The temple of Zeus is an outstanding representative of Greek architecture in classical times.
It is the temple of Zeus in Olympia and the Acropolis complex in Athens.
The temple of Zeus in Olympia is undoubtedly a monumental Temple of Zeus ruins building.
The whole construction and decoration project lasted 14 years.
It is said that its architect is Leon of Elis.
The temple uses a strange local conglomerate formed by fossil layers.
This conglomerate is very ordinary, which is a kind of beauty that sets off the architectural shape with natural style.
It is neither clumsy nor boastful.
It can be called an excellent work of ancient Greek architecture.
The tall and gorgeous statue of Zeus in the temple is said to be the great work of Phidias, the greatest sculptor in ancient Greece.
From the holy land of Zeus, the main god of Greek travel, we can’t appreciate the greatness of gods, but we can really feel the great wisdom of ancient Greeks because of their worship.
The temple of Zeus in Olympia was built from 475 BC to 457 BC.
It is a six column Dorian temple.
Although its architectural design is relatively simple, there is a statue of Zeus from the famous sculptor Phidias (490-430 BC) inside the temple.
The statue of God takes a sitting posture, with its whole body inlaid with gold and ivory, and is up to 14 meters high.
It really gives people a sense of grandeur, majesty and luxury, and well conveys the charm of Zeus as the supreme ruler of heaven and mankind.
Since its completion, the statue has been called the masterpiece of the golden age of ancient sculpture.
The protection of the statue is said to be the responsibility of the descendants of Phidias.
The strange custom of dumping olive oil, according to posanias, may be due to the serious cracking of ivory caused by the humid environment of the temple, which can play a role in preventing cracking.
By the middle of the 2nd century B.C., the situation had become particularly bad, so the sculptor Damo Fennon of Mycenae in the South applied to repair the statue.
It is said that he did a good job.
Maybe at this time, he placed four columns under the seat to support the statue below so that it would not collapse due to too much weight.
Around the same time, that is, before 167 BC, Antiochus IV, king of the kingdom of Seleucia, presented a wool curtain “decorated with Assyrian weaving patterns and Phoenician dice” to the temple of Zeus.
He hung the curtain of the Near East behind the statue.
The statue has always aroused the awe and amazement of those who worship Zeus.
More than 450 years after its completion, the Roman Emperor Caligula (reigned in AD 37-41) longed to have the statue in Rome according to the habits of Roman conquerors who robbed Greek art treasures.
The craftsmen were sent to design a plan to transport the statue, but the statue “collapsed the scaffold with a sudden laugh, and the craftsmen were scared to flee”.
But in 391 ad, the Christian Church won.
The priests persuaded the Roman Emperor Theodosius I to prohibit pagans from worshipping Zeus and closed the temple.
In this way, the Olympic Games were ordered to stop and the great temple of Olympia was abandoned.
The 800 year old statue of Zeus was finally transported from the temple to Constantinople to decorate a palace, and the studio of Phidias was replaced by a Christian Church.
Around 425 A.D., the temple was seriously damaged by the fire.
In the 6th century A.D., the alfeos river changed its course, and the whole Olympia area was damaged by landslides, landslides, earthquakes and floods.
For more than a thousand years, the site has been buried by thick sediment and gravel.
The statues moved to Constantinople were spared from these disasters, but in 462, a fierce fire in Constantinople square burned down the palace containing the statue of Zeus.
When the temple of Olympia was destroyed by Peloponnesus due to neglect, this extraordinary statue, the greatest known ancient Greek sculpture, was also destroyed across the bospus Strait.
In addition, the carvings on the East and West gables of the temple are also impressive.
The east mountain wall reflects an ancient legend in Olympia: onomaus, king of Pisa, had a daughter named Hippodamia.
The Oracle said that when Hippodamia married, onomaus would be killed by the groom.
So onomaus told the whole country to ask the suitors to race with him.
He would let the Challenger set out first and catch up with him after sacrificing a lamb.
The starting point of the game is Pisa and the end point is Corinth.
People thought the conditions were so favorable that they certainly won easily.
However, the car of onomaus was sent by Ares, the God of war.
It was extremely fast, so all the young people who came to propose were defeated in the race.
According to the competition conditions, the losers are executed without exception.
After crossing the sea from Troy to borobenny, Pelops also participated in the competition.
He bribed the coachman to loosen the axle of onomaus and killed him halfway.
Pelops successfully married Hippodamia.
This is a very bloody story, full of intense fighting.
However, the sculptor chose the moment before the chariot set out.
Zeus was in the middle.
He was the witness of the competition.
On the left and right sides stood the king, Queen, Pelops, Hippodamia, racer and driver respectively.
It is worth noting that the sculptor made full use of the limited space provided by the triangular wall.
The center of it was occupied by Zeus and the image was the tallest, Then, the king and Pelops, the queen and Hippodamia, the carriage and the driver and the river god representing the starting point and the ending point are arranged symmetrically from left to right.
As the space on both sides is smaller, the horse’s head is facing the center, and the river god on both sides simply half supports and half lies, just stretching his feet in the two bottom corners.
The whole layout is seamless.
The sculpture of the west mountain wall is mainly dynamic, describing the war between the Lapis and the half man and half horse monster.
Half man and half horse monsters originally attended the wedding of the lapis, but after drinking, they robbed the bride.
The Lapis defeated it completely with the help of Apollo.
For the Greeks, this story symbolizes the victory of civilization over barbarism.
Here, Apollo naturally occupied the central position.
His right hand was held flat and his head turned to the right.
His naked body looked very beautiful and looked like a dignified judge making a decision.
On his left and right, there are people with their heads tied.
Like the east mountain wall, they just cover the whole mountain wall with the height of the wall, either standing or sitting, squatting or lying.
The base wall of the Acropolis of Athens was built in classical GreeceThe high achievements of architectural art are concentrated in the temple buildings of the Acropolis of Athens.
It includes the Acropolis gate, Parthenon temple, Nikai temple and illiteon temple.
The above buildings can be called the oldest, most magnificent and most complete marble buildings in the world.
The architectural complex of the Acropolis of Athens is a masterpiece of ancient world art.
The whole layout is natural and harmonious.
Acropolis architecture does not adopt rigid symmetry and monotonous repetition.
It is in harmony with the surrounding nature and almost completely retains the characteristics of natural terrain.
The Acropolis is located on a small steep peak in the center of Athens, 70 ~ 80 meters above the flat ground.
In ancient times, the Acropolis was just a castle to defend the enemy.
In the 5th century BC, in order to commemorate the victory of the Greek Polish war and adapt to Athens’s hegemony in Greece, Pericles began to build the Acropolis and build it into a magnificent memorial building complex.
Some temples of different sizes stand on the Acropolis, scattered high and low, depending on the mountain.
Due to the steep mountain, there is only one channel at the west end to go up and down.
As long as people climb the mountain, they can see an 8-meter-high foundation wall made of limestone standing on the left.
The north side of the wall is covered with the victory of the Greek Bosnian war, and on the top of the wall stands the temple of Nikai, the goddess of victory.
The Nikai temple is located in the southwest of the mountain gate, opposite the Parthenon temple.
It is a small Ionian temple.
Its complex shape and elegant style of the Acropolis of Athens are just set off against the Parthenon temple to achieve a certain balance.
The area of the temple pedestal is only 5.
38 meters × 8.
15m, with four Ionian columns in the front and back respectively.
In order to coordinate with the Doric columns of the mountain gate, the columns and column diameters were specially increased to make the columns stronger.
Turning along the foundation wall, you can see the Acropolis gate on the steep slope.
The magnificent entrance hall of the Acropolis is built on the slope and located at the west end of the Acropolis.
It is also known as the mountain gate.
In fact, it is the entrance of the Acropolis.
The Doric column of the mountain gate is tall and solemn.
In the back half of the mountain gate, there are three pairs of Ionian columns on both sides of the avenue, so as to form a model of the integration of the two types of columns.
As soon as you enter the mountain gate, you will face the gilded bronze statue of Athena, the patron saint of Athens.
Walking through the bronze statue, on the high platform in the front right is the Parthenon temple, the main building of the Acropolis.
The resplendent Parthenon temple is an eight column Doric building made of marble.
It is the main hall of the Acropolis and the crown of the temple.
Located at the top of the Acropolis, it is an important main building of the Acropolis in Athens.
The whole project is designed by architects Iktinos and kariclat.
The temple building adopts the most typical rectangular column type in the Greek temple, and the column is Doric type.
The pillars are also Dorian.
The inner hall of the temple is divided into two parts: the main hall and the rear hall.
In the center of the hall stands the statue of Athena.
It took about 15 years to complete when Pericles was in power and was in the charge of Phidias, calicrates and ixtinos.
The eight column facade appears very wide.
In order to avoid the feeling of flat and hypertrophy due to the wide facade, the architects deliberately raised the columns.
The column height is about 10.
5 meters and the column body diameter is about 2 meters.
The height of the columns, together with the architrave, eaves and roof, makes a relief in the Athena temple of Parthenon 19 meters high, higher than the six storey building, It effectively dispels the sense of disharmony brought by the wide appearance, and makes it naturally beautiful.
The internal structure of Parthenon temple is simple and lively, with two parts.
Its front is free of any sundries and is dedicated to the golden statue of Athena made by Phidias.
The elephant is 12 meters high.
Its face, hands and feet are pasted with ivory, while its armor and clothing are pasted with gold pieces.
It is resplendent.
Of course, such a huge statue cannot be preserved in the world for a long time.
We can only see it from the imitation of later generations: Athena’s left hand holds the shield, her right hand extends forward, and the goddess of victory stands on her right hand, dressed in military uniform and helmet on her head.
There would never be such a charming smile as Aphrodite.
At that time, the Athenians spared no expense to build such a huge statue.
Although they made a wish to Athena and thanked her for making Athens prosperous and powerful, they probably wanted to use her to announce to the Greek world, especially their neighbors, that Athens was a real “Greek school”.
Parthenon’s back hall was the residence and treasury of the priestess, where the tribute paid by the allies of the Tyrus alliance was later stored.
The hall in the library is supported by four Ionian columns, reflecting the architects’ desire to integrate Doric and Ionian.
The same situation also occurs in the eaves.
Originally, the cornice of Doric style was the architrave without decoration, and the cornice wall was composed of three ridge plates and bay plates.
Phidias and others adopted Ionian cornices on the Dorian column, so that the cornice wall became a decorative belt around the whole temple for about 160 meters.
On this decorative belt, Phidias and his craftsmen carved the grand occasion of Athenians celebrating pan Athena Festival, which is unique.
On the gables on the East and west sides, Phidias engraved the story of the birth of Athena and the struggle between Athena and Poseidon to be the patron saint of Athens, which incisively and vividly demonstrated the relationship between the city-state of Athens and its patron saint.
To the north of Parthenon, there is a smaller Temple of erectus, which is dedicated to erectus, the legendary king of Athens.
The temple was built in the temple of peloeyricus after the outbreak of the beneza war, all of which adopted the ionic column style.
The columns are exquisitely carved.
Although they are not as luxurious and spectacular as patnon, their architectural structure is much more complex due to topographic changes.
In this great temple, the Athenians not only worshipped erectus, but also Poseidon and Athena, because it is said that this is the place where the story of their struggle to protect God took place.
The holy spring of Poseidon and Athena’s olive tree are all here.
Such a large-scale classical building complex integrating the advantages of Doric and Ionian style has been highly praised by the world when it was just completed.
About 500 years later, when Plutarch, the Greek of the Roman Empire, wrote his biography of Pericles, he was still full of praise for the architecture of the Acropolis in Athens: the statue of women on the colonnade.
Pericles’s masterpiece was particularly amazing because it was completed in a short time, but it can be passed on forever.
Every project is perfect.
It immediately becomes a historic site, but it is always new.
It still looks like it has just been completed to this day.
It seems to be open foreverFlowers, it seems, will never be touched by time, as if these works have been injected with an inexhaustible breath and an immortal soul.
Unfortunately, such a treasure of classical art has not been completely preserved to today.
Judging from the footprints, the fate of the Acropolis of Athens is really full of disasters.
It was first ruled by the Eastern Roman Empire.
About the fifth century A.D., Christianity entered Athens and penetrated into the meridians of ancient Greek civilization.
The Parthenon temple dedicated to Athena was changed into a Christian Church, and the Virgin Mary became its master instead of Athena.
The interior of the temple was transformed, the walls were covered with Christian paintings, and the early rulers of the Acropolis ordered a new gate to be opened in the West.
In the 15th century, with the demise of the Eastern Roman Empire, Athens became the territory of the Turkish Empire.
In 1456, the Parthenon temple was forced to be changed into an Islamic mosque.
Everything about Christianity in the temple was forced to be demolished and replaced with Islamic keepsakes.
As time goes by, the Parthenon temple has changed several times, but it is still strong and standing.
In 1687, the Venetians besieged Athens, and the strong Parthenon temple was used as a powder magazine by the Turks.
On September 26 of that year, the Venetian army hit the Parthenon temple with a single shot.
After the ammunition exploded, it was extinguished, and the masterpiece of the ancient Greeks was innocently destroyed.
When the commander-in-chief of the Venetian army came to the broken temple, he saw the statue of Poseidon on the wall of the west mountain and the galloping horse pulling the chariot of Athena scattered in the ruins, so he ordered his subordinates to take it away.
Unfortunately, the subordinate was so clumsy that the statue fell and smashed.
The destruction of the Parthenon did not attract the attention of the Turkish rulers.
A year later, the Turks rebuilt a mosque on the ruins of the Parthenon.
However, as the embodiment of the wealth of the city-state of Athens and the symbol of Athens dominating all Greece, the historical light of the Acropolis of Athens will never die.
If the temple of Artemis is the residence of God in Egypt and the cathedral in ancient Rome is the residence of the world, then the temple in Greece can be compared to the residence of the soul.
The temple of Artemis is the expression of the Ionian soul of ancient Greece, but it has also been mixed with a large number of Oriental spirits.
Archeologist Edward Gibbon once described the temple of Artemis in aeithos near ostigus: “Greek art and Asian wealth jointly created this sacred and magnificent building.
The emperors of Persia, Macedonia and Rome also revered its dignity and added its brilliance.
” Pliny, a natural historian, used “the magic of Greece” to describe the temple that was destroyed in 262.
The temple of Artemis is a simple, super large, rectangular building surrounded by colonnades on each side.
It is a huge glittering marble building, located in a huge courtyard open to the sky, so it can be seen from far away.
Viewed from a distance from the front, it looks like an altar courtyard.
The altar courtyard itself is decorated with colonnades and statues.
However, the small altar in the altar courtyard is not so symmetrical.
The priest attending the formal ceremony can see the height of the temple, but he must turn his face to take care of the activities of the small altar.
This design is reminiscent of the Near East, where temples sometimes retract from the side rather than close the front door or inner altar to the sloping walkway.
Dorian Ionian style goes to the high platform of the temple through a marble step surrounding the huge frame of the whole building, accompanied by backward sloping casts or inclined walls lying flat on the ground.
The high platform is about 78.
5 meters wide and 131 meters long.
The column here is 20 meters high, slender and has exquisite grooves on it.
Their elaborate base is composed of round marble, supporting the shaped reliefs, which “gallop around” along the bottom of the cylindrical wall, which is a wonderful masterpiece of architecture in the ancient world.
The exquisite Ionian capitals are equipped with special and beautiful carved rings (vortex shape), which protect the columns and support the marble flat beams (column top plate).
There is no pattern in the column lintel, but the large tooth shape and elegant arch ornaments form the uppermost part, supporting the upper triangular space.
There are three conspicuous openings on the human gable, and the middle door is composed of two statues of Amazonian female soldiers, and there are two other statues of female soldiers in the eaves.
Perhaps more dramatic than the multi-storey cylindrical walls viewed from the front, when the viewer walks in between the two columns, he will be immersed in the atmosphere of welcome.
Here, in front of the porch is the “cylindrical forest” standing on the carved short base.
They set off against another “forest” on the back porch of the temple.
There are 127 columns in total.
The inner chamber or room of the goddess is located in the center of the adjacent tall building, with two pillar porches in front and behind.
The extraordinary structure of the temple of Artemis belongs to those remarkable figures who play an important role in the religious and political life of the city.
The goddesses can play their part.
It is said that they once helped the architect chesfrey to install a lintel on the entrance of the great marble temple.
The stone lintel was so huge and heavy that the architect almost committed suicide in despair in completing his task.
Ephhos is one of the richest financial centers in the ancient world.
It has the temple of Artemis, which is undoubtedly one of the wonders of the world.
The great temple of Artemis has also become a great miracle of the ancient world because of its magnificence! Famous sculptors and their representative works 1 Millon and the athlete in the statue of discus thrower and discus thrower hold his right arm back, and his back, waist and legs are suspected to be in a smooth S-shape.
Millon (492-450 BC) is one of the famous sculptors in Greece.
He is an art master in the early stage of classical.
He was also a member of the peotians, but settled in Athens for a long time.
Millon was taught by art master agisnard and inherited the excellent tradition of Athens sculpture.
He is famous for expressing the human body in motion.
His outstanding masterpiece is the discus thrower, which is one of the most widely circulated works of Greek sculpture.
“Discus throwing statue” was originally a bronze statue, but the original has been lost, and the existing imitation is marble.