Section 2 Introduction to
1600 years ago, there were 80 million hectares of land in the area now known as the United States, of which 23 were dense forests and shrubs, as well as large areas of grassland, with abundant wildlife resources. Due to the abundant rainfall here, more than half of the land is very suitable for agricultural production. The 2 million Indians living here are building a beautiful home with their hard-working hands. However, the good times did not last long. From 1607 to 1733, British colonists occupied this fertile land with strong ships and guns, and successively established 13 colonies. In the area under their rule, the native Indians who originally developed North America almost disappeared. The colonists moved a large number of white people from Europe and sold many black people from Africa as slaves. On July 4, 1776, the people of 13 colonies in North America issued the declaration of independence and established the independent United States of America. Due to the destruction of the British colonial yoke, the capitalist relations of production in the United States have developed rapidly. With the continuous increase of European immigrants, the rising fertility rate and the fact that planters can take advantage of a large number of cheap black labor, Americans began to develop the vast fertile land in the Midwest on a large scale…
the history of the disaster
the black storm
on May 12, 1934, for Americans, Is a day that will never be forgotten. On this day, an event that attracted worldwide attention occurred in the United States, that is, the most serious black storm on earth.
raging black storm
on this day, a violent wind blew from several states of the Great Plains in the west of the United States. It swept over the vast bare flat land in the west, turned the fertilizer mud of thousands of hectares of farmland into dense dust and rolled into the air, and roared across the United States from west to east at the speed of 60 ~ 100 kilometers per hour, It reached the east coast and finally disappeared into the vast waves of the Atlantic Ocean hundreds of kilometers away from the coast.
were used to describe the scene at that time: “it is like shovel up the face to the sand.” people are catching up with sandstorms in their own courtyards. They must feel the way to the door. The cars in the process must stop. No car in the world can illuminate the dark dust whirlpool… “Thousands of meters of black storms, such as black clouds, cover the sky and the sun. Turn day into night. The most basic things in people’s life, such as breathing, eating and walking, are no longer so easy. Even children who go to and from school wear gas masks. Some women hang their soaked sheets on the windows to block the dust, but they find that they have no effect at all. People walking on the street wear goggles. Even so, they still can’t see anything 100 meters away. After a little longer, their eyes will still be filled with dust, and then they will have a headache. There seems to be something rolling in their stomach, their lungs are compressed, and tons of sand in their chest. The powerful storm
has been blowing for three consecutive days. It is estimated that there are at least 40 tons of dust per cubic kilometer. About 350 million tons of fertile topsoil in arid plain areas have been swept away by the strong wind. From wolsburg in the west of the United States to Albany in the East, Sao Paulo in the north and Nashville in the south, a huge dust storm belt 2410 kilometers long from east to west, 1450 kilometers wide from north to South and 3.2 kilometers high has been formed, spanning the territory of 23 countries of the United States.
when the black storm arrived in New York, it was 11:45 a.m. although it was nearly noon, the sky was dark. Tall buildings can no longer be distinguished. The rolling dust storm has been wanton in the urban area for four hours, which has delayed the entry of ocean going ships due to extremely low visibility, forced the aircraft to hover at an altitude of more than 10000 meters, and the city is full of dust. According to the New York Meteorological Observatory, the light transmittance during the day was only half that of normal days. In Chicago, another big city in the United States, 12 million tons of dust accumulated in three days.
all pervasive dust settles everywhere, and water, machines, food and people are polluted. Doctors watched helplessly as the dust threatened people’s lives, but there was nothing they could do. Many healthy and strong people died as a result. The unprecedented black storm swept away an average of 5-13 cm of topsoil in the western United States and destroyed more than 3 million hectares of cultivated land. After the storm, the wells and streams in the western plains dried up, the dust filled the farmhouses, the crops withered, a large number of cattle and sheep died of thirst, and thousands of farmers were forced to flee the western plains. More unfortunately, on July 20 of the same year, another black storm blew up in Kansas, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado and other states in the United States. The front of the gale is 500 kilometers wide and more than 3000 meters high, destroying a large number of farmland.
this year, the yield of Winter Wheat in the United States decreased by 5.1 billion kg, millions of hectares of farmland were abandoned, hundreds of thousands of farmers were displaced, and many parts of the Great Plains became “barren land”.
learn from the pain
the attack of the black storm makes Americans begin to examine their previous behaviors and learn from the pain!
more than 100 years after the declaration of independence in the United States, they expanded and cultivated in the west, spanning more than 4800 kilometers. From the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, they cut down forests and reclaimed grasslands on a larger and faster scale. In 1870, less than 120000 hectares of land were reclaimed in the western United States, but by 1930, it had expanded to more than 7.53 million hectares. Americans made use of the rich natural resources in their land to obtain great wealth. They exported a large number of wildlife fur, wood, tobacco, cotton, wheat, corn, beef, pork and wool to countries all over the world. It is the export of these “soil fertility” that makes the United States from a debtor country to a rich creditor country.
the economic prosperity of the United States has aroused the envy of many countries in the world. However, Americans pay a considerable price for this. They are almost extinct on the plainAll American bison, indiscriminately caught and killed countless other wild animals; Almost cut down the endless hardwood forest extending from the Atlantic to the Great Plains.
the wild land in the west of the United States
the wanton behavior of Americans has made the natural vegetation on the land disappear, the land is exposed, and the wind erosion is accelerated. The fragmented land and eroded hillsides can be seen everywhere, and the originally clear rivers have become turbid. The landscape and soil conditions were deteriorating, and when nature could not bear it, it finally caused the black storm that shocked the world.
in 1935, the US Congress passed the soil and water conservation act to ensure the return of land to grassland in the form of legislation, and build national parks to protect it. The government at that time began to do its best to fight against the sandstorm. In 1933, the private resource protection team established by the U.S. Congress to solve the problem of huge unemployed people played a positive role in changing the fate of the hardest hit areas by sandstorms. In the past few years, more than 3 million American single men participated in this team. They worked in the national forest area. Their task was to plant trees, dig ditches, build reservoirs and carry out all kinds of labor conducive to soil and water conservation.
through people’s efforts, a shelterbelt belt almost running through the United States has emerged, and the natural ecological environment of the Great Plains has been greatly improved. By 1938, 65% of the soil in the southern Great Plains had been fixed, and the area of returning forest and grass accounted for about 10% of the total cultivated land in the United States, reaching 150000 square kilometers. A total of 144 nature reserves were established on this basis. With such a “retreat” method, the United States finally controlled the black storm. Farmers here began to regain confidence, just as their ancestors had just discovered the new world, eager to try in the face of the coming life. In 1939, the long lost heavy rain came here, just like washing away the shame. The rain washed everything here. A new face slowly appeared, and the great plain was full of new vitality again. So far, the cultivation methods of soil and water conservation have also achieved results, and the unprecedented disaster has ended.
this huge storm reveals to the world: in order to avoid the retaliation of nature, mankind must act according to objective laws. In other words, while human beings ask for from nature, they should also consciously protect the human living environment, otherwise they will eat the consequences.
when the encyclopedia
is in progress, the
black storm is a kind of strong dust storm, which is a disastrous weather phenomenon formed by the mixing of strong wind and dense sand and dust, commonly known as “black wind”. Dust storms generally occur at the turn of spring and summer, which are mainly affected by atmospheric circulation, geomorphic form and climate factors, but the main impact is the destruction of human ecological environment. The rapid growth of population makes people transfer this pressure to nature. They excessively reclaim and graze, spare no effort to develop nature and consume resources, resulting in serious damage to vegetation and surface structure, land desertification, grassland shrinkage and ecosystem imbalance. All these have created conditions for the outbreak of “black wind”.
nature punishes mankind in its unique way, but also rings an alarm to mankind. If human beings do not learn to live in peace with nature, they will eventually be punished more severely!