At the end of the Gulf War, the Security Council adopted Resolution 687 on April 3, 1991, requiring Iraq to destroy all weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and biological weapons and missiles with a range of more than 150 kilometers, and established the United Nations Special Committee on the destruction of Iraq’s chemical, biological and nuclear weapons (UNSCOM) to supervise the implementation of the agreement.
On May 1, the United Nations announced the completion of the formation of the United Nations Special Commission for the destruction of Iraq’s chemical, biological and nuclear weapons (UNSCOM), headed by UN Secretary General de quiliar.
The special committee is composed of 21 member states, including five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Venezuela in South America, Canada in North America, Australia in Oceania, Nigeria in Africa, Japan and Indonesia in Asia, and 10 European countries (Sweden, Finland, Norway, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Poland, Czech Republic, Netherlands and Austria).
Each country sends one person, which is divided into biochemical group, nuclear weapon group and missile group.
There is also a data center.
China forms a nuclear weapon group with France, Russia and Nigeria.
UNSCOM headquarters is located in the United Nations headquarters building.
It has branches and offices in Bahrain and Baghdad.
Normally, two plenary meetings are held every year to consider the verification and the reliability of the weapons list provided by Iraq (i.e. “confessed materials”).
According to the UN resolution, only after the UNSCOM determines that Iraq has completely destroyed nuclear and chemical weapons can it consider lifting the comprehensive sanctions against Iraq imposed by the United Nations in 1990.
On May 14, 1991, the first verification teams of UNSCOM arrived in Baghdad and began a 12-year cat and mouse game.
In more than seven years from 1991 to 1998, UNSCOM dispatched 397 verification and supervision teams to Iraq with more than 3500 person times, conducted more than 20000 inspections at more than 7000 locations throughout Iraq, and focused on strict inspection of more than 400 “hidden doubts” one by one.
More than 38000 chemical weapons, 480000 litres (124800 gallons) of materials used to make chemical weapons, 48 missiles, 6 missile launchers, 30 special chemical and biological warheads and hundreds of equipment that can be used to make chemical and biological weapons were destroyed.
It is estimated that the verification operation has disarmed 95% of Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction.
On the whole, the seven-year verification and destruction work has achieved good results, and the work efficiency of the special committee has been recognized by the international community.
In addition, the United Nations International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) also participated in the above work, mainly to verify Iran’s nuclear weapons materials.
The International Atomic Energy Agency has supervised and destroyed some of Iraq’s key nuclear facilities and equipment, made harmless treatment for other equipment that is difficult to transport, and diluted the isotope of highly enriched uranium so that it can not be used to make nuclear weapons.
From 1991 to 1998, the cooperation between the UNSCOM and the IAEA was generally OK, but there were also obvious differences: Blix had declared several times that the verification of Iraqi nuclear weapons raw materials could be ended, and Iraq no longer had the ability to study and produce these materials.
The UNSCOM has repeatedly stressed that despite 397 inspections by the verification team, Iraq may still have hidden nuclear facilities, including underground nuclear reactors.
In the process of verification, there was constant friction between Iraq and UNSCOM chairman Butler and the United States, and crises occurred from time to time.
On July 5, 1992, the United Nations weapons verification team refused to enter the building of the Iraqi Ministry of agriculture to search for weapons related materials.
By the 26th, Iraq had banned UN nuclear experts from entering the Iraqi Ministry of agriculture.
From 11 June to 19 July 1993, Iraq repeatedly expressed its opposition to the installation of permanent video surveillance devices by the verification team at some of its ballistic missile test bases.
However, under the pressure of the international community, on November 26, Iraq unconditionally accepted UN Security Council resolution 715 on long-term supervision of Iraq’s weapons production.
Since then, there has been a long-term contest between Iraq, the United States and the UNSCOM on the issue of weapons of mass destruction.
After several years of weapons verification, Iraq believes that they have done their best to cooperate with the verification of the special committee.
Through many actions, they have destroyed all weapons of mass destruction, but the United States is still reluctant.
Saddam’s patience is gradually exhausted under the pressure of the United States again and again.
The hope of cooperating with the verification in exchange for the lifting of sanctions has failed, Saddam finally made up his mind not to allow the US led verification to continue, leading to the withdrawal of all members of the United Nations weapons verification team from Iraq at the end of 1998.
On December 17, Britain and the United States launched a military operation codenamed “Desert Fox” against Iraq, establishing two “no fly zones” in the airspace of Iraq, attacking targets in Iraq.
Iraq then interrupted its cooperation with the UNSCOM, and the United Nations weapons verification of Iraq was forced to be interrupted.
Since then, the Iraqi authorities have refused weapons inspectors to return to Baghdad and said many of the inspectors were Western spies.
In December 1999, the five permanent and non permanent members of the United Nations Security Council reached a consensus and adopted resolution 1284, which decided to establish the Commission of Commissioners of the United Nations supervision, verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) to replace the “special commission” in name only.
The work of the Commission is to provide policy and technical advice and guidance to the UNMOVIC, and to consult in advance on the contents of the report to the Security Council.
The board of Commissioners has 16 members, one representative from each of the five permanent members of the Security Council, representatives from all continents, and a senior official from the disarmament Department of the United Nations Secretariat.
The International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Nuclear Regulatory Commission are responsible for the inspection of Iraqi weapons.
The International Atomic Energy Agency mainly inspects Iraq’s nuclear facilities and nuclear raw materials.
The personnel of the UNMOVIC chaired by Blix are divided into three parts, which are respectively responsible for the verification of missiles, chemical weapons and biological equipment.
The selected inspectors came from more than 40 countries, the largest in turn being the United States, Russia and France, as well as several experts from Arab countries such as Jordan.
Director general ElBaradei of the International Atomic Energy Agency is from Egypt.
The verification candidate must have professional knowledge in biochemistry, microbiology and other aspects, and have a background in military technology.
By the end of 2002, the number of inspectors actually entering Iraq is expected to reach 100.
By January 2003, the verification team will reach more than 300 people.
On the issue of verification, whether the United States and Iran continued the game of cat and mouse from 1991 to 1998 or a new pattern emerged, which became the focus of world attention in this period.
Due to 7 years of verification andAfter 12 years of economic sanctions, Iran has actually lost its ability to develop nuclear weapons and missiles with a range of more than 150 kilometers.
If there are any prohibited weapons in Iraq, it is likely to happen in the field of chemical weapons.
Although Iraq’s equipment for producing weapons of mass destruction has been destroyed and relevant documents have been confiscated, the knowledge and skills in the minds of Iraqi experts cannot be destroyed.
On November 18, 2002, the United Nations advance team for weapons verification, led by Chairman Blix of the United Nations Nuclear Regulatory Commission and director general ElBaradei of the International Atomic Energy Agency, flew from Cyprus to Baghdad by special plane.
On November 27, the weapons verification in Iraq, which attracted worldwide attention, finally kicked off.
The weapons verification team conducted surprise inspections at three locations in Baghdad, which was the first United Nations weapons verification in Iraq four years after the withdrawal of United Nations weapons inspectors from Iraq in 1998.
Different from previous times, this time, the verification requirements are more stringent, the verification equipment is more fully prepared, and the verification team is also larger.
The attitude towards Iraq’s weapons verification can be called “both voice and color”.
The head of the verification team, chairman of the United Nations nuclear watchdog Commission and Swede Blix said that the verification team plans to conduct “surprise” verification on more than 1000 targets, including the nine palaces of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, including places that have been verified many times before.
He called on the Iraqi side to cooperate fully and not to interfere and obstruct the verification in any way.
According to the request of the UN Security Council, the verification team will produce a report on the verification results within the next 60 days.
Based on the information they have and the records of previous inspections, the inspectors can list the targets of some surprise inspections as “restricted areas” without notifying the Iraqi government in advance, and prohibit the entry and exit of personnel and vehicles there until the inspection and sampling are completed.
In addition, the United Nations verification authority also enjoys greater power than ever before.
It can hold separate talks with Iraqi weapons experts and scientists.
According to the views of Iraqis, the venue of the talks can be in Iraq or anywhere else abroad.
According to the plan, the resumption of weapons verification in Iraq will be implemented in three steps: discovery, monitoring and destruction.
The verification procedure is also more meticulous and rigorous than usual.
Manual and electronic equipment are used to conduct three-dimensional monitoring of the verification object, and the whole process will be recorded and archived by video.
The verification and sampling process will carry out analysis, testing and comprehensive evaluation at headquarters in Baghdad.
After completing all verification work, the verification team will provide a formal written report to the Security Council.
If weapons of mass destruction and equipment for developing such weapons are found, the United Nations will decide on the ways and means of destruction.
On December 7, Iraq submitted a 12000 page report on weapons of mass destruction to the United Nations.
On December 14, Iran officially received a letter from the UNMOVIC asking Iran to hand over the list of all Iraqi scientists who had participated in the weapons of mass destruction program.
On December 27, Iraq submitted to the verification team a list of more than 500 scientists who had participated in Iraq’s weapons development program.
On January 4, 2003, the inspectors set up a temporary verification base in Mosul, an important town in northern Iraq, to facilitate the verification work in northern Iraq.
On January 6, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein accused the inspectors of “spying in Iraq”.
On the same day, ElBaradei said that so far, inspectors have not found any evidence related to the development of nuclear weapons in Iraq.
On January 16, inspectors found 12 empty chemical warheads in the ukaid ammunition depot about 120 kilometers south of Baghdad.
On the same day, inspectors searched the homes of two Iraqi scientists in Baghdad and found more than 3000 pages of documents related to nuclear technology.
On January 20, Iraq and the United Nations signed a 10 point statement in Baghdad on further cooperation between Iraq and United Nations inspectors.
On January 26, US Secretary of State Powell said at the annual meeting of the world economic forum in Davos, Switzerland that the United States would take military action against Iraq alone if necessary.
On February 23, US Secretary of State Powell said at a press conference held by the US embassy in Japan that after UNMOVIC chairman Blix delivered the weapons verification report to the Security Council on March 7, “as the last opportunity for the international community, it is necessary to make a quick decision” and adopt a new resolution on the use of force against Iraq.
He once again expressed dissatisfaction with “Iraq’s failure to implement Security Council Resolution 1441” and strongly warned Iraq to fully cooperate with the verification team.
On March 9, Amin, director of Iraq’s Technical Supervision Bureau, said at a press conference in Baghdad that since the United Nations resumed weapons verification in Iraq on November 27 last year, Iraq has accepted 923 inspections, destroyed more than 50 missiles, 28 people have been questioned, and allowed us and French reconnaissance aircraft to conduct reconnaissance flights, which shows that Iraq has cooperated with the United Nations nuclear Supervision Commission The International Atomic Energy Agency has carried out full cooperation and made substantial progress in weapons verification.
The United Nations should lift sanctions against Iraq.
On March 17, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said that he had ordered all UN weapons inspectors and humanitarian workers to withdraw from Iraq and suspended the implementation of the “oil for food” plan.
On March 18, all UN weapons inspectors in Iraq withdrew from Iraq after receiving orders.
By this time, it is no longer possible to continue the verification.
In fact, the United States has long been determined to overthrow Saddam Hussein’s regime and take full control of Iraq as an important step in its control of the Middle East, so as to achieve the purpose of seizing oil resources, controlling the lifeline of the world economy, promoting western values and dominating the world.
The preparation of the United States to attack Iraq actually began in early 2002.
In order to obtain international and domestic support, finding and publicizing the reasons for attacking Iraq has become the core of the pre war public opinion preparation of the United States and Britain.
The United States and Britain have taken great pains to win the support of world public opinion.
On January 29, 2002, U.S. President Bush delivered a state of the Union address to Congress, announcing that the United States will continue to combat terrorism on a global scale.
At the same time, he designated Iraq as an “axis of evil” country, and hinted that Iraq will be the next goal of the U.S. war on terrorism after Afghanistan.
Since then, the United States has continuously made public opinion propaganda and action preparations for the “fall of SA” and counted Saddam’s crimes.
First, create public opinion for the overthrow of Saddam Hussein.
After George W.
Bush came to power, right.