I remember an article in a middle school text saying that Westerners generally think Chinese people are barbarians. Hugo did say, He is on the side of black France III and its “reactionary” government, so he expressed great indignation at the burning of the Old Summer Palace. Therefore, you can know that the Chinese people are on the side of Weiguang without looking at his article, and the French government is the most disgusting and dirty robber in history!!!!! In the eyes of the Europeans, this is what the barbarians think of the barbarians as the barbarians. On the contrary, we should realize that this is what the barbarians do to the Chinese civilization Find out his position and understand that his words are not under pressure Aside: the interesting story about why the foreign devils burned and looted the imperial garden of the Old Summer Palace instead of looting the people everywhere, and the auction held in Beijing afterwards. Many things were bought by Beijingers can be another big story. I’m too lazy to elaborate here Digression digression: today’s Yuanmingyuan looks like this. In addition to the foreign devils, we should also thank one of the two schools in the north of the Qing Dynasty. When building the campus, we came here to use local materials to dig back and build a house ~ this is not criticism. At that time, it seems that there were not a few people in Beijing who transported materials home to build a house.

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—— expansion and supplement of knowledge points —— the statement that the Chinese are barbarians may exist in the west, which has not been specifically understood, but we can talk about the “extraterritorial jurisdiction” of the Nanjing Treaty we have seen before (it seems to be Chinese history from Cambridge, because it’s inconvenient to check without the original book on hand. Excuse me…) Answer the question first and revise it later Extraterritorial jurisdiction means that foreigners enjoy all or part of judicial immunity or preferential treatment in their own territory. At that time, the specific extraterritorial jurisdiction in China was mainly consular jurisdiction, that is, foreigners’ crimes had no right to be decided by any level of government in China, but foreign consulates in their own country exercised jurisdiction over their nationals in accordance with the laws of that country (a little messy… I’m not a law major…) (please note that the conviction is not arbitrary, but according to the law of the country of their own nationality.) The extraterritorial jurisdiction of

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directly began with the Lin Weixi incident zh. wikipedia. Orgwiki% E6% 9E% 97% E7% B6% ad% E5% 96% 9C% E4% Ba% 8b% E4% BB% B6

the fact that there is no need to add in the wiki is that justice law is required to hand over a murderer to die for the crime (standard Chinese traditional concept), and the result of justice law’s trial as a foreigner is that five people share the crime, Of course, it’s a sentence (and sent back to England for execution) (of course, I think it’s normal to have another light sentence here, which I haven’t specifically understood.) It is this difference in legal concepts that led to the quarrel between the two sides. Previously, the two sides had many quarrels over such events. The Guangzhou local government has always adopted an efficient attitude of “ignoring civil disputes and ordinary criminal cases, and directly looking for human lives to pay for dead people” based on the principle that one thing is better than one thing “. I think normal countries will express dissatisfaction But you are dissatisfied with me. Guangzhou government just doesn’t take the paper and ignores you. You have no choice (including after the signing of the Nanjing Treaty and before the signing of the five port trade charter, the Guangzhou government adhered to this principle. Therefore, the five port trade charter once again established the principle of consular jurisdiction.) Moreover, this kind of consular jurisdiction has a long history for the British people As early as 1715, the British reached an agreement with Guangdong Customs. The Chinese government will punish the Chinese for attacking foreigners, and the foreign government will punish the foreigners for attacking the Chinese (the bad debts of history cannot be turned over. Later, in a dispute between Britain and France in 1754, the British began to advocate that the jurisdiction should be handed over to the Chinese government…) In the later several manslaughter incidents, the Chinese side asked the murderer to take his life, while the foreigners believed that the crime of manslaughter did not last until death, so the two sides had great differences These coastal areas are still good. They are finally in accordance with China’s traditional laws and logic The mainland is even more strange One or two hundred years before the Opium War, foreigners had traveled all over China There are two kinds of foreigners in the mainland: missionaries and businessmen It is not unusual to see more foreigners on the coast, while foreigners on the mainland are rare, and people have always been biased against foreigners For example, the famous “foreigners who don’t eat tea rhubarb for three months will constipate, block their intestines and die of rigidity” is an example. Therefore, when mainland officials face foreigners’ crimes (sometimes the crimes may be similar to those of strange looks, frightening pregnant women and causing abortion), they are generally convenient, fast and fast. No matter what crime, they die directly. (no case about this was found, but it is certain that there are many cases in history…) In addition, the impression is that there are unjust, false and wrong cases against the religious people and their religious assets (the so-called belief in God is to sell the soul to foreign devils…) meet the eye everywhere. I really found an example. Malai zh wikipedia. Orgwiki% E9% A9% AC% E8% B5% 96 on December 8, 1854, he presided over the first mass locally for the first time. Ten days after his arrival, he was locked up in the government office of Xilin County for 16 days (one said 18 days). After personal intimidation, Ma Lai went to Guizhou in early 1855 and returned to Guangxi in December of the same year. On February 22, 1856, Bai San, a relative of a Protestant, sued Ma Lai when the Yamen was on leave. On February 25, Zhang Mingfeng, the new county magistrate, issued an arrest warrant and was arrested in Malai in Yaoshan and some local Catholics. Malai was severely beaten first, and then was punished to stand in a cage and locked in a small iron cage, which was hung at the prison gate. Finally, Ma Lai died of torture. Then his body was beheaded in public.

. This incident became the fuse of the second Opium War.

wiki explained that it is possible because Guangxi is the hardest hit area of God worship, but the felony of abuse of torture in the mainland can be seen.

in addition, this incident has also become Article 13 of the Tianjin treaty, which gives Christians the right to preach and own assets. Therefore, the provisions of these unequal treaties often have their own origin, and we can’t just talk about inequality Later, in the practice of consular jurisdiction in China, it must have exonerated many foreigners and reduced their criminal responsibility. However, if we consider it from the perspective of foreigners, I don’t think it’s a completely incomprehensible and unreasonable thing What’s strange about scolding barbarians twice? This worldThe cause of most hostility in the world is prejudice and misunderstanding—— When it comes to Westerners thinking that the Chinese people are barbarians, another thing comes to mind: the second Opium War. It happened six years after the father Ma incident. In 1860, the ministers of various countries came to Beijing to change the contract. Originally, the king of guns promised everything and agreed to sign the contract, but the ministers of Britain and France proposed to face the saint and hand over the credentials, Therefore, for China, “this matter is related to the national system, and it is impossible to allow it”. Then two days later, monk greenqin captured 39 people of the minister’s delegation (Baidu Encyclopedia said that he had arrested Ba Xiali and other five people. Baike.baidu.comview 291724.htm must have used spring and autumn writing, but I don’t know where the mistake is.) At that time, the imperial court was excited about the Ba Xia rites, and public opinion generally hoped to kill them. A memorial said, “the Yi Ba Xia rites can make good use of troops, and all the barbarians listen to their instructions. Now they have been arrested. The Yi soldiers will be confused and take this opportunity to suppress them, I think Bashari is the mastermind behind the British and French allied forces. After catching him, no leader of the British and French allied forces will be destroyed.

. At this time, the British and French allied forces failed to ask the Qing government to release the envoy group, so they began to attack Beijing in order to save the hostages. After attacking Beijing, the British and French allied forces seemed to see hell on earth.

mall. cnki. netmagazine ArticleLSJX200401020. However, between October 12 and 16, the British and French negotiators who were successively delivered to the coalition camp were in a different situation. Twenty six of them were British, half dead and half injured; Thirteen legal persons, seven dead and six injured [39]. The Times reporter Bauer Bei was even more tragically mutilated [40]. This situation has greatly stimulated Elgin. As the Plenipotentiary of the war against China appointed by the British cabinet, he can not protect the negotiators at the front desk. How can he explain to the Queen’s government and public opinion? So he decided to retaliate against the barbaric act of the Qing emperor’s killing of diplomatic representatives. In the letter drafted by Erjin on the 14th, on the one hand, he denounced the Qing government for violating public international law and demanded compensation for 300000 taels of silver Ying and 200000 taels of France; On the one hand, on the ground that the Old Summer Palace was “the place where the British and French overseas Chinese died of grievous and tragic punishment”, he demanded that it be destroyed to the ground, and “the Chinese government should pay money to build a monument in Tianjin to explain the arrest and death of these unfortunate people, as well as the money required by the British government, as a punishment for this breach of trust and atrocities”; At the same time, inform Yi d that the peace decision cannot be reached before the above punishment is carried out [41].

[39], the second Opium War (II), P. 455. With regard to the details of the 39 detained negotiators, “thirteen of the 26 Britons arrested – Bashari, lodge, a British dragon cavalry and ten Indian SEK Cavalry – survived”, “Among the people killed, the bodies of Norman, Burpee, Lieutenant Colonel Anderson, a British dragon cavalry named phipus and eight Indian Sikh cavalry were returned; the life and death of the commander of the Brabazon Navy is unknown”, “Of the thirteen French arrested, five – daschrys and four soldiers – survived; and six bodies were returned, namely, the bodies of Colonel Grande champ, aider, dubit and three soldiers; in addition, the bodies of father daluk and one soldier remained there.”. Quoted from Ma Shi, history of foreign relations of the Chinese Empire, Shanghai Bookstore press, 2000 edition, pp. 685-686.

[40], the second Opium War (II), P. 396.

[41] the same as ⑤ [⑤] “Huang Zonghan once again described the situation in Guangzhou. It is appropriate to slow down the troops, accumulate prestige, punish those who challenge with fake volunteers, and discuss with Britain that it is difficult to raise money for returning to the city”, the beginning and end of preparations for the Yi Affairs (Xianfeng Dynasty) (IV), P. 1143.

news. ifeng. comopinion 2009020226_ 23_ 1034496.shtml according to the story of a soldier’s life written by Colonel Wu Shili, the Deputy Quartermaster who was responsible for supervising the distribution of “booty” at that time, the Chinese living nearby “robbed more plunder from the palace than the armies of the two countries”. The burning of the Old Summer Palace began with these “nearby residents”. Britain and France experienced a debate on whether to destroy the imperial palace. Finally, they denied the idea of destroying the Imperial Palace and decided to destroy the palace building of the Old Summer Palace as revenge for the killing of the mission personnel by the Qing court.

absurdly, this is an alternative action to build a monument to commemorate the rejection of the opinions of 21 members of the British and French diplomatic corps killed by the Qing government. The general of the German army refused to carry out the task of “destroying its culture”. The British army went alone and set another fire in the Old Summer Palace, which was set on fire by the Chinese people, burning down more buildings that had not been burned down.

people. com. cnGB19822119881920416012846261. Lord Elgin, who made the decision, declared: “The Old Summer Palace is the emperor’s preferred place of residence. Destroying it is tantamount to destroying the emperor’s dignity and hurting his personal feelings. It is here that he brought our poor compatriots and inflicted the cruelest torture on them; it is within the walls of his own palace that he found the horses and tools of our captured cavalry, as well as the chest of a brave French officer The badge torn from the front and other personal belongings belonging to the prisoners… The army did not come there for robbery, but through a solemn act of compensation to show its hatred and indignation aroused by the abominable crime. This punishment is not aimed at the people. Relatively speaking, the people are innocent. This punishment is only for the emperor, who is personally directly responsible for the heinous crimes committed; This is not only because the prisoner was ill treated in the Old Summer Palace, but also because he recently issued an imperial edict saying that he could get a reward for taking a foreign head, and announced that he decided to use his last silver as a reward for such murder. ” A few days before the

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retaliation, Erjin ordered to post the following announcement in the whole city of Beijing, announcing the purpose of the British army to burn the Old Summer Palace: “no one, no matter how high his status, can escape responsibility and punishment after committing fraud and atrocities; the Old Summer Palace will be set up in October (1860))It was burned on the 18th as a punishment for the Chinese emperor’s treachery; Only the Qing imperial government should be responsible for this. People who have nothing to do with atrocities don’t have to worry about being hurt. ”

got the result and explained the story of the Old Summer Palace

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