Aeschylus, the “father of tragedy”, Aeschylus (525-456 BC) is the real founder of Greek tragedy.
He not only added a second performer to the tragedy, making the plot more vivid and closer to the masses, but also improved the props of the theater, using theater decoration, masks, high soled shoes, flying devices, thunder devices, etc.
Aeschylus is a tragic writer in the final formation of the slave democratic city-state in Athens and the founder of Greek tragedy.
It can be said that the history of Greek tragedy began with him.
Aeschylus’ plays have great vitality.
He won 13 Drama Awards during his lifetime.
Engels called him “the father of Greek tragedy”.
Aeschylus was born in an aristocratic family of Ulysses, a suburb of Athens.
It is said that Aeschylus saw grapes in the vineyard when he was young.
One day, Aeschylus fell asleep under a vine and dreamed that Dionysus, the God of wine, asked him to write a tragedy.
When he grew up, he collected information everywhere and planned to write tragedies.
In his youth, Aeschylus witnessed Athens’s struggle to overthrow tyranny and establish democracy, and personally participated in the marathon battle against Persian aggression and the salami naval battle.
Politically, Aeschylus was an advocate of Athenian democracy.
In 456 BC, Aeschylus died in Sicily.
He wrote about 70 ~ 90 plays in his life, but only seven remain, namely, the beggar, the Persian, the seven heroes attacking Thebes, the bound Prometheus, King Agamemnon, the drinker and the God of revenge.
Among them, the last three are the only complete trilogy handed down, with a total name of ORESTE trilogy.
The Persians published by Aeschylus with the theme of the Greek Persian war is the only existing tragedy with the content of real life at that time.
Other works are based on heroes and legends.
His works are impassioned and full of patriotic enthusiasm.
At the same time, he also praises people’s brave resistance before fate.
Therefore, Engels called him a “poet with strong tendency”.
On the ruins of this ancient Greek theater, everyone will think of the far-reaching ancient Greek tragedy.
The statue on the base has a shocking expression, whether it is sad or frightened, or both.
Prometheus Bound is based on a myth in ancient Greece: Zeus refused to give fire to mankind because he was deceived by mankind.
Without telling Zeus, Prometheus stole the sacred fire from the furnace of Hephaestus, the God of fire, and gave it to human beings.
Therefore, mortals can eat cooked food and have the means of heating.
Zeus was furious.
He ordered Hephaestus and his two disciples to tie Prometheus to the Caucasus mountain with iron chains, so that he could not hear or see people all year round.
He had to endure the cruel punishment of bending his knees, beating his chest with a hammer and pecking his liver by Eagles.
But Prometheus also held a big secret of Zeus, which made Zeus dare not kill him.
Therefore, neither the sophisticated River God nor the slave god Hermes could persuade Prometheus to yield to Zeus.
Because of this, Prometheus is regarded by later generations as an artistic model who dares to resist tyranny and sacrifice himself for mankind.
Prometheus Bound has also become one of the works with the highest theme and the most solemn style in Greek tragedy.
King Agamemnon, the drinker and the goddess of blessings are collectively known as the “Oreste Trilogy”, which was performed in about 458 BC.
This is the only complete trilogy work handed down in ancient Greek tragedy, and the story is also based on ancient Greek legends.
Agamemnon, commander of the Greek coalition army, went on an expedition to Troy and returned victoriously 10 years later.
His wife Clytemnestra had colluded with aegistos at this time.
She hated Agamemnon’s killing of female sacrifice wind and the new lover brought back by Agamemnon, so she set up a plan to cover Agamemnon with a big net and cut him to death with an axe.
Cassandre, the female captive brought back by Agamemnon and his concubine, was also killed later.
Therefore, the whole play is shrouded in a terrible atmosphere of hatred and murder.
The plot of “the drinker” closely follows that of “King Agamemnon”.
After Clytemnestra killed her husband, she wanted to kill her son Oreste again.
Her daughter Electra was deeply dissatisfied and hurried to send Oreste out of the palace and foster in someone else’s house.
When Oreste grew up, he decided to kill his mother for revenge with the encouragement of Apollo.
He lied that Oreste was dead and deceived his mother into believing that he subdued him and killed him.
Then he killed his adulterer ergistus.
The whole play ended in a gloomy horror.
Revenge is the finale.
After Oreste killed his mother, his mother’s soul immediately appealed to the vengeance.
The Vengeances were in charge of blood feud, so they chased Orestes.
Orestes fled around in a trance and turned to Apollo for help.
Apollo sent it to Athens and Athena accepted the case.
She acted as the host and organized the court to try Oreste.
As a result of the trial, Oreste was acquitted and cleared.
The Vengeances also accepted the fact, gave up their duty of revenge and became the goddess of blessings.
One family revenge drama after another finally ended, and the world was restored to peace and full of love again.
Homer Sophocles of dramatic art Sophocles (496-406 BC) was a tragic writer in the heyday of the athenian slave owner democratic city-state and the completion of Greek tragic art.
He was born in colonos, northwest of Athens, and his father was a weapons workshop owner.
Sophocles Sophocles is a moderate democracy.
He was once elected one of the ten generals of Athens.
He is a close friend and admirer of Pericles.
Sophocles has dominated the Athenian theater for 30 years and is known as Homer of dramatic art.
He has won 24 Drama Awards in his life and is the most awarded tragic poet.
He broke through the tragic form of lyric poetry, reduced the role of chorus and strengthened the role of drama.
He also increased the number of actors to 30, abandoned the form of Aeschylus’s tragic trilogy and replaced it with three incoherent independent plays, which made the tragic art reach a perfect state.
According to legend, he wrote a total of 130 plays, of which only seven have survived, namely, AEAS, Antigone, King Oedipus, Electra, the girl of Tess, philoxetes and Oedipus in colonos.
Sophocles was born during the prosperity of the city-state.
He tried toThrough his tragic works to explore the image of an ideal citizen focusing on the interests of the state, his tragedy is the most perfect in art, which fully reflects the prosperity of classical civilization in the Pericles era.
His style is solemn, harmonious, magnificent, and his narration and lyricism are just right.
In this regard, King Oedipus is his masterpiece.
The work portrays the protagonist as an ideal citizen who has the courage to eliminate harm for the city-state and sacrifice himself for the interests of the city-state, and praises his unyielding and rebellious spirit to the fate, which is the leading, positive and practical factor of this play.
However, the protagonist did not get rid of the tease of fate and still unconsciously made a fateful mistake, which shows that the author himself has not got rid of the shackles of the concept of fate.
If the purpose of tragedy is to purify people’s hearts by destroying good things to people, and then causing fear and compassion in people’s minds, then King Oedipus is worthy of being a model of tragedy.
Euripides Euripides (485-406 BC) was the last great tragedy writer in Athens.
Born into a land owning aristocratic family, he was a political supporter of democratic Euripides.
His tragedy often involves some philosophical problems, so he is called a philosopher on the stage.
Euripides pays special attention to realism and passion.
He depicts the psychological contradiction deeply, and the drama conflict is also very intense.
Therefore, his tragedy is exciting, and his themes and thoughts are advanced.
Euripides’ works represent a new era and focus on human life.
He paid great attention to the life of the lower class and sympathized with the poor, slaves and despised women.
Different from the ideal characters reflected by Sophocles, he describes the conflict between human noble and despicable passion.
It can be said that in this regard, he is the real ancestor of a generation of literary giants.
He wrote a total of 92 tragedies, which exist in 18 such as Medea and Trojan Women.
Although his works are based on myths and legends, they mainly expose various practical problems in the period of city-state crisis, especially civil war and women’s problems.
Of his 18 existing works, 12 are about women’s life.
Trojan Women condemns the crime of the war of aggression through the tragic fate of the female prisoners after the fall of Troy, and exposes the massacre of the people of MIROS island by the rulers of Athens at that time.
This play is the first masterpiece in the history of European literature to express the greatest sympathy for the aggressors.
Medea is the most representative work of Euripides.
It describes the love entanglement between Medea, a foreign woman, and Iason, a Greek man.
It reflects people’s real life and expresses rich feelings.
In the play, Euripides reveals and criticizes the irrationality of Athenian society to women at that time, and condemns some men’s love of the new and dislike the old and contempt for women, which is of great practical significance.
Euripides also took a big step forward than his predecessors in the concept of fate.
He believed that fate was not outside man, but in man himself.
In addition, he reached the peak of ancient Greek drama in the psychological analysis of characters and the development of dramatic conflict.
Greek tragedy reached a more perfect level in both content and form in the era of Euripides.
All Greek tragedies have the characteristics of humanitarian enthusiasm, heroic spirit of content and greatness of image, which not only played a great educational role for city-state citizens, but also had a great impact on the development of Western literature in later generations.
In modern times, his works have become the “Bible” of feminists.
Aristophanes, the father of comedy, began organizing comedy competitions in Athens in 487 BC.
Unfortunately, before Aristophanes, no comedy could be completely handed down.
Aristophanes (450-385 BC) was the most famous comic writer in ancient Greece.
He was born into a small landowner family in Athens.
His creative activities were basically in the era of Peloponnesian War and Athens city-state from strength to crisis.
His works have a strong political tendency, directly criticizing some contemporary thinkers and politicians and mocking politicians and social injustice.
It is a picture of Athenian social, political, ideological and cultural life.
Its humorous tone touches on serious social problems and establishes the basic style of comedy with dignity.
Aristophane wrote 44 comedies in his life, 11 of which have been handed down.
Among them, “Knight” and “hornet” exposed that political aspirants used democracy to deceive the people.
“Cloud” and “frog” describe the bad phenomena in education and literature.
The “women’s Congress” and the “God of wealth” reflect the party struggle and the inequality between the rich and the poor.
“Birds” satirizes the adventurers who brought disaster to the Athenians.
Those who oppose civil war and love peace include akanai, peace and lusistrata.
Aristophanes stood on the position of small and medium-sized landowners, firmly advocated to stop the unjust Peloponnesian War, and actively participated in the competition between Athenian moderates and belligerents.
In 424 BC, his “Knight” was performed.
In the play, one of demos’s servants, the main battle paclyon, was described as a trickster.
In the spring of 421 BC, the Peloponnesian War had been going on for 10 years.
Aristophane’s play “peace” ridiculed the main war faction bitterly, reflecting the strong desire of the Athenian people for peace.
The protagonist of the play is a farmer named terygaeus.
He went through all kinds of hardships to save the goddess of peace who was imprisoned in heaven.
When the goddess of peace returned to the world, she was warmly welcomed by the people.
Shortly after that, the Peloponnesian War began again.
Aristophane continued to call for peace and wrote a play “bird”.
In the play, Aristophanes asks birds to establish a state of babbler in the clouds between heaven and earth, cutting off the fireworks of human sacrifice, making it difficult for the aroma to reach the heaven.
The gods were so hungry that they had to send representatives to the bird kingdom to make peace.
The monarchs and officials of the bird kingdom argued and forced the gods to give up their rule over heaven, earth and mankind.
The charm of Aristophane’s comedy lies in its extremely rich imagination.
With rich and colorful language and literary techniques, it deeply exposed the major problems of the society at that time and all adverse phenomena endangering the interests of the city-state and citizens, and pushed the Greek comedy to the peak.
Therefore, Aristophane is called “the father of comedy” and “a poet with strong tendency”.
Greek dramatists are mostly energeticIt can the whole social life, and is also good at observing individuals, enlightening people’s thoughts with drama and making them think about problems.
These writers were great figures at that time.
They promoted the development of Greek culture with their own works.
Speech expert Aesop craty’s speech and debate were the main means for people to deal with national affairs in the era of Greek city-state.
At the end of the 5th century, Athenian democracy was rebuilt, which further promoted the development of oratory.
Therefore, speeches constitute an important part of Greek cultural heritage.
From the 5th century B.C. to the 4th century B.C., the political arena in Athens was full of brilliant stars, which complemented each other and pushed the oratory to the peak.
Among them, the greatest speakers were Aesop crates and Timothy.
Aesop craty Aesop craty (436-338 BC) was born in Athens, a wealthy musical instrument workshop owner’s home, well-educated.
Aesop craty is a student of the famous rhetorician gogia and philosopher Socrates, and is also the founder of Greek rhetoric.
He is not the kind of speaker who makes a speech on the stage, but an expert in writing speeches.
Some of his speeches are actually political essays in a special form.
He is not a politician active in the political arena to solve various practical problems encountered in daily life.
However, he often publishes his political opinions and puts forward suggestions in the form of articles, trying to influence those in power and realize his political ideals.
In 392 BC, he opened a rhetoric school in Athens.
In the next 40 years, he mainly engaged in teaching.
After 351 B.C., Aesop crates mainly focused on writing.
He had intended to become a speaker, but because of his hoarse voice, he devoted his life to the research and teaching of rhetoric schools.
The purpose of Aesop craty’s rhetoric school is to train speakers and people who are good at political activities.
He believes that an excellent speaker must be a knowledgeable person.
Therefore, in his school, in addition to rhetoric, he also teaches literature, philosophy, history, law and so on.
As he is a social activist, he strongly advocates that the teaching content should be closely linked with reality.
There are 21 speeches handed down by Aesop craty, of which 7 are political speeches, 3 are ceremony speeches, 6 are litigation speeches, 3 are advice and 2 are educational papers.
In addition, he left 79 letters and some fragments of works on oratory, the most famous of which was the pan Greek Assembly speech published in 380 BC.
This speech made Aesop craty famous in the ancient Greek world.
Aesop craty’s speech pays attention to reasoning, exquisite words and the rhythm of prose.
This style has become the basis of Latin prose and later European prose.