The earliest writing in the world 1 The legend of the origin of cuneiform characters cuneiform characters is a great invention of ancient Sumerians and the earliest known characters in the world.
There is still a beautiful legend about the origin of cuneiform characters.
The legendary protagonist yinana is the queen of heaven and the protector of Uruk city.
She is a stubborn goddess.
She always tries her best to do what she wants to do.
When she was the protector of Uruk City, ANQI, the God of wisdom living in APSU, had built the oldest city of elidu in Sumer and stored the valuable sacred rituals he had created there.
Yinnana decided to use all means to get all the civilized etiquette and make her city enjoy immortal glory.
So she went to APSU in elido in person to see the God of heaven.
Yinnana is a beautiful goddess.
She is graceful and radiant.
Anqi saw her from a distance and was immediately fascinated by her beautiful appearance.
Anqi warmly welcomed the gentle messenger from afar and asked her to sit beside her.
Looking at the charming yinnana, an Qixin was shaking and fascinated.
He kept persuading himself to drink, and his face turned crimson.
Stimulated by the beauty of wine and women, ANQI is dizzy and unusually generous.
In the early pictographic hieroglyphs, he did not refuse yinana’s request at all, and promised one by one.
In her dream, yinnana didn’t expect to get what she dreamed of so easily.
She didn’t dare to stay at the court for a long time.
After a thousand thanks, she left quickly and got up to return to Uruk.
Yinnana loaded all the gifts into the sky boat and sailed quickly.
These gifts include: theocracy, kingship, immortal crown, throne, Wang Wat, great divine status, God’s care for all things, great flood, freedom to go to heaven and hell, various functions of priests, divine prostitutes serving heaven, sexual relations and prostitution, music and musical instruments, carpenter, blacksmith, cobbler, bricklayer, weaving, metal smelting and other technologies, writing Truth, sincerity, integrity, kindness and justice, maxims and wisdom, good words and bad words, judgment and decision, hero and power, forgery, hostility, riots, destruction and punishment of cities, joy, worry, cheers of victory, flags, instructions, manhood, richness, etc.
Among them are the cuneiform characters that spread to later generations.2. From hieroglyphs to cuneiform, leaving aside the beautiful myths and legends, the origin of cuneiform, like the development law of characters of other nationalities, has also experienced such a development stage from picture hieroglyphs to symbol ideography, and then to letter phonetics.
It is not difficult to prove this from the current archaeological results: cuneiform is a unique writing system invented by the ancient Sumerians and inherited and transformed by the akkads.
Evolution of cuneiform characters when human beings were just born, what they first perceived was the boundless universe and mysterious nature.
Therefore, the initial form of characters is pictographic, because only in this way can we most directly express the various feelings and views of our ancestors from the external world.
Obviously, the ancient characters of the two river basins, which are called cuneiform characters by later generations, also come from pictures – various images of nature.
Part of the Obelisk unearthed from the Assyrian city-state site.
In the form of relief and cuneiform, the king of Assyria conquered his neighbors.
A picture represents a kind of thing or action, which is bound to cause a variety of symbols and extremely inconvenient to use.
Therefore, the general language forms follow a common principle, that is, the economic principle, that is, to express the widest meaning with as few symbols as possible.
The first economic measure that the Sumerians soon took was to evolve an expression method based on the original hieroglyphics, that is, they expressed not only the material they originally represented with a picture, but also the meaning associated with it.
For example, a picture of the sun not only represents the “sun”, but also can be used to represent the meaning of “light”, “white” and “day”.
A picture of a star is not only used to express its original meaning, that is, the concepts of “Star” and “sky”, but also used to express “God”.
A picture of a foot not only represents the concept of “foot” or “foot”, but also represents the meaning related to the foot, “standing”, “walking”, “going”, “coming” or “bringing”.
It is necessary for social development to simplify symbols and gradually standardize them, which is also a process that all ethnic writing systems in the world have to go through.
As a result of the continuous simplification of Sumerian hieroglyphs, the original images gradually became more and more illegible until they finally lost the characteristics of hieroglyphs.
Although the oldest Sumerian characters, like ancient Egyptian characters, belong to hieroglyphics, there are also great differences between them.
Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs are carefully depicted or carefully drawn graphics, sometimes with several colors, while ancient Sumerian hieroglyphs are only some pictorial and linear graphics, which only symbolically represent the physical objects represented by symbols.
The main reason for this difference between ancient Sumerian and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs is the difference of writing materials and writing tools.
It is the Sumerian unique writing materials and writing tools that make the Sumerian hieroglyphic symbols present a wedge in the process of gradual simplification, and finally completely lose their pictographic characteristics.
A clay carving full of cuneiform characters has been proved to be used by Sumerians to record grain accounts.
In Babylon, due to the lack of wood and stones, but there was a large amount of soil from the impact of the two rivers on the plain, so people used mud plates as writing materials.
The soil here is different from that in other areas.
It has strong viscosity.
Writing on a clay board has great limitations, one of which is that it is difficult to accurately carve the curve of the original picture and text, and it is difficult to outline the tortuous corridor.
In comparison, it is much easier to carve straight lines and lines on the mud board.
The writing tool used by the scribes in the two river basins is usually a reed pen.
Because the pen is thin and thick, it is pressed on the mud board to form a stroke, which is wedge-shaped or nail shaped.
In addition, the change of reading direction must also promote the evolution of Sumerian hieroglyphs.
The oldest Sumerian inscriptions are generally read from right to left and from bottom to top.
This habit of writing and reading has changed since about the Farah era, when words began to move from left to rightRead from top to bottom.
Sumerian evolved from pictorial writing to cuneiform writing for hundreds of years, and it was completed in the middle of 3000 BC.
Because the original cuneiform symbols are still complex, the cuneiform symbols have also experienced a process of continuous simplification.
At the end of the 30th century BC, the Sumerian cuneiform symbol was transmitted to the Semitic tribe in the Akad region.
On the basis of absorbing the Sumerian language and characters, the Akad inherited the earliest Sumerian pharmacopoeia in the world, with a history of 4000 years.
And development, and established a relatively perfect cuneiform system.
Later, cuneiform characters spread to many nationalities and regions, such as Babylonians, Assyrians, Hittites, gahites, uraltus, Persians and ugarits.
Cuneiform characters have been greatly developed and their vocabulary is richer.
By about 1500 BC, cuneiform characters had become the common writing system of the country at that time.3. The spread of cuneiform.
The cuneiform system founded by Sumerians and akkads brought great convenience to the people in the surrounding areas.
The production of cuneiform provided great convenience for the production and life of Sumerians.
In the picture, a scribe is recording in cuneiform a bag of grain donated to the temple by the people who cultivated the temple land.
They gradually applied this writing system to their own language.
As a result, cuneiform characters spread in a large range.
The first to borrow cuneiform was the Elamite.
Like the Sumerians, the elans are an ancient people in ancient Western Asia.
They lived in the mountains east of Sumeria (between Babylon and the Iranian plateau) from the 4000 BC.
Since the middle of 3000 BC, with the increase of the connection between Elan and Sumer and later Babylon, the Elan characters have the shape of cuneiform under the influence of Akkadian characters.
At the same time, the Elamites also borrowed Akkadian to write documents.
Later, as eland became more phoneticized, it basically became a syllable character.
As early as around 3000 BC, the primitive Hittites had created their own civilization in hatti city and its surrounding areas.
The Hittites lived in Asia Minor, Assyria and the west of Babylonia around the end of 3000 BC and the beginning of 2000 BC.
Both ethnically and linguistically, the Hittites belong to the Indo European nation, and Hittite is considered to be the earliest Indo European language.
The Hittites were deeply influenced by Assyria Babylon not only in writing, but also in culture and literature.
For example, they inherited Babylonian religion, mythology, literature and medicine, including the most famous epic of Gilgamesh.
Around 1300 B.C., the ugarites in Syria transformed their text from the Babylonian cuneiform into a pure alphabetic text.
Ugarit is a port city and the center of many small countries with ancient West Semitic speaking residents.
The Ugarit script is the oldest alphabetic script in the Near East.
It consists of 30 symbols.
It has neither ideographic symbols nor restrictive symbols or radical symbols.
The ugarits already knew to arrange the Semitic alphabet alphabetically, which was later used by Europeans.
Relief sculpture of Assyrian palace relocation in the 9th century BC: two scribes are recording and verifying the loot.
The cuneiform script (cuneiform script) was invented by the Babylonian Assyrians in the 6th century before the creation of the Persian cuneiform script.
Ancient Persians lived in the area equivalent to modern Iran to the east of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Their language belongs to the Iranian language family of Indo European language family.
When the Persians created their own writing system, they not only adopted the shape of Babylonian cuneiform, but also borrowed the syllable principle from them.
Nevertheless, the ancient Persian script has little in common with the Babylonian cuneiform except for its similar shape.
Ancient Persian is actually an incomplete alphabetic character, which is composed of 36 alphabetic symbols, including 3 isolated vowel symbols (a, I, U) and 33 syllable symbols.
In a later period, several ideographic symbols were also used.
The application scope of ancient Persian cuneiform is very narrow, which is mainly used to record state affairs.
In 330 BC, after the Macedonian king the great conquered the Persian Empire, this kind of writing also disappeared.
There are certain reasons for the spread and influence of Babylonian cuneiform characters.
First of all, the kingdom of Babylon and the Assyrian Empire were powerful countries in the two river basins and occupied a prominent position on the stage of Near East history at that time.
Assyrians and Babylonians enjoyed a highly developed culture.
In its heyday, cuneiform even became an international language.
Since 2000 BC, with the increasingly frequent exchanges between ancient countries and regions in the Near East, a common language that can communicate the links between countries and nationalities is needed.
Akad came into being and became the common language among ancient countries in the Near East in the Amarna era.
The El Amarna document is the best illustration.
Secondly, the characteristics of Assyrian Babylonian cuneiform itself are conducive to dissemination.
On the one hand, the writing materials and tools of cuneiform characters, namely mud board and reed pen, are not only cheap, but also easy to obtain.
The mud board is durable and the writing technology is simple.
On the other hand, the phonetic and syllable system of Assyrian Babylonian cuneiform shows great feasibility in practical application.
The earliest epic of mankind 1 The golden age of Sumerian literature after the emergence of Sumerian characters, the earliest literary and historical works of mankind have gradually appeared.
In Sumerian literary works, the earliest is probably epic.
There are three of the oldest and most famous epics, all praising the kings of the first dynasty of Urumqi and the famous heroes of Sumer.
These three epics are: the epic of nmekal, the epic of Lugar Banda and the epic of Gilgamesh.
Finally, this epic is now called “Homer’s epic of the East” by scholars all over the world.
In fact, it is more than 2000 years earlier than the Greek epic Homer, and has been regarded as the first epic in the world.
In the literature of the two river basins, there are not only magnificent epics, but also graceful love poems.
The hymn of King Shuxin’s wedding 4000 years ago was beautiful and moving.
The golden age of Sumerian literature came to the end of the Third Dynasty of ur (about 4000 years ago)end.
This tragic historical event later produced a masterpiece in world literature, the lament of ur’s demise.
This lament is not only the eternal pillar of the literature of the two river basins, but also the ancestor of all kinds of laments.
Like the lament for the destruction of Jerusalem in the Bible, it is influenced by the lament for the destruction of ur in terms of style, tone and even content.
In addition to literary works, many famous historical works have been left in the Lianghe River Basin, most of which are short documents.
The Sumerian king’s watch, written more than 4000 years ago, can be described as the world’s earliest historical work.
It outlines the long history of the two river basins for thousands of years in just 2000 ~ 3000 words.
The inscription of tumar in the same period is shorter, but it preserves the real history of the early Sumerian states.
These two documents, together with the cultural relics obtained from archaeological excavations, have become the main basis for us to describe Sumerian history today.
The edicts, chronologies and temple documents of the kings of Babylon and Assyria have also become the main materials to reproduce the historical features of the two river basins after careful sorting by modern scholars.2. Gilgamesh epic is regarded as the first epic in the world.
Gilgamesh is considered to be a collection of myths and epics in the ancient two river basins to some extent.
Its original form comes from the oral literature created by folk.
It is first sung and supplemented by biographers, and then sorted and compiled by compilers.
Researchers have different opinions on the creation time of this epic.
The rudiment of the Chinese epic, which is believed to have the rudiment of the Sumerian epic in 3000 BC.
Gilgamesh holding the lion, specifically, the existing incomplete five Sumerian epics about Gilgamesh have the main plot of the later Cuban Byron epic Gilgamesh.
For example, the epic “Gilgamesh and the kingdom of creatures” has the plot of the hero killing the fir demon.
In Gilgamesh and the longicorn, the hero refuses the courtship of the goddess and kills the longicorn sent by the goddess to do evil.
In the death of Gilgamesh, there is a plot in which the hero seeks immortality.
“Flood” has the plot about the big flood.
There is a dialogue between the hero and the dead in Gilgamesh, enqidu and the underworld.
Therefore, although it is generally used to call Gilgamesh a Babylonian epic, it is actually a joint creation of Sumerians and Babylonians.
More precisely, it is the result of the processing and transformation of the Sumerian literary heritage of the 3000 BC by the Babylonians in the 2000 BC.
In the narrative poem of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh is in the center and cow headed monsters are on both sides.
They hold the winged sun.
After about half a century of excavation and sorting by scholars.
By the 1920s, not only has the mud board of this epic been basically restored, but also preliminary progress has been made in its translation, annotation and research.
At present, the epic of Gilgamesh includes 12 mud plates.
Each mud plate contains about 300 lines, with a total of about 3500 lines.
In terms of structure, all epics can be divided into two parts: preface and text.
The title of the preface can be called “Gilgamesh, king of Uruk”, which mainly describes Gilgamesh’s people and things: he is a know it all.
He is a king who has traveled around the world.
He was very intelligent and had insight into all mysteries and secrets.
He got the news in advance before the flood came.
After a long journey and hardships, he came back and engraved what he had experienced on a rock.
The text can be divided into seven parts according to the development of sections, which tells the legend of Gilgamesh’s life in detail.
After Gilgamesh became king of Uruk, he was violent and licentious, making the people miserable.
After hearing the cry of the people, the God created an opponent enqi Du for Gilgamesh and asked enqi du to subdue Gilgamesh.
After a hard fight, the two heroes were neck and neck.
Finally, the two heroes sympathized with each other and formed a close friend.
They lived together and did many things beneficial to mankind, including killing hongbaba, the monster defending the pine tree, Ishtar, the goddess of resistance, and killing the longicorn sent by the goddess.
The story describes that when Gilgamesh was determined to eliminate harm for the people, kill the giant demon humbaba and rescue the goddess Ishtar, he was full of danger, but he was brave and fearless, not afraid of sacrifice, and vowed to complete this arduous cause to the death.
After a cruel battle, Gilgamesh and enqi finally won.
Gilgamesh was admired by the people and won Ishtar’s love.
The goddess confided to the hero affectionately, “please come and be my husband, Gilgamesh!” The goddess also said that if he accepted her love, he could enjoy endless glory and wealth.
Unexpectedly, Gilgamesh refused Ishtar.
He doesn’t like Ishtar’s fickle, shows mercy everywhere, and doesn’t treat his lover well.
After Ishtar was rejected, love begets hate, so he asked longicorn to avenge her humiliation.
Gilgamesh and enqi both fought for life and death with longicorn beetles, and finally got rid of longicorn beetles.
Unfortunately, they were punished by the God Anu, Ishtar’s father.
The God of heaven asked Eun to describe the deeds of Gilgamesh.
Qidu suffered from a fatal disease and died.
Gilgamesh was devastated by the death of his best friend, but also full of fear of death.
Gilgamesh was determined to go to ut nabisidin, the ancestor of mankind, to explore the secret of eternal life.
After a long journey and hardships, he finally found ute nabisidin.
UT nabisidin told him about how human beings had experienced the destruction of the world by the great flood, but his family got eternal life with the help of God.
Obviously, the secret of uth nabisidin’s immortality was of no use to Gilgamesh, because there could be no such opportunity again.
Later, Gilgamesh got the rejuvenated fairy grass, which was unfortunately stolen, and finally had to return to Uruk in great frustration.
The whole poem ends with the dialogue between Gilgamesh and enqidu’s soul.
Gilgamesh portrays a hero who is loyal to friendship and love and advocates great cause, and praises Gilgamesh’s fearless spirit of daring to struggle.
Epic story twists and turns, plot ups and downs, language is very beautiful, not only has high literary value, but also has high historical value.
The earliest Bible story prototype 1 The story of a woman from a man’s rib about the garden of Eden was always thought to be Hebrew Mythology.
In fact, this story also originated from Babylonian mythology.
The difference is that in the Bible, the snake seduced Adam and Eve, while in Babylonian mythology, the God Aya seduced people.
Babylonian mythology also believes that human beings have the ability and wisdom to identify good and evil.
If their ancestors were tempted not to be old, they could be on an equal footing with God.
Therefore, the Babylonian gods did not allow human beings to have wisdom and immortality.
In Babylonian mythology, people also have a great prejudice against snakes, believing that snakes are the most cunning animals.
In the epic of Gilgamesh, Sumer’s hero Gilgamesh, after going through all kinds of hardships and obtaining immortal fairy grass, wanted to get home to share with his parents and villagers, but was secretly eaten by snakes on the way.
Therefore, the snake becomes younger after molting every year, but people are unable to rejuvenate because of the snake’s sin, and are doomed to aging and death.
Not long ago, archaeologists found a strange sculpture in the ruins of the ancient city sites in the Lianghe River Basin.
There is a tree in the middle of the carving.
There is a snake on the tree.
There are a man and a woman on both sides of the tree.
People speculate that this is probably the prototype of the story of Adam and Eve.
However, people still have questions about the plot of God making Eve from Adam’s ribs.
Since God has what is clay and can create men with clay, she can create women with clay.
Why do we have to create women with Adam’s rib? I believe God can make a mate in any way, but he chose the rib on Adam.
Is it because the rib is closest to his “heart”? Does Eve want to use the flesh of his heart and heart to be more considerate to her? When God brought Eve to Adam, Adam blurted out, “this is the bone of my bone and the flesh of my flesh.
” This is the first sentence in the biblical record from the population.
How touching and beautiful this sentence is! This is not only the love words of the first human couple, but also the oath of the first human couple.
Since then, in the beautiful garden of Eden, the couple, who were happy with each other, under the blessing of God, concluded their first marriage and organized their first family.
However, the ancient Babylonian literature provides another amazing answer to this question.
It turns out that there is also a paradise in Sumerian mythology, named di Ermen.
Enji, the God of water and wisdom, brought clear spring water to irrigate the paradise.
Ninghulzag, the earth mother, filled the paradise with all kinds of strange plants.
However, although Enki was known as the God of wisdom, he was very greedy.
He ate up all these strange plants in the absence of mother earth.
After hearing this, the mother flew into a rage and viciously cursed Enji to die immediately.
So Enji fell ill immediately and was in danger.
At this time, the gods were at a loss.
Fortunately, the fox used his clever plan to induce ninghulzag to create eight gods to treat Enji’s eight internal organs and restore them to health.
Enji was able to escape the disaster.
Among the eight gods created by ninghulzag, there is a goddess Ningji.
Her name means “woman from rib” or “woman giving life” in Sumerian.
In the process of adapting Sumerian mythology, ancient Jewish priests may mistakenly say that “the woman from the rib” is that God created a woman with the rib, and this woman’s name is Eve, which is exactly the same as Ningi’s other meaning.
I wonder if this is a historical coincidence or the result of the collision of civilizations.2. Great flood: according to the ancient legend, the descendants of Adam and Eve continue to multiply, and the world’s population is also increasing.
However, due to the curse of God, people can barely live without hard work.
Therefore, people’s hearts are inevitably filled with resentment and evil thoughts towards God.
At the same time, people kill and plunder each other.
In the eyes of God, what human beings do all day is sin.
The great flood and Noah’s Ark in Genesis God was very sad when he saw this.
He regretted that he had created mankind and everything, and decided to eliminate all people and animals and eradicate this evil world.
But he didn’t want to involve the innocent, so he secretly told Noah his decision to destroy the world.
Because in God’s view, among all people, only Noah is a pure righteous man, a perfect man and a man who worships God.
God ordered Noah to build an ark with kopai wood and take his whole family, young and old, as well as all kinds of birds and animals to board the ark to save his life.
According to the command of God, Noah took his whole family, young and old, as well as all kinds of birds and animals into the ark.
After seven days, it rained cats and dogs.
It was said that this day was February 17.
It rained for 40 days and nights, drowning the highest mountain in the world.
The floods flooded the land for 150 days.
All the people, birds and animals on the ground were drowned.
Only Noah’s Ark carried his family and animals on the boundless water.
The terrible flood scene imagined by later generations.
God thought about Noah’s family and the animals in the ark.
He stopped the heavy rain in the sky and let the flood subside slowly.
150 days later, Noah’s Ark just drifted to mount ARAT.
On October 1, the peak began to surface.
After waiting for 40 days, Noah opened the window of the ark and released a crow.
The crow didn’t come back.
He released another pigeon to see if the flood had receded from the ground.
But the pigeon flew back because it couldn’t find a place to stay.
After seven days, Noah released the pigeon again.
In the evening, the pigeon took back a fresh olive branch, which brought the good news that the flood began to subside.
Since then, pigeons and olive branches have become symbols of world peace.
Seven days later, he released the pigeon for the third time.
This time, it never flew back, because the flood had subsided and the ground was exposed.
It is said that it took a whole year for the flood on the ground to subside.
This picture describes that after the flood retreated, various animals who took refuge from the flood on Noah’s Ark left Noah’s Ark.
The painting is taken from the prayer book of England in the 15th century.
Noah walked out of the ark with his family and animals.
He built an altar and offered sacrifices to God to thank him for his salvation.
God decided not to use floods to destroy mankind in the future, and took the rainbow as a record for him andAll creatures on the ground and good marks.
It is said that Noah’s three sons later became the ancestors of the three major human tribes: Jacob was the ancestor of the northern nation, Shem was the ancestor of the Semitic nation, and ham was the ancestor of the Gushi, Egypt, Libya and Canaan.
The original relationship between Noah’s Ark and Sumerian mythology was discovered in the 1870s.
In the early 1850s, researchers at the British Museum spent many years classifying and interpreting more than 24000 cuneiform tablets found in Nineveh.
A pigeon named George Smith with an olive branch in his mouth reported to Noah the good news that the flood began to subside.
Since then, the pigeon and the olive branch have become symbols of peace and tranquility.
One day, while inspecting a pile of broken stone tablets, the Assyrian scholar came across something incredible.
The inscription records the scene when God sent heavy rain and flood to punish evil and sinful human beings during the Babylonian period.
Many animals survived the flood, and many families survived the flood.
Smith realized that the story recorded in the inscription was very similar to the story of the flood and Noah’s Ark described in Genesis.
His discovery caused an uproar, because at that time, British Christians regarded the Bible as the book of heaven, thought it was the revelation of God, and it was difficult to accept the fact that Noah’s Ark originated from Sumerian mythology.
Unfortunately, the monument about the flood story was broken, and Smith was unable to provide the full text of the Babylonian story.
So a London newspaper called the daily mail sent Smith to Nineveh to retrieve the remains of the broken inscription.
A miraculous coincidence occurred in history.
Smith found the rest of the missing inscription in less than a week.
Thus, Smith found the prototype of Noah in the Bible in the Sumerian epic, ziusudra.
In the 1920s, when Wu Lei, a British archaeologist, was excavating in ur City, he accidentally found the mausoleum of ur king, which shocked the world, 7 meters below the ruins of the ancient city wall.
The royal mausoleum is about 4000 years old and contains a large number of rare treasures.
Then, he found the quicksand and silt left by the flood at a depth of 13 meters underground, with a thickness of more than 3 meters.
The deposition time of such a thick sedimentary layer is estimated to be more than 300 years.
Below this stratum is the remains left by residents of another different nationality.
This shows that in the distant ancient times (about 5600 ~ 5900 years ago), a flood lasting for hundreds of years destroyed the homes of the local primitive ancestors.
These primitive ancestors are now known as the Obeid people.
Although they have not been completely destroyed by the flood, there are few left.
After the flood subsided, another nation came to settle in the two river basins.
They were the Sumerians who later created the oldest civilization of mankind.
The record of this catastrophe has been kept in Sumerian legends for a long time.
Therefore, the Sumerian historical document King Sumerian also records the great flood, and takes the great flood as a new starting point of Sumerian history.
It can be said that these legends, to some extent, reflect the real history of ancient times.
Of course, it was also painted with a layer of mystery by the priests, turning the punishment of nature on human beings into the punishment of God on human beings, so as to prove that human beings must obey the rule of God unconditionally.
Poetic expedition around the 11th century BC, the Babylonian kingdom of Cuba was destroyed by the Hittites.
Since then, the two river basins have fallen into a long-term scuffle.
At this time, Assyria in the north of Babylon began to rise.
After hundreds of years of hard struggle, it finally defeated all its opponents and established the Assyrian Empire.
The women’s headdress unearthed in the mausoleum of ur was made of gold and colored stone in 2600 BC.
The headdress was worn on the head of a modern plaster model.
The establishment of the Assyrian Empire was inseparable from the barbaric belligerence of Sargon II (about 721-705 BC).
During the reign of Sargon II, the most powerful enemy of Assyria was the kingdom of uraltu.
In 714 BC, he personally led a large army to attack uraltu.
The army was invincible.
If he entered the uninhabited territory, King saduri II of uraltu was defeated and committed suicide.
The Assyrian army wiped out the main force of the enemy, destroyed the Halki Temple of the main god of uraltu, occupied a large area of territory, and returned a large amount of wealth and population.
On this expedition, Sargon II has a poetic expedition, which is one of the earliest military literary works in the world.
The expedition describes the dust raised by his huge army marching, like dark clouds on the horizon, blocking out the sky and the sun.
The morale of his army was high, like a roaring lion, which shocked all animals.
His army killed the enemy bravely, like locusts devouring crops, clean and complete.
Indeed, after hundreds of years of continuous war, Assyria has trained a strong army like steel.
This army has a complete range of arms, including infantry, cavalry, chariot soldiers, engineers, navy and other troops.
The army is well equipped.
Its offensive weapons are iron weapons, and its defense equipment is armor and shield.
Engineers are equipped with city bumpers.
This weapon is like a modern tank, but this “tank” can’t launch shells.
It can only use its tentacles to hit and destroy the enemy’s city gate or city wall.
There are also tunnel soldiers who dig holes to destroy the enemy’s walls.
According to the research of foreign scholars, the Assyrian Empire was the first country in the world to master quenching technology and use iron weapons comprehensively and on a large scale.
It was with such a powerful army and advanced weapons that Assyria was able to be invincible in West Asia.
After destroying the uraltu Kingdom, Sargon II sent troops to conquer the MIDI (now Hamadan) region of Iran.
Many important events in Iran’s history depend on his expedition to survive.
Sargon II, like Sargon, king of Akkad, was also a figure of unknown origin.
He may be the second son of tigratparasa III, the king of Assyria, who succeeded to the throne after his brother was assassinated by the temple priest group.
But others believe that he was not a royal family, but usurped the throne by force.
When Sargon II came to power, while Assyria was in trouble at home and abroad, there was a conflict between the military bureaucratic group headed by the king and the industrial and commercial aristocratic forces represented by Temple priests.
The vassal states revolted one after another, and the rule of the Assyrian Empire was crumbling.
Therefore, after he came to power, he changed his father’s policy of one-sided support for the military bureaucratic group, won over the Temple priests by granting a large number of urban autonomy, and established the autocratic monarchy with the military bureaucratic and temple priest group as the pillar, which consolidated the internal powerNames and events related to music, as well as the names of many musical instruments.
In the temples of Sumerian city states in the early Dynasty, music was a basic part of God worship activities.
Musical instruments are regarded as sacred sacrificial vessels, and people sacrifice with musical instruments.
In the Babylonian period, the types of musical instruments increased.
In addition to the above, there were bagpipes, lyres, drums, horns, trumpets, hand drums and so on.
The Babylonian royal family, temples and rich families are equipped with band singing and dancing performances at festivals, weddings and funerals.
A Sumerian mud tablet document depicts the completion of the temple of nimjisu in the city state of rajash: King goodea (C.
2100 BC) accompanied by two musical instruments, SIM and ALA, played in the vestibule of the temple at the foundation laying ceremony.
After the completion of the temple, the offerings offered to ningjilsu included many musical instruments, such as “tigii, Algar, miritum, SIM, ALA and balag.
” With the deepening of music into people’s lives, professional musicians also appeared in Babylon.
In the mausoleum of King ur, a large number of musicians were buried, which shows that Sumer may have had a symphony orchestra 5000 years ago.2. Carving art the carving art of the two river basin originated in Sumeria.
As early as 4000 BC, sculpture works with unique national characteristics have been produced.
Sumerian carvings of various shapes, whether round or relief, have religious characteristics and have different religious functions in the temple.
In the aeanta temple in Uruk in 3000 BC found at the valka site, there is a famous relief gypsum bottle, 90 cm high, with three lines of exquisite figure carvings on it.
The top row is the goddess inana, which is worshipped by all Sumerians.
She is the most popular goddess.
On the statue, a naked priest is offering her a basket of fruit.
Below yinana are some small gods, standing on the model temple and some animals.
In the second row are naked priests holding sacrifices.
The third line is animals and plants, representing her two “fields”.
The establishment of Akkad Kingdom has brought a leap in art, enriched the naive modeling language of Sumerians, and appeared a short “revival of Sumerian culture”.
The bronze sculpture head unearthed in Nineveh can be used as an example in this regard.
This head is considered to be the head of Sargon I, the founder of the Akkad Dynasty.
The facial shape of the statue is concise and realistic, and the decorative technique of hair and beard is unique and powerful, which is a step forward on the basis of Sumerian stone carving.
There are few sculptures left over from the Babylonian period.
In terms of style, the goddess statue of “holding a stone bottle with liquid flowing out” found in Mali is basically a traditional treatment method: the goddess holds a stone bottle, the liquid symbolizing harvest flows out of the bottle, and the water pattern and clothing pattern are integrated.
An imperial head carved in black granite found in Susa mountain area is very similar to the image of the emperor on the code tablet of Hammurabi: wearing a treasure crown and a wonderful display of feldspar carving.
The beard is woven into regular patterns, and the shape of eyebrows and eyes maintains the ancient tradition of Sumerian Akkad period.
The two eyebrows are connected to form a rigid semicircle.
This head is assumed to be a portrait of Hammurabi.
There is also a bronze Figurine with gold-plated face and hands, which shows the image of a devout and moving supporter.
Griffin and double deer.
No one knows what the strange beast in the middle symbolizes.
The repaired Ishtar door.
Relief sculptures of various animals are neatly arranged on both sides.
The art of relief is almost as old as Babylon.
Relief with a certain theme has been found in the temples of various cities.
The relief is engraved on the square limestone slab.
It can be inferred from the fact that there is a gap in the middle of the slab that after being made, the slab is used to be fixed in a certain place or hung on the religious ritual vessels in the temple.
The themes engraved on these stone tablets are mainly to celebrate the achievements and celebrations of the owner of the stone carvings for the gods, or to record the historical facts of the army advancing and defeating its neighbors.
The anatum stone pillar with the title of “Eagle monument” is an outstanding model in Akad relief.
This monument is used to celebrate the victory of anatum, the ruler of rajash city-state, over UMA, a neighboring city-state.
This stone tablet is also a boundary stone, engraved with the contract between the conqueror and the conquered.
From the picture on the upper layer of the stone tablet, it can be clearly seen that king anatum is leading the army to fight, followed by a row of square soldiers.
The soldiers wore helmets and spears, and their bodies were connected into a wall with large shields as cover.
The next picture shows the king standing on the chariot, throwing a spear and commanding the soldiers to fight with the enemy.
The back of the stone tablet depicts the symbolic attribution of victory to ningirsu, the son of the God of war Enlil, who gathered the prisoners in a net and guarded them with the image of imdugud, a lion headed eagle.
A fragment of the stone tablet depicts a flying vulture with the severed head of an enemy soldier.
The inscription on the stone tablet reveals the content of the picture.
It describes the victory of rajash’s army and declares that the defeated UMA residents must offer tribute to rajash’s God.
This relief reflects the basic principle of Sumerian commemorative relief.
The knife technique is round and powerful.
It began to break through the religious mystery of Sumerian period and pay attention to secularized realism.
Basswood reliefs in the Assyrian palace for various reasons, there are very few Cuban billon reliefs that have been preserved.
From these works of art, the Babylonians did not create anything new.
They just accepted the Sumerian Akkadian tradition to a certain extent.
The code of Hammurabi can also be regarded as a work of relief art.
It is carved on a black basalt rock column with a height of more than 2 meters.
The upper part is relief and the lower part is text.
The relief depicts King Hammurabi standing before the sun god Shamash to accept the code.
The majesty of the sun god is in sharp contrast to the humility of the king.
The whole scene is full of religious piety and seriousness.
There was another kind of terracotta relief in this period.
Liz’s nude and owl goddess are one of the most intact supports.
In the Assyrian period, relief art gradually improved, representing the highest achievement of Mesopotamian art.
Relief carvings in Assyrian period are quite developed, but round carvings are rarely found.
The most famous sculpture is the “Guardian statue of the winged lion” at the gate of the hall sabad palace.
The monster has a head, a lion’s body and hooves like a bull.
It wears a double crown and a long trimmed beard.
Goldsmiths have reached a very high level of skill in carving animals.
This can be seen from the very exquisitely made bull head.
The ox head is inlaid: the eyes, drooping flesh and animal hair on the forehead are made of lapis lazuli, and the white eyeball in the eyes is inlaid with shells.
Assyrians are also good at metal making.
Assyrian metalworking carving reached a high level.
The relief composition on the bronze plate is an excellent example of Assyrian metalworking carving.
Ivory carving has long been known in the Lianghe River Basin.
In the Assyrian period, ivory was widely used to decorate chairs, thrones, beds, screens, etc.
it was also made into many products, such as decorative pins, combs, spoons, etc.
The ivory carving “women in front of the window” unearthed in Nimrud is known as “the Mona Lisa of Nimrud”.