Competing for maritime hegemony in the second half of the 16th century, British capitalist industry and commerce developed rapidly, and there was an urgent need to expand overseas trade and find new markets.

However, since the middle of the 16th century, Spain’s colonial sphere of influence has expanded to four continents: Europe, the United States, Africa and Asia.

Relying on its huge fleet, it monopolized trade in many regions, intervened in international affairs in Europe and dominated Europe.

It has become the main obstacle to Britain’s foreign expansion, and the contradiction between Britain and the West has become increasingly acute.

The contradiction became increasingly fierce: in the early days of Queen Elizabeth’s rule, the British navy was relatively weak and did not dare to compete openly with Spain.

It often used some adventurers called “seals” to carry out piracy and smuggling activities, so as to disrupt Spanish routes.

Hawkins Drake and others often hijack Spanish ships carrying gold and silver at sea and smuggle or trade slaves in America.

They shared the loot with the queen.

The queen gave them the title of admiral and decorated the crown with diamonds robbed by Drake.

In the 1980s, the struggle between Britain and Spain was carried out in an all-round way.

Britain supported the revolution in Netherland, a Spanish territory, in an attempt to weaken Spain.

Spain supported Catholic and separatist forces in Britain through diplomatic envoys and spies, trying to overthrow Elizabeth’s autocratic rule and help Queen Mary Stuart of Scotland to the throne.

Elizabeth ordered the public execution of Mary and other conspirators who had been imprisoned for 20 years.

The conflict between Britain and Spain has intensified, and armed conflict is inevitable.

Frequent maritime disputes: in 1588, Philip II of the West sent an “invincible fleet” including more than 100 warships to Britain.

The “invincible fleet” formed a crescent and sailed into the English channel to fight against Britain.

The fleet was commanded by the Duke of Medina Sidonia.

For the aggressive “invincible fleet”, the British fleet did not face the enemy, but let a few fast warships bypass the enemy ships and follow them, waiting for the opportunity to raid the enemy ships that fell behind and damaged their sails and oars.

On the night of August 7, 1588, the sky was dark and foggy, and a strong east wind blew from the sea.

The Spanish crew had fallen asleep.

The British lit six old ships, which were filled with inflammables and covered with tar.

Six fire dragons sped away to the Spanish fleet.

Suddenly, there was a sea of fire.

The “invincible fleet” was in chaos, and many ships were burned down.

On August 8, the two armies fought in the Northeast sea area of Calais port.

Spanish warships have a spectacular appearance, but they are not flexible.

They have become the target of concentrated bombardment by British warships.

The British warships acted briskly.

When they left the guns from a long distance, the fire was fierce and fierce.

Many ships of the “invincible fleet” were shot and caught fire one after another.

On the contrary, when the West ship fired at the British ship, it often failed to hit.

Because the British ship dodges flexibly in the distance and moves freely.

This long-range artillery battle prevented the infantry and heavy artillery of the Spanish fleet from playing their full role.

The fierce artillery battle lasted a whole day until both sides ran out of ammunition.

At this time, the “invincible fleet” was scattered.

Seeing that the general situation was gone and there was no hope of landing, the Duke of Western dongnia had to order the fleet to enter the North Sea, bypass the British islands and return to Spain.

In this expedition to Britain, the “unprovoked fleet” lost 63 warships, but the British Army didn’t even lose a ship.

Gradually take the steps of expansion: the sea battle between Britain and Spain continued until 1604, when Mary Stuart’s son, the king of Scotland, succeeded to the throne, known as James I.

He allied with Spain and the war was finally over.

Before the rise of the British navy, Spain had always been a maritime overlord, but in the end, the meter flag floated on the Atlantic Ocean, and Britain finally became an unprecedented maritime empire.

After defeating the invincible fleet of Spain, Britain began to expand foreign trade, actively penetrated and expanded into India and America, and successively established business stations in Surat, Gambia and Madras.

Sir Walter Raleigh, the British explorer, once said, “whoever controls the sea controls trade.

whoever controls world trade controls world wealth and therefore the world.

” This sentence has become a British motto.

The little knowledge empire with the sun never setting refers to the Empire in which the sun shines on some territories and the sun is still high on other territories.

It is usually used to describe a prosperous and powerful empire with colonies all over the world and hegemony at that time.

It is now used to describe imperialism on some occasions.

The term “sun never sets Empire” was first used to describe the Spanish Empire in the 16th century.

It comes from a statement of Spanish King Carlos I: “in my territory, the sun never sets.

” In the 19th century, this word was widely used as a nickname for the British Empire, especially in the Victorian era.

At that time, the world map published by Britain marked the British Empire in pink, vividly showing Britain’s global hegemony.

French Enlightenment in the 18th century, France produced an ideological liberation movement aimed at opposing the feudal autocratic system and its spiritual pillar Catholic reactionary forces, which is the enlightenment.

The Enlightenment was the prelude to the French Revolution.

It made full preparations for the revolution politically, ideologically and theoretically, provided spiritual weapons, and had a far-reaching impact in world history.

The background of the Enlightenment: the enlightenment came into being under the historical conditions of the crisis of the French feudal autocratic system and the emergence and development of capitalist relations.

In the 17th century, France was still a typical feudal autocratic country.

France’s autocratic system declined from its heyday during the reign of Louis XIV (1661-1715), Louis XV (1715-1774) and Louis XVI (1774-1791).

The enlightenment took place at this time.

The representative figures of the enlightenment include Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Diderot, hall, Elysee and civilian thinkers, such as melier, Morelli and Mabuli.

They are like brilliant stars, shining on the French sky and bringing light and hope to the French people.

The initiator of the Enlightenment was a rebellious Catholic priest Jean melier (1664-1729).

He was unknown before his death.

On his deathbed, he left three volumes of his masterpiece “suicide note”, which disclosed his thoughts that had been hidden for many years.

He firmly denied all religions and churches, sharply criticized Catholicism and autocratic system, and opened the way for the direction of the enlightenment.

He also predicted that there would be no exploitation, no oppression and no private propertyThe ideal society of production will come.

Voltaire: Voltaire (1694 ~ 1778) has been engaged in the ideological struggle against feudalism since the 1820s and has been active in the enlightenment for about 60 years.

He came from a wealthy bourgeois family in Paris.

He was discriminated against when he was a child in an aristocratic school, which planted the seeds of his resistance to feudal privileges.

Later, he was imprisoned in the Bastille twice for his works satirizing the autocratic system, and was deported in 1726 and exiled for most of his life.

Voltaire is an erudite and famous writer, holding high the banner of science and democracy.

He has written nearly 100 volumes of works.

His representative work is the dispatch communication published in 1734.

He exposed the evils of feudal autocracy and attacked the deception and preaching of the church.

He said that religion itself was a big lie, calling Catholicism “evil root” and the Pope “beast”.

Politically, he advocated the establishment of “enlightened monarchy” and the implementation of British constitutional monarchy.

Due to his long life, Voltaire experienced almost the whole process of the French Enlightenment.

No matter in terms of the long struggle time and the abundant number of works, or in terms of the wide scope of the struggle and the great ideological influence, Voltaire is an indisputable leader of the enlightenment and a respected leader of the enlightenment.

Montesquieu: Montesquieu (1689-1755) was born in a noble family.

He also inherited the title of Baron and the hereditary position of president of Bordeaux provincial court, but he was a rebel of the feudal class.

10 years of experience and long-term social investigation of the president of the court made him better understand the darkness of the feudal system.

He exposed the evils of the autocratic system, severely attacked the tyrant regime, and explored the law of its inevitable demise through his works such as the Persian letter, the reason for the rise and fall of Rome, and the spirit of law.

Rousseau: Rousseau, the representative of petty bourgeois thought, was more radical in the French Enlightenment (1712-1778).

His ancestral home is France.

He was born into a watchmaker family in Geneva.

Because of his poor family, Rousseau served as an apprentice and traveled all over the world, experiencing the darkness of feudal autocracy and human injustice.

His main works include on the origin and basis of human inequality, on social contract, Emil, etc.

He pointed out that the root of social inequality is private ownership.

After the emergence of private ownership, there were rich and poor, social inequality, and the corruption of all moral customs followed.

The state fixed this inequality with law.

He opposed the exploitation and oppression of the poor by the rich, but did not advocate the abolition of private ownership.

He only advocated balancing the rich and the poor and realizing small private ownership.

His main contribution is to put forward the theories of “social contract”, “sovereignty in the people” and the establishment of a Democratic Republic.

He believes that an ideal country should be a country formed by citizens in the form of contract.

Citizens are “sovereign” and everyone is free and equal.

The will of the people is the source of state power.

The expression and application of all power must reflect the will of the people.

If the ruler violates the will and sovereignty of the people, the people have the right to overthrow it.

His thought became the theoretical banner of the middle, middle and lower class of the third level, and once became the dominant revolutionary thought in the French Revolution, which was clearly reflected in the declaration of human rights and the policies during the Jacobin dictatorship.

Robespierre himself is a fanatical believer in Rousseau’s thought.

Many rising thinkers: at about the same time as Rousseau and others, a group of thinkers, such as Diderot (1713-1784), Holbach (1723-1789), Elsevier (1715-1771), once jointly compiled encyclopedia, so they were named encyclopedia school.

They used materialism as an ideological weapon to fight against feudal autocracy, Catholic Church and religious superstition.

The encyclopedia compiled under the auspices of Diderot is called the dictionary of detailed explanations of science, art and skills.

The Encyclopedia has 35 volumes.

It has been edited and published for 30 years and nearly 200 people have participated in the writing.

The vast majority of enlightenment scholars are gathered under the banner of encyclopedia, including famous enlightenment scholars Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau, as well as natural scientists dalambe and Buffon and Halle, writer bomacher and Physiocrat economists Quesnay and Durgo.

The core figures are several materialist philosophers led by Diderot, Their materialism and atheism laid a philosophical foundation for the encyclopedia.

The materialist view of encyclopedia school is the theoretical banner of the French Revolution and provides the basis for the declaration of human rights.

But their materialism is still mechanical materialism, and they fall into idealism when explaining social and historical phenomena.

Significance of the Enlightenment: in the 18th century, the French Enlightenment became the center of the whole European Enlightenment, and directly promoted and influenced the bourgeois democratic revolution in Europe and Beixiao.

In 1776, the British declaration of independence declared that all men are created equal, which came directly from the enlightenment thought.

The literary revolution led by Lessing,, Schiller in Germany and the philosophical revolution initiated by Kant, as well as the Russian, rajishev and the December party, were directly influenced by French Enlightenment thought.

They all claimed to be believers and students of French Enlightenment thinkers in the 18th century.

The slogans, ideas and principles put forward by the French Enlightenment also have a historical echo in China.

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the works of Enlightenment thinkers were introduced to China, which inspired and inspired more than one generation of people with lofty ideals who were concerned about the country and the people.

The reform and reform, Mr.

Xi’s thought and practice, the ideal of the revolution of 1911, and the praise of the May 4th New Culture Movement to science and the king of the people all reflect the profound influence of French Enlightenment thought.

Capture the Bastille in the east of Paris, France, there is a Bastille square.

200 years ago, the world-famous Bastille once stood here.

The symbol of the French autocratic Dynasty: the Bastille is 100 feet high and has a thick wall.

It has eight towers with 15 cannons on it.

Next to the cannons are hundreds of barrels of gunpowder and countless shells.

It looks down on the whole of Paris, like a giant beast lying on the ground.

Most of the famous figures who dared to oppose the feudal system were imprisoned here.

Therefore, the Bastille became the symbol of the French autocratic Dynasty.

The Bastille was also a very strong fortress.

It was built according to the order of French King Charles V and the style of a famous military castle in the 12th century.

At that time, its purpose was to defend the British attack, so it was built in front of the city.

Later, due to the continuous expansion of the urban area of Paris, the Bastille became a building in the east of the urban area,Lost the role of defending against foreign enemies.

At the end of the 18th century, it became the commanding height of the prison and prison in Paris.

Oppression and resistance: in May 1789, King Louis XVI held a “three-level conference” that had been suspended for 175 years in order to raise money, eat, drink and have fun.

French nationals are divided into three grades.

Monks are the first level, nobles are the second level, and all other people are classified as the third level.

Most of the representatives attending the “three-level meeting” were businessmen, bankers and lawyers.

They took the opportunity of the meeting to propose to limit the king’s power and turn the three-level meeting into the country’s highest legislature.

This is quite different from Louis XVI’s original intention.

The one who wanted the parliament to find ways to raise money has become an obstacle to limiting his power.

Louis XVI was so angry that he immediately dispatched the military and police to close the venue and prohibit parliament from meeting.

The king’s actions not only failed to suppress the resistance of the third level representatives, but ignited their long-standing anger.

Members of Parliament said that they must formulate a constitution representing the interests of all French people, or they will never stop.

The national assembly was renamed the “constituent assembly” and openly rebelled against the king.

This made Louis XVI furious.

He secretly mobilized a large number of troops to Paris to arrest the third level representatives and dissolve the national assembly by force.

After the news came out, the people in Paris were very angry and marched on the streets one after another.

When the procession was marching, it was suddenly brutally suppressed by the king’s Dragon cavalry.

On the early morning of July 13, all churches in Paris sounded the alarm bell.

People in Paris took to the streets to attack the army and occupied the arsenal with all kinds of crude weapons.

Late at night, most parts of Paris were under the control of the insurgents.

Taking advantage of the momentum of the uprising, the representatives of the electors’ meeting of the original three-level meeting forced the former Paris municipal government to form a new municipal body with them – the Standing Committee, and decided to establish a national self-defense Army composed of 12000 people.

On July 14, the uprising crowd surrounded the Bastille, a symbol of feudal autocratic rule.

The Bastille is located at the exit of St.

Anton’s working area.

There are a large number of political prisoners inside, and the cannon erected on the prison tower is aimed at the urban area.

When the crowd found a group of dragon cavalry quietly entering the Bastille, they began to attack.

The guards in the prison resisted tenaciously, arousing greater anger among the insurgents.

After four hours of fierce fighting, the Bastille prison was occupied.

So far, the insurgents controlled the whole urban area of Paris.

The fall of the Bastille: on July 15, Bai was elected mayor of Paris.

Lafayette, a liberal aristocrat who participated in the North American War of independence, became the commander of the “national self defense army”.

Louis XVI was forced to disband his parliament after he saw that his conspiracy had been completely dissolved.

The fall of the Bastille marks the beginning of the French bourgeois revolution.

In order to commemorate this glorious day, the French people regard July 14 as France’s national day.

After the news of the Paris uprising came out, people everywhere responded one after another.

On August 10, 1792, the people of Paris occupied the Royal Palace, abolished kingship and established the French Republic.

Defeated in Waterloo in early 1815, the exiled in Elba Island learned that the anti French Alliance had a dispute due to uneven distribution of stolen goods at the Vienna conference.

Unwilling to fail, Napoleon took the opportunity to lead the old boat to avoid the Bourbon Royal warship monitoring Elba Island.

After three days and three nights of navigation, he successfully landed in the bay of Rouen in southern France.

Both sides actively prepared for war: local soldiers cheered when they saw Napoleon and followed him into Paris.

The Bourbon Dynasty quickly sent blocking troops, but because most of the generals were Napoleon’s old headquarters, they were attached one after another.

Napoleon entered Paris without firing a shot.

Louis XVIII, the restored king, saw that the situation was over and fled in a hurry.

Napoleon regained the throne.

The heads of state of the anti French Alliance who were meeting in Vienna were shocked.

They immediately stopped quarreling and quickly formed the seventh anti French Alliance.

They gathered 700000 heavy troops and prepared to attack Paris separately.

Field marshal Wellington of England marched from the north to France, and a Prussian army under the command of field marshal brucher of Prussia, as his reinforcements, moved in the other direction.

Schwarzenberg of Austria is ready to go on the Rhine River.

The Russian mission, as a reserve force, is slowly passing through Germany with all its luggage.

The coalition agreed to start operations around June 20.

For the French army, Napoleon is also stepping up preparations for the war.

By early June, 180000 people had gathered under the eagle flag.

He hopes that 500000 people will go to battle by the end of June.

However, Napoleon regretted that the veteran who had rich combat experience in the past was no longer willing to play for Napoleon, which was very unfavorable to the French army.

At this time, the general army defeated by Napoleon regrouped, reinforced the British army near Waterloo all the way, and directly besieged the French army all the way.

Wellington also set up an array south of Waterloo to wait for the decisive moment.

Napoleon abdicated: on the morning of June 18, the French army fired first and shot at the fortress with weak right-wing forces of the British army.

When Napoleon was ready to attack the middle of the British army, the situation suddenly changed.

Blucher led the general army to reinforce, forcing Napoleon to draw two cavalry divisions from the reserve to meet Blucher.

In the afternoon of the war, Napoleon ordered field marshal ney to conquer the middle of the British army at all costs.

Ney was worthy of “the warrior among the Warriors” and Napoleon’s entrustment.

At this time, the British army was unable to support, the French army was also exhausted, and both sides were anxiously waiting for the arrival of reinforcements.

At dusk, a large group of people finally galloped from a distance.

Both sides were praying to God: it was their own people! Finally, the army approached, and both sides could see very clearly that the Prussian flag was flying high! Suddenly, the morale of the British army was high and excited.

Wellington immediately ordered the troops to make a final counterattack.

The Anglo Prussian coalition army was boiling with blood and frantically rushed to the weak French army.

Napoleon was defeated by the enemy, and fled the battlefield by horse and left in a panic.

Napoleon was defeated in Paris, and millions of anti French coalition forces also marched into Paris.

Napoleon announced his abdication for the first time and was exiled to St.

Helena, which is located in the south of the Atlantic Ocean and far from the European continent.

“Back” to France: this talented military strategist, the monarch of a generation who once rode his horse, is now in prison.

He lives under the care of the British every day and can only wait for death silently on this forgotten island.

To get rid of lonelinessIn the quiet and boring time, he can only play games with the little girl and trim flowers and trees with the gardener.

The psychological destruction and the pathological changes in his stomach made Napoleon’s health worse, but he refused to take the medicine prescribed by the British doctor until he died.

19 years later, Napoleon’s remains were taken back to France, and countless people braved the severe cold, wind and snow to escort the coffin to the military academy on the Bank of the Seine River.

Napoleon’s last wish was realized at this time.

As a veteran, he rested on the Bank of seine cave and in his beloved France.

Little knowledge Napoleon’s outstanding talent Napoleon has excellent military command ability.

In the 23 years from the battle of Toulon to the battle of Waterloo, he commanded countless battles, and most of them won.

Although his war had an aggressive side and aroused strong resistance from the people of the invaded countries, it also dealt a blow to the feudal forces in Europe.

The many campaigns it commanded are still of great significance in military history today.

At the same time, Napoleon is also quite studious.

He is an academician of the French Academy of Sciences.

He was very interested in mathematics.

In mathematics, he proved the “Napoleon triangle”.

Lexington’s gunfire on April 19, 1775, Lexington’s gunfire opened the prelude to the American War of independence.

Victory in the first battle: after the closing of the first Continental Congress, the people of Massachusetts took action immediately.

When General Thomas gage and his British troops took control of Boston, the Massachusetts Parliament was reorganized into a local assembly, and a security committee headed by John Hancock was appointed to hold a meeting in Concord, 32 kilometers away from Boston, to formulate a resistance plan and seize the opportunity to store guns and ammunition.

When gage got the news, he immediately ordered major Smith to search.

The British army marched forward in the mist before dawn.

After a night’s March, they were all sleepy and yawning.

Suddenly, they found dozens of villagers standing on the grass outside the village, all with long guns in hand.

Smith knew that these villagers were Lexington’s militia, and people called them “one minute people”.

Because they move very quickly, they can assemble in a minute as soon as they hear the alarm.

Smith was surprised to see that the other party was ready.

He thought the British army was very cautious.

But since he hit, Smith ordered to shoot.

After all, the other party had only a dozen people, so it was impossible to intercept his 800 person team.

The British Army immediately exchanged fire with the militia in Lexington.

Because of the small number of people, the militia quickly withdrew from the battlefield and dispersed and hid after firing a few shots.

Smith was very proud of his victory in the first battle and directed his soldiers straight to Concord.

When the British army arrived in the town, it was already daybreak, but there was no one in the street and every family was closed.

Smith ordered the search.

The British army went into the houses and rummaged through the boxes, but found nothing.

It turned out that the militia had already transferred the warehouse, and the leaders of the “communication committee” were also hidden.

The gunshot rang out: Smith felt that the situation was not good and quickly ordered to retreat.

At this time, there was a sudden roar of killing and gunfire outside the town.

The militia in nearby villages and towns had received the news and rushed to Concord from all directions to surround the British army that was about to retreat.

The militia ambushed behind the fence, in the bushes, on the top of the house and at the corner of the street and kept shooting at the British army.

The British army could not see their opponents, but fell to the ground one after another.

On the way back to botton, they were constantly attacked by the militia.

The British Army swept away its former prestige and fled in a panic.

247 British troops were killed and injured in Lexington, and the rest fled back to Boston.

Lexington’s gunfire shook 13 British colonies along the Atlantic coast, and the American War of independence began.

After the outbreak of the war of independence, representatives of 13 British colonies in North America quickly held a “Continental conference” in Philadelphia, elected as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and officially declared war with Britain.

At this time, the militia in botton was still fighting with the British army.

Washington immediately set out on horseback to direct the battle in person, which dealt a serious blow to the British army.

At this time, the US military fought very hard.

Most of them were farmers recruited temporarily.

They had no military uniforms, lacked weapons, and had no formal military training.

They could not be called the army at all.

On the other hand, the logistical supply of the US military is also extremely difficult.

Soldiers sometimes can’t eat bread for five or six days, so they have to eat horse material and have to March barefoot in the cold winter.

On the contrary, their opponent, the British army, was well-equipped, well-trained and provided with sufficient logistics.

Under such circumstances, the US military lost again and again, and New York and other cities fell one after another.

Saratoga victory: Washington turned the tide when some people’s will wavered.

He tried to unite and connect the States and fight together.

On July 4, 1776, the declaration of independence was issued, which added new impetus to the war of independence.

In June 1777, bogoying’s troops first set out from Canada, captured tikangdeloga in July, and then continued to move forward.

However, when the team arrived 32 kilometers away from the Hudson River, it was subjected to a series of attacks by nearby U.S. forces, so that the action was restrained.

As a result, it took British forces three weeks to capture Fort Edward.

However, at this time, the British army had another problem in supply, so bogoying sent troops to loot nearby.

At the call of American officer John stark, local farmers rose up one after another to resist, which embarrassed the British army. St. Leger’s team set out late.

When it entered near the mowak River, it was unable to move forward under the sniper of local residents, so the column had to return to Canada.

Clinton finally led the troops when the bergoyen team had no way to do anything in the area of Fort Edward due to insufficient supply and St.

Leger was constantly beaten along the mowak river.

Before his team reached 96 kilometers from Albany, the British troops retreated to Saratoga.

When the British army arrived in Saratoga and had time to camp in the future, the farmers of New England rushed to Saratoga from all directions with weapons, which surrounded the British army.

Armed peasants gathered more and more, four times as many as the British army.

The British army had no way to go, so they had to bow down on October 17, 1777.

The number of British troops who surrendered was 5000.

After promising not to take up arms again, they were released to their own country.

The British Army changed its strategy: the Saratoga victory of the US Army reversed the whole situation of the war of independence in one fell swoop.

With thisContinuous efforts are a major reason for the generation and growth of national wealth.

” Smith analyzed people from the theory of human nature and believed that people as “economic people” achieved altruistic results from egoism.

There is an internal order in human society.

Economic life moves spontaneously according to this order, which is the policy of free development.

He strongly advocated limiting the role of the state in interfering in the economy, and believed that the role of the state should be limited to maintaining national security and personal competition, and organizing some unprofitable projects of capitalists.

The obligation of the state power is to ensure that the bourgeoisie has an environment for peaceful and safe economic activities and play the role of a bourgeois “night watchman”.

If the government wants to spend, it must have income.

The main source of income is tax.

Smith puts forward four principles that tax should follow: fairness, stability, convenience and economy.

These principles have been playing a great role in finance in the future.

In January 1778, due to the recommendation of the Duke of buckler, Adam Smith was appointed by Prime Minister north as Commissioner of Scottish customs and Commissioner of Scottish salt tax.

In his first year in office, he used the practical knowledge gained as Commissioner of customs and salt tax to supplement and revise the part on public affairs in the wealth of nations, and published the second edition of the book.

In 1784, Smith discussed in more detail the fishery reward system in Scotland, franchised and non franchised companies and the East India Company, and published the third edition of the wealth of nations.

In 1786, Adam Smith added “Introduction and Book Design” to the wealth of nations and published the fourth edition of the book, which was the last edition of the wealth of nations reviewed by Smith before his birth.

On July 17, 1790, Smith died in Edinburgh.

The birth of capital after the failure of the European Revolution in 1848, Marx and Engels came to Paris.

They seriously summarized the experience and lessons of the failure of the revolution, and realized that to establish the proletarian regime, we must break the old state machinery and establish the proletarian led worker peasant alliance.

This is of great significance for guiding the future workers’ movement.

Stateless “world citizen”: because Marx led the workers’ movement, he also became an “unwelcome person” in Paris.

In the late summer of 1849, Marx received the order of “deportation” for the fourth time.

Previously, the Prussian government, the Belgian government and the French government all expelled him.

To this end, Marx angrily withdrew from Prussian Nationality: to be a stateless “world citizen”.

Marx lived in 45 rue lilies in Paris.

On this day, several policemen were ordered to read out the expulsion order to him, which was just worse for Marx at that time.

This is not because France does not welcome him, but because he is in a “financial crisis” at this time.

All his family’s savings have been used as revolutionary funds.

Even the furniture has long been sold, and the only set of silver tableware has been sent to the pawnshop.

Moreover, his wife Yanni was about to give birth and was driven away at this time.

It was difficult to imagine.

However, since we are not accepted, we have to run to another country.

Marx took his family, sold all his daily necessities and came to the famous fog capital London.

Before coming to England, the Marx family was empty handed.

When they arrived in London, they were still penniless.

So again and again, they were forced to move their family because they couldn’t afford to pay the rent.

In December of that year, Marx received a reading card from the British Museum.

From then on, the reading room has become half of his home.

He works from 9 a.m. to about 8 p.m. every day.

When he returns home, he has to sort out the notes recorded in the reading materials.

Generally, he doesn’t rest until two or three o’clock at night.

He once told others that I had to work 16 hours myself in order to win 8 hours a day for the workers.

Preparing for Das Kapital: so what did Marx do in the London museum? It turned out that he was seriously writing capital, a masterpiece exposing the evils of capitalism.

He extracts a lot of materials every day to prepare for the writing of Das Kapital.

In fact, as early as 1843, Marx began to study political economics.

But at this time, he focused on the book.

According to statistics, among the books collected in the world-class London museum, Marx has read more than 1500 kinds of books, and he has collected more than 100 contents and notes.

In order to better complete Das Kapital, he widely collected data on various disciplines, such as agronomy, technology, anatomy, let alone history, economics and law.

In short, as long as it is related to capital, no matter how difficult it is, he will continue to look for and study, and even read the “blue book” one by one.

“Blue book” is a report material specially issued by the British Parliament to members of Parliament.

Because its cover is blue, it is called blue book.

The blue book of the British Parliament will be distributed to members of Parliament at a certain time.

For members of Parliament, this book is not very useful, so it is actually waste paper one after another.

Such pamphlets can often be seen in the pile of waste paper.

But for Marx, the situation is completely different.

Because he wants to study the essence of capitalist exploitation of workers from the perspective of political economy, these official materials are precious.

It records the economic reports and economic policies of Britain every year and at every stage, so it is the first-hand data for the study of capitalist economy.

Marx read it very carefully and excerpted the important materials from time to time.

Publication of capital: in October 1856, Marx moved to Kentish, northwest of London, which was further away from the London museum.

But Marx did not stop working.

He still worked in the museum day and night.

Finally, in 1867, the first volume of capital was published.

Marx held the newly published book tightly with great excitement.

The publication of Das Kapital is an important event in the history of the international communist movement.

It ushered in a new course of struggle of the proletariat.

In this book, through a large number of facts, Marx analyzed the development history of capitalism in detail and deeply, exposed the “secret” of the rapid development of capitalism, exposed the ugly essence of the cruel exploitation of the working class by capitalism, and pointed out thatThe Congress established the “International Workers’ Association”, namely “first international”, and elected its leading body, the Central Committee, which was later renamed as the “general committee”.

Marx was elected as a member of the general committee and served as the communication Secretary of Germany.

The General Assembly entrusted Marx to draft the program and articles of association.

Before drafting, there was still a lot of trouble.

Originally, the General Assembly decided to draft the program and articles of association under the leadership of the general committee, but Marx was unable to participate because of his illness, which led to serious differences among representatives of various countries.

When drafting the program, the British representative put the improvement of the status of workers in the first place and asked the working class to fight for economic interests, while the Italian representative asked to take the constitution of the Italian workers’ Association as the constitution of the first international, and even proposed to establish a “European working class central government” with Italians as the first, which was obviously biased towards Italian workers, It will cause discord and even division in the first international.

Whether it is the representatives of Britain or Italy, the questions they raised revolve around economic interests, and do not involve the political status urgently required by the working class.

The political interests of workers are the most fundamental interests.

With political status as a guarantee, all other problems can be solved.

Seeing so many different opinions, the German representative wrote to tell Marx the situation.

After receiving the letter, Marx immediately realized that this would lead to serious problems and deviate from the essence and significance of the establishment of the first international.

Therefore, on October 18, Marx came to the meeting with illness.

After a long and heated debate, the general committee made a final decision on October 20, and Marx was responsible for making specific amendments to the document.

Therefore, despite his illness, Marx reviewed and revised all the documents seriously.

After seven days and nights of hard work, Marx submitted the revised document to the General Committee on October 28.

There are two documents: the founding declaration of the first international and the common constitution of the first international.

At the subsequent plenary meeting, the general committee unanimously adopted Marx’s Revised Declaration of establishment and the articles of association.

The founding declaration is the programmatic document of the first international.

It is very clear about the requirements of the International Workers’ movement.

It says: “seizing power has become the great mission of the working class.

” The international working class should unite and form a strong team.

Only in this way can we finally defeat the bourgeoisie.

Only by uniting around their own organizations can the working class promote the development of the International Workers’ movement and win their own liberation.

After the first international was founded, it immediately organized workers from all countries to carry out the movement, which set off the climax of the International Workers’ movement.

Such as the great strike of British tailors in 1866, the great strike of French bronze workers in 1867 and the great strike of construction workers in Geneva in 1868.

These struggles have won with the strong support of the first international.

First, while supporting workers of all countries in opposing the bourgeoisie of all countries and striving for their due rights and interests, the international community is also fighting tenaciously against all kinds of opportunists.

These struggles mainly include the struggle against prudence and bakuninism.

Prudongism: the representative of prudongism is prudongism, which is a typical representative of anarchists.

He advocates abolishing the state and political parties to realize the absolute freedom of individuals without any constraints.

This idea is clear.

It requires all people in the world to do whatever they want.

This proposition is clearly making trouble and will not work at all.

However, it is true that radishes and cabbage have their own love.

This kind of anarchist thought has many believers in France, Spain, Italy and other countries, and many people are waving flags and shouting for it.

Originally, prudon made trouble all over the world without forming any climate.

However, he actually found the first international to make trouble, which makes the leaders of the first international can’t turn a blind eye.

In the autumn of 1864, prudon took advantage of people’s unprepared to join the first international, and he died in January 1865.

Although he died, many of his followers have sneaked into the first international, and have formed a large force to make trouble everywhere.

Sometimes they also try to seize the power of the first international and change the nature of the first international with their anarchic ideas.

For example, in September 1865, the first international representative conference was held in London.

At the beginning of the conference, many people violated the program of the first international.

For example, the first International wanted to organize workers’ struggle.

They said that it was not necessary! Each country has its own situation, which can not be guided, let alone organized, etc.

First, the international community should assist Polish workers to oppose the rule of the Russian czar.

They said that it was the Polish workers’ own business.

First, the international community did not need to put this small matter on the agenda.

Members of the general committee of the first international and other representatives of the first international wondered why these people specifically opposed the opinions of most representatives? After investigation, the members learned that these people were all sent by the first international branch of France and they were all prudongists.

Recognizing their identity and purpose, Marx sharply refuted them.

Marx pointed out that the struggle of the working class everywhere is part of the first international general action.

First, the international program points out the necessity of political struggle.

Without political struggle, the complete liberation of the oppressed proletariat cannot be won.

Political struggle is the main task of first international.

In the future, we should still fully support the political struggle of workers in all countries.

As for the struggle to assist Polish workers.

In fact, it is also part of the main task of the first international to strive for national liberation.

The first international is to oppose the autocratic government, oppose the exploitation system, advocate the complete liberation of the oppressed, and realize the Great Harmony World of equality for all.

After struggle, the Congress unanimously adopted a resolution supporting Polish workers.

The prudongists failed.

But like all losers, the prudongists were not reconciled to their failure.

They raised another absurd question at the meeting.

They said that the first international organization is the workers’ organization.

Therefore, all manual workers should participate, and mental workers should not be absorbed.

The purpose of what they say is to crowd out Marx, Engels and others, because they are all intellectuals.

Marx denounced this thought and pointed out that excluding all intellectuals is not to use knowledge as guidance, the workers’ movement will become reckless, and the result can only be failure.

With the support of all the delegates, the prudongists were tongue tied and had nothing to say.

Many of them slipped away in frustration, and many others left the prudongist camp and came to the first international side.

Bakuninism: the second struggle launched by the first international is the struggle against bakuninism.

Bakunin was also an anarchist.

He had participated in the Austrian revolution in 1848, but after his arrest, he wrote to the Russian czar three times and begged the government for forgiveness.

Later, he fled to England.

When I joined first international, I hid this glorious history.

In October 1868, Bakunin organized a “socialist democratic alliance” in Geneva behind the first international to publicize anarchist ideas such as “Abolishing the state”, “class equality” and “advocating absolute personal freedom”.

He also sent people to Italy, Spain and France to establish branches.

Bakunin’s purpose is to create a strong momentum, improve his prestige and finally seize the leadership of the first international.

In December 1868, he also wrote a letter to Marx, saying a lot of compliments to Marx, and hoped that Marx would accept all members of his “socialist democratic alliance” and collectively join the first international.

After receiving the letter, Marx immediately realized Bakunin’s sinister intentions, so he wrote a reply to Bakunin on behalf of the first international general committee, telling him that the first international itself is an international organization, and there can be no more international organization inside it.

Rejected Bakunin’s unreasonable request.

Bakunin verbally agreed and “dissolved” the “socialist democratic alliance”, but he ordered his confidants to join the first international in their personal capacity in an attempt to wait for an opportunity to make trouble.

The opportunity finally came.

In 1869, when the first International Congress was held in Basel, Bakunin elements forged many documents, pretended to be representatives, tried to obtain a majority of votes and squeeze out Marx and the main members of the general committee.

After Marx found out, he immediately reprimanded them and exposed their conspiracy.

In this way, bakuninism’s trouble making ended in failure.

First, the international community has grown stronger and stronger in the struggle.

It has more effectively United workers of all countries and supported the struggle of the proletariat of all countries.

It has played a great role in the labor movements of all countries in the world.

The highest authority of the first international is the National Association Congress.

When the general assembly is not in session, a representative of the General Assembly shall be elected and strictly implement the basic principles of the general assembly.

The general committee has a chairman (abolished by Marx in 1867), a general secretary and a communication secretary.

There is a core organization in the general committee: the Standing Committee, also known as the sub committee, which is composed of the chairman, the general secretary and the communication secretaries of all countries.

The Central Committee of each country is called the joint committee, which consists of branches, branches or groups.

In every country, the international community relies on existing workers’ organizations: political parties, trade unions, workers’ education associations, mutual aid associations, cooperatives and newly established branches.

After the American Civil War and the war of independence in the 18th century, the United States established a federal system, which was jointly ruled by the bourgeoisie and plantation slave owners.

However, the north and the South still have their own ways.

The south of the United States developed black slavery on the basis of plantation economy, while the North developed capitalist free employment system.

By the middle of the 19th century, the contradiction between the two opposing economic systems had developed to an irreconcilable level, so the civil war broke out between the north and the south, which was called the “civil war” in history.

Social background of the Civil War: the United States was originally a British North American colony.

The anti British struggle broke out in 1775 and declared independence from Britain the next year.

In such a young country, civil war broke out less than 100 years after independence.

Although there are many reasons, including political, economic and ideological culture, in the final analysis, it lies in the differences between the different economic systems of the north and the south, as well as the resulting social and political conflicts.

Long before the independence of the United States, the economy of British North American colonies contained two opposing elements of capitalism and slavery.

Just because the capitalist economy is still in its infancy, the contradiction with slavery is covered up by the national contradiction with Britain, which is not so sharp.

After the war of independence, a government in which the bourgeoisie and slave planters jointly took power was established.

The northeast region with relatively developed capitalist economic components has gradually established capitalist relations of production, the newly developed western region has also built farms operated in a capitalist way, and the southern region has maintained the Slave Plantation economic system, which makes the American economy develop in two different directions at the same time.

After entering the 19th century, with the continuous expansion of American territory and the continuous development of capitalist economy, the contradiction between the bourgeoisie and slave owners has become increasingly acute, which is mainly reflected in the competition for new territories.

Competition for land: one of the characteristics of slave plantation economy is the plundering and management of land, which makes the fertile land become barren and barren in a short time.

In order to maintain and expand the slave economy, slave owners needed to expand their land.

In 1803, the U.S. government acquired the French Louisiana region by purchase.

Starting from the Mississippi River in the East, the Rocky Mountains in the west, the Gulf of Mexico in the South and Canada in the north, this vast land has become the object of contention between the bourgeoisie and slave owners.

In 1819, Missouri applied to join the union, which caused an internal debate in the United States Congress.

The representatives of the bourgeoisie demanded that it implement the capitalist system, while the representatives of slave owners wanted to promote slavery there.

In 1820, the two sides reached a compromise: Missouri joined the union as a slave state, and at the same time, set aside a place from Massachusetts to establish a new state, now Maine, to join the union as a free state, with slavery permanently banned north of latitude 36 ° 30 ‘.

This is the main content of the famous Missouri Compromise in history.

Because it actually expanded the area where slavery was practiced, and politically enabled the bourgeoisie to maintain a balance with the forces of slave owners in Congress, the contradiction was eased temporarily.

From 1846 to 1848, the United States plundered more than 540000 square miles of land from Mexico through the war of aggression.

In 1853, it obtained 446000 square meters from Mexico by purchaseMiles of land.

Now all of California, Nevada, Utah and Arizona and part of Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico are built on the land acquired in these two times.

The acquisition of new land caused the struggle between the bourgeoisie and slave owners.

In the early days of the war of aggression against Mexico, when the US Congress discussed the war Appropriation Bill, Wilmot, a Democrat, proposed an additional clause not to implement slavery on the land obtained from Mexico, which was strongly opposed by the representatives of slave owners.

The representatives of slave owners proposed to implement slavery in this area, which was also resolutely rejected by the representatives of the bourgeoisie.

Later, although a compromise plan emerged, the fundamental contradiction between the two sides was not resolved.

Economic plunder: in the economic aspect, the bourgeoisie advocated the implementation of high tariffs in order to protect the development of their own economy and strengthen the competitiveness of European goods.

Slave owners wanted cheap industrial products, so they asked for low tariffs on the import of industrial products.

The two sides fought over the tariff issue.

As a result, the forces of slave owners gradually took advantage.

The import tax rate decreased from 44% in 1828 to 20% in 1858 and then to 19% the next year.

Another issue closely linked to the tariff issue is the market issue.

In order to protect the domestic market of European products, we should try our best to open up the tariff and capital market in the north.

The slave plantation economy kept consumption to a minimum, hindering the unification and expansion of the domestic market.

At the same time, the coexistence of capitalist economy and slave plantation economy has caused extensive social contradictions.

The plantation uses slaves for production.

All slaves are black or black-and-white.

They are not only subjected to cruel economic exploitation, but also subjected to heavy political oppression, without personal freedom and any political rights.

Slave owners can punish or kill slaves at will without legal sanction.

Slaves can be bought and sold as the property of their owners.

In order to help black slaves escape from the clutches of slave owners, white ordinary workers, free blacks and bourgeois progressives jointly formed an “underground railway” to secretly transport fugitive slaves to help slaves escape to the north or Canada for freedom.

It is estimated that in the 30 years from 1830 to 1860, more than 60000 slaves were freed by the subway.

Tubman, a former slave who fled to the north in 1849, is an active figure on the subway.

In eight years, she went south alone 19 times and guided 300 slaves to freedom.

Therefore, she is known as “Moses” – savior by black slaves.

Elected: in November 1860, Lincoln, a Republican known for calling for the maintenance of federal unity and opposing the expansion of slavery, was elected the 16th president of the United States.

Lincoln’s election caused great panic among the slave owners in the south.

They decided to create division and rebel before Lincoln officially took office, so as to maintain the slavery system by war.

In December 1860, South Carolina first attacked and withdrew from the union, and then six slave states such as Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana and Texas also seceded from the union one after another.

In February 1861, representatives of the seven states that withdrew from the Union held a Congress in the city of Alabama, announcing the establishment of the “alliance of American States”, that is, the “Southern Alliance”, and elected Davis, the slave owner of the big plantation, as president.

Since then, slave states such as Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee have also withdrawn from the union, and the “Southern Alliance” reached 11 states, with Richmond, Virginia as the capital.

Plantation slave owners openly raised the banner of rebellion.

At first, Lincoln tried to reconcile with the plantation slave owner.

In his inaugural address on March 4, 1861, Lincoln stressed that it was not allowed to split the union.

On the other hand, he assured the north and the south that his government would not directly intervene in the current slavery by administrative means.

However, the rebels in the South were unwilling to make any compromise and were determined to consolidate and expand slavery with war.

War broke out: on April 12, 1861, the “Southern Alliance” first shelled and occupied Fort Sumter in Charleston port, openly provoking a civil war.

On April 15, Lincoln was forced to declare the southern states as rebel states, ordered the conscription of 75000 volunteers, and called on the people to fight for the restoration of federal unity.

The people responded one after another, and local trade unions actively mobilized workers to participate in the struggle against slave owners in the south.

The Philadelphia trade union also passed a resolution vowing to fight the southern slave owners to the end.

They immediately organized their own workers’ company and rushed to the front.

The federal army quickly organized a team of more than 300000 people.

At that time, in terms of the power comparison between the north and the south, the north had an absolute advantage.

22 northern states have a population of 22 million.

The population of the 11 Southern States is only 9 million, including 3.

83 million black slaves.

In terms of economy, the North accounts for 75% of the national GDP and 70% of the national railways, which is the material basis for the victory of the civil war in the north.

Although the advantage lies in the north, the military initiative in the first stage of the civil war is in the hands of the south.

In July 1861, the armies of the north and the South launched the first general battle since the beginning of the civil war in Manassas City, 40 kilometers away from the capital Washington.

30000 federal troops were commanded by general McClellan against the Confederate forces in the south.

The Confederate forces were defeated, and the Confederate forces took advantage of the situation to kill Washington.

The reasons for this situation are: first, the north is not prepared for war, while the South has already made careful preparations.

Second, after the outbreak of the civil war, Lincoln regarded the restoration of federal unity as the only purpose of the civil war, did not touch the existing slavery, and even refused to recruit and organize black teams in the army.

In January 1862, Lincoln issued the first battle order to attack the south.

On the western front, general grant led the Union army all the way south along the Mississippi River.

General Butler led another federal army to attack New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi River from the sea.

In May, the two armies met in New Orleans.

However, on the eastern front, from June 26 to July 2, the battle of Richmond fell.

General McClellan of the federal army and Robert Lee of the South fought hard for seven days.

The northern army was defeated miserably.

The federal army had to retreat to Washington and New Orleans fell into the hands of the rebels.

The repeated failures of the federal army aroused the strong dissatisfaction of the people.

The North fell into a storm.

People accused Lincoln and the northern federal government one after another.

The defeat of the front line and the upsurge of the mass movement promoted the Lincoln government to give up the policy of not talking about the liberation of black slaves.

Publication of the Declaration on the liberation of black slaves: September 2, 1862.