the overflow of the Nile River, an ancient Egyptian civilization, not only brought life and prosperity, but also contributed to the formation of a slave state.
When the Nile floods, people should dredge the channels and drain the accumulated water.
In dry and rainy seasons, people have to divert water for irrigation.
Huge projects and heavy labor are by no means competent for one person and one family.
Therefore, Egypt had a joint venture earlier.
Several clans are united into communes, and several communes are combined into a larger union by regional relations.
In fact, each state has its own name – “the army, the dialect and the United Kingdom” along the Nile.
In order to compete for land, water and slaves, these small countries are often at war.
Through the annexation of the war, two slavery powers were gradually formed in 3500 BC: the North was called the kingdom of Lower Egypt and the South was called the kingdom of Upper Egypt.
Around 3000 BC, Menes, king of Upper Egypt, conquered the kingdom of Lower Egypt.
Since then, Egypt has established a unified slavery country, and Menez is also considered to be the first Pharaoh of the first dynasty in Egyptian history (the ancient Egyptians respected the king as “Pharaoh”).
From then on until the Macedonian Conquest of Egypt in 332 BC, the whole ancient Egypt experienced a full 31 dynasties.
Mysterious pyramid: pyramid is a tall pyramid building with square base and triangular sides.
From the bottom to the top, it is smaller than one floor.
It is like a tower.
It looks like the word “gold” in Chinese characters.
Therefore, the Chinese call it “pyramid”.
The pyramid is the first of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
It is a mausoleum built by the pharaohs of ancient Egypt for themselves.
In early ancient Egypt, the power of pharaohs was not very strong, so their tombs, like the nobility, were “mastaba” (Arabic, originally meant “stool”), a tomb shaped like a rectangular stone stool.
By the time the second Pharaoh josel of the Third Dynasty was in power, the Pharaoh’s power was greatly strengthened.
He believed that mastaba could not reflect the noble status of the Pharaoh, so he asked the versatile Imhotep to build a tall and immortal royal tomb for himself.
So the first pyramid was born.
It is 61 meters high, surrounded by tall sacrificial halls and walls.
The pyramid is located in Sakala, Egypt today.
Since then, during the period from the Third Dynasty to the sixth dynasty (2686-2181 BC), rulers competed to build pyramids for themselves to show their supreme rights and make the pyramids reach their peak, which is known as the “pyramid age”.
Mummies: the most fascinating thing about ancient Egypt is those mummies preserved like human remains.
Why did ancient Egypt mummify the dead? The ancient Egyptians believed that people could continue to live after death, but they must have a complete body.
Therefore, in order to prevent the bodies from being destroyed by wild animals and robbers in the desert, the Pharaohs built their pyramid tombs more and more large.
In order to make their bodies never rot, the dead Pharaoh’s bodies were made into “mummies”.
The bodies in these “mummies” are still intact even today.
Sphinx: the Sphinx is an important part of the pyramid complex of hadara, king of the fourth dynasty.
It is located on the east side of the pyramid of havra.
Sphinx is an imaginary animal with a king’s face and a lion’s body.
It was built to protect the pyramids.
Because of its belief in the sun god, its face always faces the place where the sun rises.
Sphinx is about 20 meters high and 57 meters long.
If you add its front claws crawling on the ground, it is 73.
5 meters long.
Unlike the pyramid, it was built by directly cutting limestone hills.
For thousands of years, this half human and half animal monster has constantly aroused people’s reverie.
Aegean civilization Mycenaean civilization: Mycenaean is a city in the south of the Greek peninsula.
Around 2000 BC, the Mycenaeans migrated from the Balkans to Greece and formed a village on a small hillside, speaking ancient Greek.
In 1650 BC, these small villages developed into strong castles.
This is the beginning of Mycenaean civilization.
Mycenaean civilization is characterized by cemetery culture.
The Mycenaeans buried their leaders in carefully built “honeycomb tombs” before building cities.
These tombs were built of large stones with a large dome.
Rich Mycenaeans like gold very much.
They make gold cups, gold masks, gold flowers, gold jewelry and other accessories.
Around 1450 BC, the Mycenaeans envied the Minoan civilization and attacked Crete, turning the countries around the Aegean Sea into colonies.
They traded throughout the Mediterranean and were once powerful.
In 1200 BC, the Dorians went south, and many Mycenaeans were forced to flee to foreign countries.
Trojan War: the story of the Trojan War is recorded in Homer’s epic: after Helen, the first beauty of Greece, fled with the prince of Troy, Greek countries felt that it was a humiliation to their own nation, so under the command of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, they formed a Greek coalition and decided to expedition Troy.
After preparation, a total of 1000 warships and 100000 soldiers were assembled to march towards the city of Troy and besiege the city of Troy for nine years.
In these nine years, the two sides have won and lost each other.
In the 10th year, Agamemnon listened to Odysseus’s “Trojan horse plan”, captured Troy, recaptured Helen and won the class.
Trojan horse plan: “Trojan horse plan” is the most famous example of using strategy in the Trojan War.
In 1183 BC, the Greek allied forces besieged the city of Troy.
After a long attack, Agamemnon, the commander of the Allied forces, listened to Odysseus and used the Trojan horse scheme.
The Greeks first built a huge Trojan horse and filled it with soldiers.
Then the Greek coalition pretended to retreat and drove off the coast, leaving only a pre placed Trojan horse outside the city.
The Trojans thought all the Greeks had gone.
When they saw the Trojan horse, they dragged it into the city as booty.
Just as the Trojans celebrated their victory, the soldiers hidden in the Trojan horse quietly walked out of the Trojan horse and opened the city gate.
With the cooperation of the inside and the outside, the city of Troy was captured.
Little knowledge Aegean art Aegean art is different from the artistic style of other prehistoric periods and regions.
It draws lessons from other contemporary art, especially in its later stageHowever, this reference is branded with a distinctive and original feature, that is, the style of realism, through the hands of Aegean craftsmen.
From this point of view, they are indeed the pioneers of Greek art.
Crete’s mural art, pottery theme, relief, independent sculpture and metal relief technology all provide examples for this.
Footprints of ancient Greek civilization Babylon: one or two river basins, the earliest civilization in the world and the birthplace of human civilization.
Ancient Greece called this area “Mesopotamia”, which means the place between the two rivers.
It originates from Sumer region, a watershed between Tigris River and Euphrates River.
Mesopotamia is the seat of Babylon, Cuba, in what is now the Republic of Iraq.
From 4000 B.C. to 2250 B.C., the heyday of the two river civilizations, the banks of the two rivers accumulated fertile soil due to the flooding of the river, which was known as the “fertile crescent zone” in history.
Around 3000 BC, dozens of the earliest slavery countries were formed in the two river basins, known as “city states”.
In order to compete for land and water, the city states fought constantly and gradually became unified in the war.
At that time, the Semitic people, a nomadic tribe living in the north of the Lianghe River Basin, established the Akkad Kingdom and gradually prospered.
Akkad conquered the city states of Sumer, unified the two river basins for the first time around 2300 BC, and established the kingdom of Babylon.
By the reign of King Hammurabi in the 18th century BC, the kingdom of Babylon had reached its peak.
After the death of Hammurabi, the kingdom of Babylon gradually declined.
In 1595 BC, the Hittites in the North invaded, and the Babylonian kingdom of Cuba was on the road of extinction.
Homer and Homer’s epic: in the mid-9th century BC, a blind old man named Homer gathered the stories created and recited orally into two epics, and then wandered around with a lyre on his back, singing the epic in exchange for food and accommodation.
His poems tell many glorious historical deeds, myths and legends of Greece.
Later, people recorded his great poem and named it after him, which was called Homer’s epic.
Homer’s epic is divided into two parts: the Iliad and the Odyssey.
The Iliad tells the story of the last year of the Trojan War.
Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus, the resourceful hero of the Greek coalition army, who crossed the sea and returned home after the war.
Greek Mythology: due to the low level of productivity and people’s limited knowledge, ancient Greece understood many unexplained natural phenomena as the role of divine power, so there was a legend about God.
Greek mythology includes two parts: the story of God and the legend of heroes.
The story of God involves the origin of the universe and mankind, the emergence of God and its pedigree.
It is said that there were 12 great gods of Olympus in ancient Greece: Zeus, the Lord of gods, Hera, Poseidon, Athena, the goddess of wisdom, Apollo, the God of archery and the God of light, Artemis, the goddess of hunting and the God of the moon, Aphrodite, the God of love and beauty, Ares, the God of war, Hephaestus, the God of fire and craftsman, Hermes, the envoy of God, Demeter, the God of agriculture, and Hestia, the God of kitchen.
They are in charge of various phenomena and things of nature and life, form the Olympian theocracy centered on Zeus and various phenomena and things of life, and form the Olympian theocracy system centered on Zeus.
The legend of heroes originated from the worship of ancestors.
It is an artistic review of ancient Greek’s struggle against ancient history and nature.
The protagonists in such legends are mostly the descendants of God and man, half god and half man heroes.
They are extremely strong and heroic, reflecting the heroic spirit and indomitable will of mankind to conquer nature, and have become the embodiment of the collective strength and wisdom of the ancient people.
The most famous legends include Hercules’s 12 great feats, the golden wool of Iason, etc.
In Greek mythology, God and man are of the same form.
There are not only people’s physical beauty, but also people’s seven emotions and six desires.
They know happiness, anger, sorrow and joy and participate in people’s activities.
The difference between God and man is only that the former has eternal life and no period of death.
The latter’s life is limited, with birth, old age and death.
The God in Greek mythology has distinct personality, no asceticism factors, and little mysticism.
Therefore, Greek mythology is not only the soil of Greek literature, but also has a far-reaching impact on later European literature.
Ancient Greek Olympic Games: there are many legends about the origin of the ancient Olympic Games, the most important of which are the following three kinds: the first view is that the ancient Olympic Games were regular sports activities held to sacrifice Zeus.
Another legend holds that Hercules, the son of Zeus, won the reputation of “Hercules” because of his great strength.
He completed tasks that ordinary people could not complete in the city of Elis.
In less than half a day, he cleaned the king’s cowshed filled with cow dung, but the king didn’t want to fulfill his promise of giving 300 cows, so Hercules drove the king away in a rage.
To celebrate his victory, he held the Olympic Games at the Olympics.
The third and most widely spread saying is that in order to choose a son-in-law with both civil and military skills for his daughter, the king of Elis of ancient Greece proposed that the candidate must compete with himself in a chariot.
In the competition, 13 young people were killed under the king’s spear, and the 14th young man was Pelops, the grandson of Zeus and the sweetheart of the princess.
Inspired by love, he bravely accepted the king’s challenge and finally won with wisdom.
In order to celebrate this victory, Pelops and the princess held a grand wedding in front of the Olympic Zeus temple.
At the meeting, chariots, wrestling and other competitions were arranged.
This was the original ancient Olympic Games, and Pelops became the legendary founder of the ancient Olympic Games.
In fact, the origin of the Olympic Games is closely related to the social situation of ancient Greece.
From the 9th to the 8th century BC, the Greek clan society gradually disintegrated, the slave society of the city-state system gradually formed, and more than 200 city-states were established.
The city states are governed by their own governments, there is no unified monarch, and there are constant wars between the city states.
In order to cope with the war, the city states actively trained their soldiers.
Spartan city-state children have been raised by the state since the age of 7, engaged in sports and military training, and lived a military life.
War needs soldiers, soldiers need strong bodies, and sports is a powerful means to cultivate soldiers who are good at fighting.
The war promoted the development of sports in Greece, and the events of the ancient Olympic Games also had an obvious military brand.
The continuous war made the people feel.