Section VII Western European music Western European civilization after the 6th century has entered a new historical stage, and a new feudal economic form with serfdom as the core has gradually formed – the medieval era.
Its political focus shifted from the circum Mediterranean region centered on Italy to the inland region centered on Frank.
The transformation of its Latin nationality into the rule of the Germanic nationality.
The main body of its spiritual culture has changed from the secular Roman culture to the religious Christian culture.
Due to the rise of the Germanic kingdoms, the Frankish and Carolingian empires, as well as France, Germany, England and other countries, the culture also shows a multi-dimensional development trend.
This era is not only a “dark era of ignorance” but also a “rosy ideal era”.
It is an era full of hunger, hardship, violence and inequality, but also full of vitality and creativity.
It is in the hardships and opportunities caused by this era that the Western European civilization derived from the ancient classical era has been expanded and renewed again.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, the feudal society in Western Europe entered a later stage.
At this stage, it triggered the first major adjustment of economic structure since the establishment of the feudal system, and the feudal production relations based on serfdom and manor system also changed significantly.
Under the unprecedented sharp class contradictions, the tide of resistance of the people rises one after another and continues continuously (such as the dorigno uprising in Italy, the “Zach” uprising in France, the Taylor uprising in Britain, etc.). In order to adapt to social changes, the ruling class also continuously strengthened the kingship rule.
With the development of industry and Commerce and the changes of political situation at home and abroad, there has been an emerging political force in Britain and France – the rise of citizens, which has become one of the social foundations of British and French kingship.
The establishment of the hierarchical representative conference has led to a new form of state power.
During this period, there was a tragic and long hundred year war between Britain and France (the legendary French heroine Joan of arc stood out when the British army besieged the important town of Orleans in 1429 and was burned alive by the British Army).
But at the same time, Germany and Italy are increasingly divided, and the era of the Pope, who once ruled everything and was arrogant, has come to an end.
Spain, the richest place in Europe in medieval times, was ruled by the Arab Empire for 800 years until the end of the 15th century.
The intersection and collision of Islamic and Christian feudal civilizations occurred in Spain, which triggered the “reconquest movement” – the counter attack of Christian countries.
Finally, in 1492, King Ferdinand captured Granada, the last stronghold of Muslims, which ended the “reconquest movement” and completed the unification of Spain.
Since the 14th century, Western Europe in the middle ages has gradually entered a period of transformation between the old and the new era.
The spirit of capitalism is sprouting, which has created the necessary preconditions and conditions for European capitalism to overcome feudalism and modern industrialization, and laid the cornerstone for the occurrence and development of modern capitalism.
Its major historical events include the Renaissance and religious reform movement in the field of ideology and culture, the modern scientific and technological revolution, The great discovery of geography leads to the communication of global navigation (from 1487 to 1514, the Portuguese opened up a long maritime trade route from the Far East to Western Europe through the Cape of good hope at the southern end of Africa.
Then, in 1492, when Columbus, the Italian, led his fleet westward with the support of the king of Spain, he accidentally discovered the American continent.
In 1520, Magellan, the Spanish, led his fleet to discover the Strait at the southernmost end of the Americas, thus sailed into the Pacific Ocean, arrived in the Philippines, and then continued westward After returning to Spain, he completed the world’s first global voyage), overseas expansion (early colonization), the transformation of economic structure from agricultural economy to commercial economy, the awakening of scientific rational spirit and the emergence of empirical methods, as well as the centralization of national political rights and the integration and aggregation of national culture.
Gregory chant in the early Middle Ages, the churches in Western Europe used several different religious ritual songs, such as Ambrosius chant, Frank Gaul chant and Spain moshalab chant.
Ambrosius (about 339-397) was bishop of Milan in 374.
He resisted the heretical Arianism, strengthened the Roman Church, and prompted the Roman Emperor Theodosius I to recognize Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 392, and prohibited heresy.
In order to better publicize religion, Ambrosius presided over the church and wrote chants using Oriental tunes.
It is very popular in Milan.
It is usually called “Ambrosius chant”.
It absorbed the form of hymn and alternating chorus into the Roman ritual, and personally composed music for many hymns to popularize them.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Rome lost its position as the center of the church.
At the end of the 6th century, Pope Gregory I (590-604) began to rebuild the status of the center of the Roman Church.
From 604 to 604, he organized the church staff to sing the songs of praise in the church and sent them to various institutions of the church, and presided over the ritual songs of the church in 594.
This is a medieval classic music document, which collects the songs that should be sung in church liturgy and Eucharist.
There are two versions, one is the chant with Frankish style in the period of King Charlemagne of Frankish in the 8th ~ 9th century.
One is an ancient Roman version from the 11th to the 13th century (according to research, it can be traced back to the 8th century A.D.). Gregory chant is also known as “plain song”.
The characteristic of plain song is a monophonic song sung in Latin.
The melody of plain songs can be syllable type (i.e. one note to one Latin syllable), flower singing type (one syllable with a drag), or chanting type (between the first two).
The use of eight modes (i.e. four normal modes and four variable modes later called church modes) and the notation of nium spectrum (no fixed pitch, only melody trend) are typical church music that avoids secular personality emotions.
It not only covers a large area, but also gets rid of the impromptu singing and oral teaching of folk music, making it a written and standardized classic culture, which has important historical significance in the history of culture.
In order to spread the chant, the church set up a chant school, and St.
garh monastery is one of its representative schools.
In addition, Roman Catholic liturgical drama has also become the embryonic form of Western Dramatic Art.
It is said to have appeared in the 5th century.
The priests are reading the gospelIt is often related to the representation of the resurrection in the drama.
Later, the scale of the performance was gradually expanded, and the performance venue and actors were also transferred from the altar to the church door and performed by ordinary people.
Its music is related to chants and is obviously influenced by secular music.
It tries to get close to the emotions of the characters in the play, and set off with wind instruments such as organ and string instruments.
Development of secular music although secular music in medieval Europe was hostile to pagan culture by the church, with the development of cities and Commerce and the emergence of guild organizations in various industries, secular music also developed and became an important part of medieval music.
Under the mutual penetration and influence with religious music, Promoted the development of medieval music.
As early as the 10th century, there have been wandering artists.
They are either alone or in groups, wandering everywhere and making a living by performing arts.
Especially during festivals, they become the most popular people.
However, the church excluded them from society, tolerated people to persecute them, and was not allowed to bury wandering artists in the church cemetery after death.
With the rise of urban culture, the music, drama and poetry activities of these vagrant artists with certain anti feudal church content have been supported by the citizen class.
Many works expose the greed of monks and priests and praise the wit, intelligence, noble morality and practical talents of “little people”.
In the middle ages, the Pope and secular rulers jointly organized an army to suppress the anti feudal and anti Catholic “heretical” movement of the people of all countries.
From 1096 to 1291, the famous “crusade” (named after the Red Cross printed on the military uniform) was launched, and the Knight Culture prevailed.
Knights were an important force in these repressive wars.
They were the lowest class of the ruling class in the middle ages.
The values of Knight culture are honor and loyalty, and even love should obey this criterion.
In knight literature, it can often be sung, thus forming the art of bards.
Bards originated in southern France and later developed to the north.
In particular, Provence in southern France has become the gathering place of bards.
So far, there are more than 2600 songs made by more than 400 bards, so it is also called “Provence art”.
There are about 4000 poems and 1400 songs left by the late Northern bards.
Both use dialects to sing.
The former is Oko and the latter is oyi.
Bards are both poets and musicians.
They are usually knights, nobles, kings and sometimes some excellent artists.
They fill in lyrics, compose music, and then hand it over to wandering artists to sing, but some also make their own lyrics and songs and sing.
The content is mostly about love, but also about war, religion or secular life.
The love it expresses is mysterious and noble, and the women regarded by the church as the embodiment of evil become the object of praise.
Its musical phrases are clear, and because the lyrics adopt the style of wandering poetry, it has the rhythm of poetic rhyme.
Although the mode adopts the church mode, it uses the changing tone, which is similar to the major and minor in modern times.
With the Norman Conquest of England and the infiltration of French culture into England, bards also came to Britain, affecting the development of secular music.
In the middle of the 12th century, romantic singers (mostly figures of the feudal aristocratic Knight class) rose in Germany.
From the 14th century to the 16th century, famous singers based on civil guilds appeared in Germany, which can be said to be the continuation of aristocratic poetry singers.
Famous singers are composed of businessmen and craftsmen in the city.
The organizer is the craftsmen guild.
The members are divided into different levels according to strict rules: apprentices, apprentices, singers, poets, celebrities and so on, which are often obtained after regular competitions.
Later, Wagner made a vivid description of the famous singer in Wagner’s famous opera “the famous singer of Nuremberg”.
The famous singer declined in the 17th century, and his school, ULM school, was dissolved in 1839, and his descendants died in 1876.
In the first half of the 13th century, under the rule of Frederick II, who loved poetry, a large number of French bards came to Italy.
Inspired by Provencal art, the lyric tradition of Italian music developed greatly and formed a national secular culture completely different from Roman church music.
Ancient art (1150 ~ 1300), the first peak of Western polyphony art, began to appear multi part religious songs in medieval religious music.
At first, it was two parts, forming parallel octaves, fourths and fifths, and sometimes three or two degrees.
Its atmosphere was solemn.
It appeared in the 9th century and was called “olganon”.
Because it is too rigid, so the second voice part adopts the Polyphony technique of reverse to the tune of the first fixed Gregory chant, which is called “discant” (meaning reverse fixed tune).
Furthermore, the second voice part is created in white lines, and the number of voice parts is increased to three or four.
The melody and rhythm are also complex and rich, which is called “kangdukett”.
Even, some have placed the chant fixed tune in the low voice part, highlighting the disconte voice part.
Paris is the center of this multi part music.
Zhan art is the title of French music from the second half of the 12th century to 1300 by later Art Nouveau musicians, which is different from the new art they advocated.
During this period, musicians represented by the monks and musicians of Notre Dame de Paris, Leon Nan (active from 1150 to 1175 noon) and bellotan (about 1183 to 1238), created many multi part polyphonic music works by using the techniques of diconte and conductor.
Therefore, it is also known as Discante, or Notre Dame School of music in Paris.
Leonnan is a composer who was the conductor of the choir of Notre Dame de Paris, and berrotan is his successor.
The latter is famous for writing scriptures and songs.
The scripture songs created by Bertin (an unaccompanied chorus rising in France in the 13th century and a secular religious music genre) are often four part, highlighting the independence of horizontal sound.
The lyrics of each part are different, even the language is different.
They are mostly living customs, integrating Gregory chants with folk music, Added secular factors.
The appearance of this kind of Scripture song of belotan led to the disappearance of the early Scripture song which used all Latin.
In the later period, the Scriptures and songs no longer used the fixed tune of chants, and injected the vitality of secular music into religious music, which was one of the important achievements of medieval music.