statement.
The bomb attack on Ali Hadi mosque, the holy place of Shiite Muslims in the city, triggered a large-scale sectarian conflict and vendetta, pushing Iraq to the brink of civil war.
At the end of August, there was a large-scale conflict between Iraqi government forces and Shiite armed forces, killing more than 40 people.
The abuse of Iraqi prisoners of war, rape of Iraqi girls and indiscriminate killing of innocent people by the US military have also aroused widespread dissatisfaction among the Iraqi people.
More and more Iraqis are showing that they hate the US military and do not welcome extremists who make bloody attacks everywhere.
In February 2004, some media disclosed that the US military abused prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq.
In April, photos of prisoner abuse were exposed and aroused public anger in the international community.
Under pressure from all parties, US Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld ordered an investigation team to investigate the prisoner abuse incident in May.
The investigation report released by the US Army on August 25 admitted that the number of US troops involved in the abuse of prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq exceeded the known figures.
The report, mainly drafted by U.S. Army major general Fay, said that the investigation found that 27 U.S. military personnel “encouraged” or “participated” in the prisoner abuse incident in Abu Ghraib prison.
Some of them were caught and exposed in April this year, which has become a worldwide scandal.
The report points out that the 23 suspected US military intelligence personnel and the staff of four US security companies were directly involved in at least 44 prisoner abuse operations, such as taking off their prisoners’ clothes for torture, hitting the wall, folding and tying their necks.
Some US soldiers even competed to see who could intimidate young Iraqi prisoners of war with military dogs and force them to smear feces on themselves.
In December, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, who had just been re appointed by Bush to the top position in the Pentagon, had no time to taste the joy of re-election.
Another major scandal came from the Iraq Theater: the photos of officers and soldiers of the “seal” commando, the most elite special operations force of the three armed services, abusing Iraqi prisoners were exposed.
What is more worrying is that the abuse of Iraqi prisoners by American officers and soldiers occurred earlier and worse than that in Abu Ghraib prison! The successive exposure of prisoner abuse by the US military is tantamount to slapping the Pentagon on the face of the statement that “prisoner abuse is only a minority phenomenon”.
Meanwhile, on May 25, 2005, declassified documents released by the American Civil Liberties Union and provided to it by the FBI and other agencies in accordance with the order of the federal court showed that Guantanamo prisoners had accused prison guards of abusing them and brutally treating the Koran as early as April 2002.
One of the documents showed that a prisoner accused prison guards of flushing a Koran into the toilet during interrogation by FBI agents.
Scandals about the indiscriminate killing of innocent people by the US military in Iraq also spread from time to time.
At the end of 2005, the US Marines in Iraq reported that when they encircled and suppressed the rebels in hadiser village in western Iraq in November 2005, they found that 15 hadiser villagers were attacked by roadside bombs.
The US military convoy immediately returned fire and killed eight anti US militants.
However, after interviewing the villagers and witnesses of hadisee village in January 2006, Time magazine revealed that the tragedy in hadisee village was the “masterpiece” of these soldiers from the first Marine Corps of the third US Navy in Iraq.
They brutally killed 24 unarmed civilians, including 7 women and 3 children.
Subsequently, the US military was forced to investigate the incident.
The result of the investigation may be that the comrades in arms of trasas lost control after they were killed.
They ruthlessly killed 24 unarmed civilians, including women and children.
Twelve Marines are facing trial in a military court.
They may even be charged with murder.
John Mercer, a former Marine and Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, said, “because of the great pressure, our soldiers overreacted, which will cruelly kill innocent civilians.
” Iraqi Sunni Vice President Tariq Hashimi told the times: “this is a disaster.
They have angered all Iraqis, especially Sunni Arabs.
They are pushing Iraqis to the side of the national resistance movement.
Maybe some people have recognized al Qaeda now.
” After US President Bush called the Abu Ghraib prison abuse scandal the “biggest mistake” of the United States and admitted that saying “let them come” to Iraqi insurgents in 2003 might “send the wrong signal”, the case will become another major mistake for him.
On the evening of March 15, 2006, the villagers of Abu Shifa village near the town of baylad in Iraq were used to the rumbling of artillery at night.
The US military in Iraq was searching for anti US armed forces in that areaMolecules.
American soldiers rushed out of a newly landed Chinook helicopter and went straight to Fayyad’s residence, shooting while running all the way.
Soon, the screams of women and children came from the house.
According to Iraqi police, 11 bodies, including four women and five children, were excavated from the ruins of the house.
Among the children, the oldest is 5 years old and the youngest is only 6 months old.
According to the official police report obtained by Knight reed, an American reporter, “the U.S. military gathered all 11 members of the family into one house and killed them all.
” On May 31, 2006, the New York Times reported that two Iraqi women were innocently shot and killed by the US military north of Baghdad, one of whom was a pregnant woman about to give birth.
This has further raised concerns among human rights groups about the Pentagon commander’s failure to stop U.S. misconduct in Iraq.
So far, the Pentagon has announced an investigation into at least 600 U.S. military abuse or attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan, and announced that more than 230 U.S. soldiers have been punished or punished.
However, the joint investigation report made by three human rights organizations in the United States shows that almost all soldiers identified by the military as having “inappropriate behavior” have only been subject to “administrative” penalties, such as demotion, salary deduction, overtime, etc.
Only a handful of soldiers were actually sentenced to imprisonment.
However, the two incidents in hadiser town and Abu Shifa village provide evidence that it is increasingly difficult for the Pentagon to describe the serious misconduct of the U.S. military as a sympathizer of terrorists.
Because of this, the US military has been constantly attacked in Iraq.
According to the statistics of the associated press, since the US launched the Iraq war in March 2003, at least 2595 American soldiers have been killed here by early August 2006, while only 150 American soldiers have died in the 43 day war.
Iraqi government officials, police and other public servants have also been attacked.
Even Salim, chairman of the Iraqi interim Regulatory Commission, was attacked by a suicide car bomb outside the headquarters of the coalition forces in Iraq in the center of Baghdad on May 17, 2004, killing 10 Iraqis, including Salim, and wounding 8 others.