At the beginning of the 20th century, Russia was already an imperialist country, but its economic development was still relatively backward, and there were strong remnants of feudal serfdom.
In terms of foreign relations, Russian imperialism is both aggressive and dependent on Western imperialism.
Therefore, various contradictions in Russian society are intricately intertwined.
Russia has also become the focus of various contradictions of imperialism, and has formed a realistic social force to solve these contradictions by revolutionary methods.
The Russian proletariat is oppressed several times and has strong resistance.
It is the leading class of the revolution.
The working peasants, who constitute the majority of the country’s population, are reliable allies of the proletariat.
The Russian proletariat has its own revolutionary party, the Bolshevik party.
Guided by Marxism, the party has accumulated rich revolutionary experience.
By analyzing the law of unbalanced economic and political development of capitalism, Lenin put forward the theory that socialism may win first in a few or even a single capitalist country, which encouraged the Russian proletariat to attack capitalism.
April Outline: in March 1917 (February of the Russian calendar), the second bourgeois democratic revolution broke out in Russia, overthrew the Czar autocratic system, and formed a situation in which two regimes, namely, workers and soldiers representing the Soviet and the bourgeois interim government, coexisted.
On April 16, 1917, Lenin returned to Petrograd from abroad.
The next day, he gave a report on the task of the proletariat in this revolution.
The outline of the report was published in Pravda, the famous April outline.
The outline provides the party and the proletariat with a clear line, principles and strategies for the transformation from bourgeois democratic revolution to socialist revolution.
Because the balance of class power was beneficial to the proletariat and the weapons were in the hands of the people, Lenin believed that the revolution could develop peacefully at that time.
He put forward the slogan of “all political power belongs to the Soviet”, which aims to expel the representatives of the landlord and the bourgeoisie from the regime, end the coexistence of the two regimes, expand and increase the influence of the Bolshevik party in the Soviet, deprive the power stolen by the Menshevik and the social revolutionary party, and turn the Soviet into an organ of the dictatorship of the proletariat.
At the Seventh National Congress of the Bolshevik party held in May, Lenin’s proposition was warmly supported by the deputies.
On the basis of the “outline of April” and the resolution of the party’s April representative meeting, the Bolshevik party has done a lot of work to win over, educate and organize the masses and prepare for the new revolution.
“July incident”: on May 1, 1917, foreign minister milukov of the interim government sent a note to the allies, claiming that the interim government “will fully abide by its obligations to the countries of our agreement” and “carry out the world war to complete victory”.
On May 3, the note was released, arousing the anger of the people.
For two consecutive days, 100000 workers and soldiers in Petrograd held demonstrations against the imperialist war and demanded that all political power be transferred to the Soviet Union.
Under the pressure of the masses, the interim government was forced to remove milukov and others from their posts.
Then a coalition government was formed with the participation of Mensheviks and the social revolutionary party.
The great demonstration of workers and soldiers in Petrograd means the beginning of the crisis of the interim government.
On July 1, 1917, 500000 people in Petrograd set off another massive demonstration.
Mensheviks and the social revolutionary party originally tried to make the demonstration carry out under the slogan of “trust in the interim government”, but in the end, the slogans of the vast majority of demonstrators were “all power belongs to the Soviet” and “down with 10 capitalist ministers”.
Regardless of the people’s life and death, the interim government launched a large-scale attack on the allies on the southwest front on July 1, but the military adventure was defeated miserably.
When the news reached the capital, the crowd was furious.
On July 16, the first machine gun regiment of the Petrograd military region took the lead in gathering a resolution to prepare for an armed uprising.
Other teams and workers are also ready to act.
However, considering that the time for armed seizure of power is not yet ripe, the Bolshevik party decided to guide the masses to conduct peaceful demonstrations.
On July 17, 500000 people in the capital held a massive demonstration, and the interim government brazenly dispatched troops to massacre the demonstrators.
Then he made a general arrest, forcibly disarmed the workers, destroyed the editorial office and printing plant of Pravda, and ordered Lenin to be wanted.
The Bolshevik party was forced to return to a state of secrecy.
Determine the preliminary strategic policy: “July incident” marks the end of the coexistence of two regimes.
The regime is completely concentrated in the hands of the counter revolutionary interim government.
The Soviet controlled by the Mensheviks and the social revolutionary party has become an appendage of the interim government, and the possibility of peaceful development of the Russian revolution has disappeared.
Since then, the revolutionary movement has entered a new stage of armed seizure of power.
The drastic changes in Russia’s domestic political situation require the Bolshevik party to formulate new principles and strategies.
From August 8 to 16, 1917, the Bolshevik party held its sixth congress in Petrograd.
Lenin was not able to attend because he was wanted, but he was elected honorary chairman of the Congress and actually led the Congress.
The Congress discussed the situation after the “July incident” and the party’s future policy, determined the policy of armed uprising, and decided to replace the slogan of “all political power belongs to the Soviet Union” with the slogan of “political power turns to the proletariat and poor farmers”.
The Congress called on workers, peasants and soldiers to stand under the banner of the Bolshevik party and prepare for a decisive battle with the bourgeoisie.
Initial victory of the Revolution: in order to seek to consolidate the new pillar of its single regime and mobilize counter revolutionary forces to completely suppress the revolution, the bourgeois interim government held a “state conference” in Moscow from August 25 to 28.
The Prime Minister of the interim government, Kerensky, declared that he would establish order by means of “iron and blood”.
After the meeting, kornilov, the supreme commander-in-chief of the Russian army, returned to Mogilev’s base camp and actively planned a military coup in an attempt to establish military dictatorship.
He ordered the front-line Russian army to give up Riga and opened the door for the German army to enter petersgrad.
Then, under the pretext of defending the capital, the third Cossack cavalry regiment and the “barbarian division” composed of Caucasian mountain people were transferred to march on petersgrad on September 7.
At the same time, an ultimatum was issued to the krensky government, asking the government to resign and hand over all power to the Supreme Commander in chief.
At this critical juncture, the Bolshevik party quickly mobilized and organized more than 60000 workers, red guards and soldiers to stand ready, and sent a large number of propagandists to the rebel forces for propaganda and explanation.
Cheated soldierAfter knowing the truth, he refused to attack the capital and turned his guns to the reactionary officers, and kornilov became a prisoner.
Soviet Rebirth: the struggle to crush the kornilov rebellion has greatly increased the prestige of the Bolshevik party.
Bolsheviks have won a majority in the Soviet elections in Petrograd, Moscow and many other cities and industrial centers.
In rural areas, more than 90% of counties in European part of Russia broke out the struggle of farmers to seize land and roots.
In many units, soldiers drove away officers and set up soldiers’ committees.
Soldiers on the western and Northern fronts near Petrograd and Moscow, sailors of the Baltic Fleet, and rear garrisons mostly accepted the views of the Bolshevik party.
Internationally, the imperialists of various countries are busy fighting each other and have no time to launch an attack on the Russian Revolution.
The time is ripe for an armed uprising.
The Bolshevik party renewed its slogan of “all power belongs to the Soviet Union” and actively prepared for an armed uprising.
Uprising broke out: from September 25 to 27, Lenin wrote two letters from Finland to the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party – “Bolsheviks should seize power” and “Marxism and Uprising”, instructing the Central Committee to put the armed uprising on the agenda, And say “If we do not seize power now, history will not forgive us.
On October 20, Lenin secretly returned to Petrograd and directly led the armed uprising.
On October 23, a historic resolution on launching the armed uprising was adopted at the meeting of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party.
In order to provide political leadership for the uprising, Lenin, Trotsky and Zino were established at the meeting Viyev, gaminev,, sokolnikov and bubonov are seven members of the Political Bureau.
On October 25, the Petrograd Soviet led by Trotsky established the Military Revolutionary Committee, which was the public headquarters of the later armed uprising.
On October 29, the Bolshevik Party Central Committee held an enlarged meeting to reaffirm the resolution to launch an armed uprising and set up a revolutionary military headquarters composed of five people, including sverdlov and Stalin, to lead the uprising.
While the whole party was actively preparing for the armed uprising, on October 31, the new life published an interview of “Yu gaminev on the” uprising “.
In the name of himself and Zinoviev, gaminev declared that he did not approve of the resolution of the Party Central Committee on the uprising, thus divulging the party’s secrets.
After hearing the news, the interim government immediately mobilized the army and took measures to destroy the uprising.
However, at this time, the revolutionary fighting team has been fully mobilized and organized, and no measures of the interim government can stop the torrent of revolution rolling forward.
On November 6, an armed uprising broke out in Petrograd.
By the early morning of November 7, almost the whole capital had been controlled by the insurgents, except for a few data points such as the winter palace.
Krensky fled petergler in a car from the US embassy.
At 9:45 p.m., the cruiser “Avril” anchored beside Nikolayev bridge turned out the signal gun to attack the winter palace, and the red guards and revolutionary soldiers began the total attack on the winter palace.
At 2 a.m. the next day, the insurgents captured the winter palace and arrested the ministers of the interim government who were meeting.
On November 7, the second congress of all Russian workers, soldiers and Soviets opened in Smolny palace.
The Congress passed the “letter to workers, soldiers and farmers”, announcing that the interim government had been overthrown and that all political power had been transferred to the Soviet hands.
At the meeting, the people’s Committee, the first Soviet government, was established, and Lenin was elected chairman of the people’s Committee.
The victory of the armed uprising in Petrograd effectively promoted the launch of the revolution throughout the country.
From November 1917 to February to March 1918, the Soviet regime was established throughout the country from urban to rural areas.
Historical significance: the victory of the October Revolution broke through the world imperialist front, created the world’s first socialist country, and began the world historical process of transition from capitalism to socialism.
Lenin turned Marxist theory into practice, led the Bolsheviks to seize power in Russia and established the first communist regime in the world, which was a great initiative.
From 1917 to 1989, Communist forces continued to develop in the world.
Almost 13 people on earth lived under the banner of communism.
The October Revolution broke the monopoly of capitalism and announced to the world that a new social system had changed from ideal to reality.
Since then, world history has entered a new period of transition from capitalism to socialism.
The victory of the October Revolution had a profound impact on the people all over the world.
After the October Revolution, the struggle for liberation of the proletariat and oppressed nations in various countries was booming.
The colonial and semi colonial peoples of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Egypt set off a new wave of national liberation movement.
Little knowledge Lenin was assassinated.
On January 14, 1918, after completing a speech in petersgrad, Lenin took a car with Swiss Communist Fritz prating.
When passing a bridge, he came across 12 unidentified gunmen shooting violently.
Platin hurriedly pressed Lenin’s head under his seat, while his hand covering Lenin was beaten to blood.
The shooter could not be arrested and the identity of the killer could not be determined.
On August 30, 1918, Lenin was about to step on the car after giving a speech to the workers at the mikhson factory on the outskirts of the capital Moscow.
A woman came forward to talk with him.
Lenin was answering her when three shots rang out.
The first shot hit Lenin on the left shoulder, the second shot hit his left chest and passed through his neck, and the third shot hit the woman talking to him.
Lenin immediately fell unconscious.
The position of the second bullet was so dangerous that the doctor could not remove it.
Although the bullet did not pierce the left lung, the situation was still urgent because the blood flowed into the lung.
The assassination had a serious impact on Lenin’s health.
At present, most historians believe that the blind female killer Fanny Kaplan is the murderer who shot Lenin.
She is a member of the social revolutionary party.
She was arrested shortly after the incident.
She admitted that she had assassinated Lenin and said it was entirely personal because Lenin was a “traitor to the revolution”.
Kaplan was shot and his body burned on September 3.
The second industrial revolution, which began in the late 19th and early 1970s, was basically completed.
The application of electric energy and the development of electric power industry are the central content of the second industrial revolution in the history of modern science.