The real complaint of

in the south is the high import tax unified by the Federation. In this way, northern industrial products can block the competition in Europe, monopolize the southern market and continuously extract the wealth of the south.

Charles Adams is a hedgehog who “knows only one thing”. In his book “good and evil – the impact of Taxation in the process of civilization” (China University of political science and Law Press, February 2013 Edition), he interrupted that there is only one reason for the rise and fall of dynasties and the change of political power: the quality of the tax system. Therefore, the cake of history was cut by him from a novel angle, showing a profile that we are both familiar with and unfamiliar with. For example, Athens took advantage of the Persian war to establish the Delos alliance. More than 200 city states joined in, and everyone gathered together to put the money on Delos island for war. After Greece won the decisive victory over Persia in the marathon, the alliance did not dissolve – the tribute of the city states was too much and too easy. The Athenians could not resist the temptation, so they decided to replace Darius and exploit their former allies. They brought the money back from Delos to the Parthenon temple and started construction. At the same time, the tribute to other city states was doubled again and again. Those who dare to refuse, such as Milos and mitilini, are punished by killing all men and trafficking women and children into slavery. This led to the subsequent Peloponnesian War, in which more than 165 city states in the Delos alliance betrayed Athens and turned to Sparta, because the latter did not ask for any tribute. It can be said that the result of Athens’ failure was doomed before the war began.

or Rome. When they first got overseas colonies, they were used to continuing the previous local tax system without increasing or decreasing. Expatriate governors support themselves out of their own pocket. When they leave office, “they will not take anything away, except the gratitude of local residents and the praise of Roman citizens”. However, with the expansion of the territory, each war took a long time, the soldiers fought bloody battles outside, and the elders who remained in Rome took the opportunity to annex the land. At the same time, for the newly conquered territories, the Senate sent tax collectors to follow the Roman Legion like maggots to collect overseas taxes. In this way, the soldiers lost their hometown land, but they did not share in the overseas income. As a result, the soldiers supported their generals against the Senate. From Sula to Pompeii to Caesar to Anthony, the generals directly used soldiers to levy heavy taxes on the site to support the army, which eventually led to the imperial system of Rome and the collapse of the Republic.

the rapid expansion of Arabs from the Middle East in the seventh century is also a legend about taxation. They used to give conquerors three choices: death, conversion to Muslims, tax exemption, or tax. Even a donkey knows the correct answer to this multiple-choice question. However, this is a snake strategy – as more Christians convert to Muslims, caliphs and Sultans have smaller tax bases and higher tax rates. What’s more, the Caliph and the sultans adopted a sharing system – 20% in the central and 80% in the provinces. The central authorities have actually not even reached 5 percent because the Sudanese have resorted to underreporting and concealment. The Caliph watched the region grow and the Empire fall apart. And our tax sharing system.

the tiny principality of Moscow unified the north and grew into the Russian Empire. We should thank the Mongols for appointing it to collect taxes on their behalf; The real reason for the collapse of the Spanish Empire was not the defeat of the invincible fleet, but the stupid tax policy; Henry VIII broke with the Roman church not to marry Anne Boleyn, but to seize the tithes that the church looted from England; With 507 soldiers, 16 horses and 14 cannons, Coster defeated millions of Aztec troops and captured central and South America. It was not smallpox that helped him, but many Indian tribes who couldn’t stand Aztec’s plunder… And the American War of independence was nonsense. Since the home country Britain sent a large number of troops to fight the Indians, Dutch and French in the North American colonies, it is not too much to ask the colonial people to bear some expenses reasonably. Because in North America, not a penny flows to England for local use only. However, the North American colonies rebelled with “perfect stupidity” that the British could not understand, dragging Britain into a very reluctant war. The subsequent civil war – at least in Adams’s view – had nothing to do with slaves. Because he said during the election: “I have no intention of directly or indirectly interfering with slavery. I believe I have no legal right to do so, and I have no intention of doing so.” As for the declaration of liberation, it was two years after the civil war. What the South really complains about is the high import tax unified by the Federation. In this way, northern industrial products can block the competition in Europe, monopolize the southern market and continuously extract the wealth of the south. After the difficult game between spekds and the British Parliament, the “spekds” has no right to spend money and the “spkds” has no right to tax. Specifically, only by meeting the three principles can tax be called legitimate. First, the taxpayer agrees. To this end, the parliament with tax power must be elected by taxpayers. It can be said that today’s universal suffrage, which is widely implemented in all countries, is the direct product of the concept of “no representation, no tax”. Second, taxes must be distributed among all the people according to clear rules. What is the improper distribution of taxes? Adam Smith said well: “if you give up the principle of distribution, you enter the kingdom of robbery and extortion.” Third, fairness. Here, Charles Adams used Hayek’s mouth to fiercely criticize the progressive tax system, saying that it is more harmful than “the most harmful tax”. In his opinion, the fixed proportion system is the most fair.

according to the view of the supply school, “if fiscal revenue is the only goal, then it is obvious that medium tax can bring the most fiscal revenue”. It doesn’t take a lot of patience – giving Reagan and his colleagues ten years to prove it. However, the general tax level of all countries is too high. The tax rate of the well field system described is only 11%. Today, Mencius’ proposition has become an extravagant hope that we dare not think of. Although countries have presidential system and semi-presidential systemThe presidential system and the cabinet system can be divided, but in essence, elected politicians – whether parliamentarians or heads of government – have a strong and clumsy tendency to “do something” during their term of office in order to remain famous in history or improve society. As a result, Parliament and the government conspired to levy more taxes, which could not be curbed. In addition, the government monopolizes the right to issue money, and the indiscriminate issuance of paper money is out of control. In the 70 years after World War II, the currencies of German mark, pound sterling, franc and other countries depreciated by about 700 to 1000 times. Such a scale of wealth plundering and redistribution is unique in history. Every time I think about this, I will sincerely admire the wisdom of the Swiss people – although they have a government and a parliament, the people have never ceded the right to tax. When it comes to tax increases, the Parliament only has the power to propose motions, which must be put to a referendum. In this way, it is not surprising that the Swiss have the most enviable currency and living standard. “At best, government is just a necessary evil; at worst, it is a completely intolerable evil,” Thomas Paine said Only the Swiss listened to his teachings.