Mathematics – the inventors of the sixties, the Babylonians of Cuba, have made great achievements and contributions in mathematics.

The calculation beads show the Babylonians’ high level of calculation ability on the oldest Babylonian clay tablets: the 10 brothers share 53 Mina of silver (Mina and the later secer are Babylonian weight units, of which 1 Mina = 60 secer), and the difference between the silver shared by the two adjacent brothers, such as the eldest and the second, the second and the third, is equal, And the silver of the old eight cents is 60 shekels.

Ask for the amount of silver each person gets.

It can be seen from this example that the Babylonians already knew the concept of “equal difference sequence”, which shows that mathematics at that time had developed to a very great stage.

Sumerians are the only inventors of the sixty digit system in the world.

The ancient Egyptians used the decimal system.

In primitive times, people counted numbers with their fingers.

When they counted to ten, they had to count again.

It was natural to produce the decimal method.

Imaginative Mesopotamians skillfully combined five fingers with the number of 12 months of the year when calculating numbers.

5 times 12 equals 60, resulting in the sixty digit system.

A circle is divided into 360 degrees, an hour is divided into 60 minutes, and a minute is divided into 60 seconds.

These units of calculation are still used today and have become the basis for the development of mathematics.

The clever Babylonians combined the decimal system with the hexadecimal system to count.

They only need three symbols to count.

One is 1, one is 10 and one is 100.

Although this counting method is sometimes based on decimal system and sometimes based on sixty carry system, which often leads to confusion, the Babylonians determined different quantities according to the position relationship between the same digital symbol and other digital symbols, so the concept of digital bit value came into being.

This is a great contribution in the history of mathematics, even comparable to the invention of letters.

On the reverse side of a cuneiform tablet in early 2000 BC, there are geometric exercises on it.

Before 2500 BC, Sumerians had mastered the calculation method of four arithmetic problems and formulated multiplication table, square table and cubic table.

Due to the frequent measurement of land, the Babylonians also had a certain knowledge of geometry.

They would divide irregular fields into different rectangles, triangles and trapezoids to calculate the area.

They also mastered the Pythagorean theorem and found that the ratio of circumference to diameter was 3.

In algebra, they can solve the equations of three unknowns.

In addition, due to the needs of trade, the Babylonians also formulated units of calculation for weight, length, area, volume, currency, etc.

It is no exaggeration to say that the ancient Babylonians were the most accomplished mathematicians.

Babylonian geometry also made amazing achievements.

Fragments of clay tablets used for geometric practice in 2000 BC have been found in clay tablets unearthed from the library of shubaniba in Nineveh.

The greatest contribution of Babylonians in geometry was to divide the circumference into 360 equal parts, which is still used today.

In addition, they may also understand the principle of triangle similarity and calculate the area of regular polygons and their ratio to side length.

Astronomy – the beginning of the month and week.

The Babylonians had more advanced and accurate knowledge of astronomy than the ancient Egyptians.

As early as 4000 years ago, the residents of the ancient two river basins were able to distinguish between stars and planets, and left a wedge-shaped clay version of astronomy to observe the movement of Venus, Mars and Jupiter.

The Babylonians widely applied their rich mathematical knowledge to astronomy.

The accuracy of Babylonian astronomy reached an unparalleled level in ancient times and was dubbed “mathematical astronomy”.

With the development of agriculture, the division of seasons is becoming more and more important, so it is very necessary to establish an accurate timing system through systematic astronomical observation.

In this way, astronomical observation has two purposes: timing and predicting the future world.

Sumerians divided the course of the sun in the sky into 12 houses.

The constellations of each house were named after the mythical gods or animals.

Their astronomy has laid the foundation for today’s universal timing system, and the division and naming of stars and skies have been going along until now.

Around 4700 BC, their lunar calendar was about 500 years earlier than the earliest calendar in Egypt.

The lunar calendar is divided into one year and 12 months, with 30 days per month, with time difference and leap.

The Sumerians also invented the sundial during astronomical observation, and the water clock was used for timing.

As early as the Sumerian Akkad period, the concept of East, South, West and North had long existed here.

People divided the starry sky into constellations, formed the concept of ecliptic through the observation of the track of the sun’s movement, and found five planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn.

During the Babylonian Empire, the zodiac was divided into 12 palaces.

Divide one day into 12:00, one hour into 60 minutes and one minute into 60 seconds.

Divide 1 week into 360 degrees, 1 degree into 60 minutes and 1 minute into 60 seconds.

Many of these creations have basically been inherited by future generations.

In the Babylonian kingdom of Cuba, the calendar was simply set as 360 days and 12 months.

This primitive calendar is very crude.

First, it is set at 30 days per month, which is inconsistent with some new moon cycles.

However, it is set at 360 days per year, which is also inconsistent with the actual length of the year of return.

Therefore, it has been improved later.

The normal one is still equal to 12.

The big month is 30 days, the small month is 29 days, and the big and small months alternate, with a total of 354 days in a year.

Then, the leap method is used to supplement its deficiency with L regression year, so that the year with leap month has 13 months.

The Babylonian calendar places the beginning of the year on the spring equinox.

Its January is equivalent to the late March to mid April of the current Gregorian calendar.

The principle of setting leap month is to keep the beginning of the year near the spring equinox as far as possible.

Before the 6th century BC, intercalation had no certain rules, but was announced by the king at any time according to the situation.

After the 5th century BC, there was a fixed leap week, first 3 in 8 years, then 10 in 27 years, and finally 7 in 19 years in the 4th century BC.

In addition, the Babylonian calendar is not a new moon, but a day beginning in January with the first day of the new month.

In addition to the year and month, the Babylonians also proposed another time unit – week, and named the seven days of the week after the sun, moon and five planets.

The Babylonians measured the cycles of the sun and moon very accurately.

At the end of the 4th century BC, the accuracy of the new moon and the near point moon measured by them had reached the order of seconds.

They are interested in the five planetsThe ruins of Babylon in the valley civilization.

The city of Babylon is located in the center of the civilization of the ancient two river basins.

It is the ancient city of mabirun, which was once magnificent in Euphrates.

It is located on the Bank of the Euphrates River.

The place where the Tigris River is closest to the Tigris River can be called the Pearl of the two river basins.

In Akkadian, Babylon is the “gate of God”.

It is located on the main traffic roads in the two river basins.

It is a necessary place for business travel from south to North and from east to west.

Its strategic position is very important.

For this reason, after the fall of the Third Dynasty of ur, it can quickly develop from a small village to the capital of the city-state of Babylon, and then become the capital of Hammurabi the great.

Since then, Babylon has developed step by step into the most magnificent city in the ancient world, leading the ancient Western Asian civilization for 2000 years.

However, the Babylonian ruins we see today are not the Babylonian city in the era of Hammurabi the great.

The city was completely destroyed by sinakhrib in the civil war of the Assyrian royal family in the 7th century BC.

Its walls were flattened, its gods were looted, its houses burned down, and its residents were forcibly relocated to all parts of the Assyrian Empire.

After assahadong, king of Assyria, ascended the throne, he began to rebuild Babylon.

The residents who were forcibly relocated came back.

The famous tower of the temple of etjeminaka, the tower of Babylon, was built at this time.

However, the reconstruction of asahadong is only the beginning.

The construction of the whole city of Babylon was finally completed when the new Babylonian Kingdom Nebuchadnezzar II was born.

Therefore, the Babylonian ruins we see today are the ruins of the new Babylonian period, with a history of about 2600 years.

Panoramic restoration of Babylon this is the Babylonian wall built by Nebuchadnezzar in the 6th century BC.

In the distance are the majestic Babylonian tower and the big stone bridge across the Euphrates River.

It is the longest big stone bridge in the ancient world.

In the face of the brilliance of the ancient Babylonian civilization and the grandeur of the ancient Babylonian City, countless later people want to reproduce this ancient civilization by rebuilding the city of Babylon.

The picture shows the ancient city of Babylon under the auspices of the Iraqi government.

The prosperity of Babylon in its heyday is unparalleled in the two river basins and even the whole ancient world.

When Herodotus, the “father of history”, visited Babylon, the city had passed its most glorious era.

However, Herodotus still wrote: “in terms of its magnificence, it is unmatched by any other city we know.

” At that time, the city of Babylon had splendid buildings, magnificent palaces, temples and towering Temple towers.

However, these magnificent buildings, with the passage of years, were deeply buried underground by wind and sand, and were not excavated by German archaeologists until the beginning of the last century.

Archaeologists first discovered the ruins of the Babylonian city wall in Babylon.

This wall was built during the period of Nebuchadnezzar to protect the temples and courts in the city.

It is also known as the inner wall, which is made of calcined large bricks, and the plaster is asphalt, also known as stone paint.

The walls were wide enough for a chariot pulled by four horses to turn around.

The city wall has a strong fortress at intervals to strengthen the defense function of the city.

The inner city wall is surrounded by deep trenches and earth cities on three sides, which can be said to be as solid as gold.

In particular, the west wall stands on the Bank of Euphrates.

It is not only a natural fortification against the invasion of foreign enemies, but also a strong levee to protect the city from flooding.

The famous maduke temple, Babylonian tower and royal palace were built along the west wall.

In the middle of the west wall, there is the oldest stone bridge in world history, connecting the urban areas on both sides of the Euphrates River.

If you stand on the stone bridge and look west, you will have a panoramic view of Babylon’s magnificent buildings.

You will marvel from your heart that it is the most magnificent city in the world.

The whole city covers 2100 acres, and a wall about 18 kilometers long and 3 meters high surrounds the whole city.

According to Herodotus, Babylon has 100 gates, each made of bronze.

However, according to archaeological excavations, there are probably no more than 10 gates in the inner city of Babylon.

If you add new towns and outer cities, there will be no more than 20 gates.

He probably included the small gates of many communities in the urban area, so there may be 100 gates.

Because at that time, the inhabitants of Babylon lived by race and industry.

Each residential area became a heaven and earth, and there were walls and small doors to separate them from other communities.

Both Jews and Greeks have their own independent communities, and each community has its own management organization, which is responsible for daily affairs.

Therefore, the guild organization in Babylon is probably the oldest in the world.

Babylon in the 6th century BC (plan sketch) has an outer wall not far from the inner wall of Babylon.

It is mainly used by residents outside the city for refuge in wartime.

Between the inner and outer walls, there is an area where ordinary citizens live.

Most of the brothels, restaurants, pawnshops, baixiji arts and people from all walks of life live here.

Therefore, it is also the busiest and most prosperous place in Babylon.

The most magnificent gate in Babylon is the north gate dedicated to the goddess Ishtar, which is called Ishtar Gate.

The gate itself has two front and rear gates, and there are strong bunkers beside each gate.

The gate is made of calcined bricks and the plaster is made of asphalt.

The surface of the city wall is inlaid with rock solid glazed bricks, with various bas reliefs on it, such as bulls, lions, giraffes, dragons and so on.

The magnificent city of Babylon.

Later generations drew according to the records of Herodotus.

There is a wide avenue in front of Ishtar Gate, about 24 meters wide and hundreds of meters long.

This road was used for religious processions at that time, so it was also called “holy way”.

The walls on both sides of the avenue are also inlaid with glazed bricks, with various bas reliefs on them, and many arrow towers on the top.

The ground of this avenue is paved with white and rose stone slabs, which are usually mainly used for festival celebrations and parades.

When Babylon holds annual New Year celebrations, the Temple priests carry the statue of maduk and other gods to parade through this avenue.

Babylon is the channel of the gods, so it can be said.

However, the design of the avenue is not entirely for religious purposes.

It is also a solid military fortress.

If foreign enemies dare to invade Babylon from the Ishtar Gate, they will be buried under the arrows of the defenders.

Entering Babylon from the Ishtar Gate is a straight street.

It connects the palace, the tower of Babylon and the temple of maduk.

Nebuchadnezzar’s palace was as strong and thick as the walls.

However, this kind of thick buildingThe buildings are not designed to resist foreign enemies, but to resist the local high temperature of 50 ℃ in summer.

In order to minimize the attack of heat wave, the palace wall is up to 3 meters thick, and the three arches open northward, making it difficult for the sun to direct the inner hall.

Ordinary residents’ houses have no windows at all, and only rely on the sunlight from the patio for indoor lighting.

Nebuchadnezzar Palace (Restoration) the wall of the main gate of the palace is up to 3 meters thick.

For the sake of heat insulation, the gate of the palace opens to the north to avoid sunlight.

Through the efforts of successive rulers, Babylon has become a rock solid and difficult city to conquer.

However, it can resist the attack of foreign enemies, but it can not resist the treason of internal traitors.

In 539 BC, the Persians occupied the city of Babylon under the cooperation of the Babylonian priest group, and Babylon began to lose its former glory.

Since then, Babylon has continued to prosper economically for hundreds of years, but its political status has plummeted.

After the collapse of the Empire, Babylon became a battlefield for successors, water conservancy facilities were seriously damaged and agriculture was withered.

According to the annals of Babylon, at that time, Babylon was “full of sorrow, starvation and death, and people changed their sons to eat each other”.

At the beginning of the Seleucid Dynasty, the farmland near the city became increasingly desert, and the residents gradually moved to the nearby new capital Seleucia.

Later, the rolling yellow sand completely covered up the glorious city of Babylon in the past.2. Nineveh city of lion cave is more than 500 kilometers north of Babylon, which is located at the intersection of Tigris River and dazab river.

It was the capital of the most powerful period of the Assyrian Empire and the most magnificent city in the world at that time.

All the carvings on the walls of Nineveh (7th century BC), the capital of Assyria, are famous carvings, including the first divine cow (now stored in the French Roman Museum), Gilgamesh, the patron saint of Assyria, etc.

Forced prisoners of war to build Nineveh Palace (Nineveh palace relief in the 7th century BC).

The huge object transported by many people in the picture is a statue of a man’s head and cow’s body, a king standing under the canopy of a car.

Nineveh is located on the main traffic road in the north of the two river basins, and the Tigris River flows slowly from the east of the city.

The width of the river here is about 150 meters, which is not a big river in the world, but it is already a big river in the place where water sources are scarce in West Asia.

Therefore, many important cities have emerged in this area, such as Assyria, the ancient capital of Assyria, Kara and dur sarukin, the capital of new Assyria.

Nineveh’s earliest architecture appeared at the end of the 12th century BC when tigraparasa I.

The king was not only good at war and famous, but also built cities and palaces in China.

He repaired many temples and pagodas in the ancient capital of Assyria, and there was a library attached to the temple.

He built many elegant parks in Nineveh city and diverted water from the tributary of Tigris River into the city for irrigation, making Nineveh a beautiful city.

However, Nineveh was only an important commercial town in northern Assyria before cinnahrib ascended the throne.

At that time, the capital cities of Assyria were Assyria, Kara and dur sarukin.

The king of Assyria in this period was not only famous for his martial arts, but also attached great importance to urban construction.

After cinnahrib came to power, he moved the capital from dur sarukin to Nineveh.

Since then, Nineveh began large-scale construction and became the rich and famous capital of the ancient world.

Every detail of the palace design tries to reflect the greatness of the Empire, the vastness of the ruling region and the stable power.

The bronze top decoration of Assyrian soldiers.

Sinakhrib built several main official roads in Nineveh.

The roads are spacious and straight, and the chariots can pass through them without obstruction.

Houses of dignitaries and citizens are lined on both sides of the avenue.

Although the houses are different in height, they dare not occupy official roads.

Because the king of Assyria had ordered that anyone who occupied the official position should be sentenced to stabbing – insert the wooden stick from the prisoner’s anus and straight through his chest, and then erect the wooden stick with the prisoner in the downtown public.

The palace of sinakhrib is in the west of the city, and the tributary of Tigris River flows near the palace.

The palace is built on an artificial platform.

The palace wall is made of marble, and the exterior is decorated with exquisite reliefs and sculptures.

Among them are the famous Gilgamesh statue, the statue of human head and cow body and the statue of Assyrian protection god.

Lebanon cedar used to build palaces is the most precious timber in ancient West Asia.

The palace buildings of Assyria are tall, magnificent and magnificent, far beyond the king’s palace of Babylon.

Its architectural technology had a great impact on the later Persian Empire.

The palace architecture of pasagadi and Persepolis was obviously influenced by Assyria.

The Assyrian palace in Nineveh, however, there is a strange thing about the palace architecture in Nineveh, which was not found in other countries in ancient West Asia.

This is the architecture of the royal garden.

Nineveh has many gardens, some of which are planted with exotic flowers and plants and precious trees for the king to play and relax.

Some not only plant flowers and trees, but also raise many beasts.

This is the king’s hunting ground.

These animals are used by the king and his subjects when hunting.

In the Assyrian court relief, there are many scenes of the king hunting, depicting the thrilling and tense situation of the king hunting the lion, the king of beasts.

The king in the relief is heroic, or the horse jumps with a gun, or the bow shoots an arrow, while the hunted lion is ferocious.

However, these male lions can easily be killed by the king, because they are likely to have been hungry for many days and have been weak for a long time before they are released from the cage.

One king proudly announced that he had killed thousands of lions.

The hunting ground is surrounded by soldiers with strong relics of Nineveh palace to prevent prey from escaping.

There are verdant hills nearby for officials and officials to watch the hunting.

After the hunting, the king will offer the lion to the gods as a reward.

In the relief, there is the scene of the king sacrificing with a male lion, which reflects the significance of hunting on behalf of “the kingship of justice will defeat the forces of evil”.

However, the hunting activities of the Wang family also have important military significance.

It can temper the discipline and bravery of soldiers, which is an indispensable quality in the cruel struggle with the real enemy.

In the relief of Nineveh court, there are many terrible scenes reflecting the brutal behavior of the Assyrian army in the course of all previous wars.

There are inscriptions nearby that boast of the bloody atrocities of the Assyrian army in burning cities, robbing property and killing peaceful residents.

The relief of Nineveh court in the 7th century before the king’s hunting in military clothes.

The Assyrian banipa in military clothes is chasing the beast.

The Assyrian army captured the city of Elam (7th BC)It is precisely because of the brutality of the Assyrian army that Nineveh has become a symbol of the hatred of the oppressed people.

The Jews called it the cave of the lion and the city with human blood, and cursed it for sure to perish.

The curse of the Jews was miraculously realized in the end.

In May 612 BC, the Allied forces of Medes and Babylon surrounded Nineveh.

The hard siege lasted for two months.

Finally, the attackers opened the Midea of Tigris River, and the Babylonian coalition army conquered Nineveh gate, broke down Nineveh’s strong wall, and the coalition army rushed into the city.

The remains of history prove to future generations that the Nineveh people made a final struggle to keep their homes.

But in the end, all the residents of Nineveh were killed except a few soldiers who rushed out of the siege.

King Salak of Assyria set fire to himself in his palace.

The whole city was completely destroyed and turned into a habitat for jackals and wild animals.

The powerful Assyrian Empire perished with the demise of Nineveh and never recovered.

Although the inhabitants of Assyria were not completely killed, they were later assimilated by the Aramean inhabitants and disappeared without a trace.

In the history of the world, such a cruel country as the Assyrian Empire has such a tragic outcome, which is unique.

Therefore, its demise can be said to be self inflicted, and no one will feel sad about it.3. Hamadan, the city of gold, has a city made of gold in Babylon, Cuba.

This is Hamadan, the capital of the MIDI Empire, the original country of the Iranians.

The city of MIDI in the 9th century BC, the Assyrian court relief Hamadan was the center of the ancient Iranian transportation route, through which the famous Silk Road maintained the prosperous international trade between the East and the West.

According to Herodotus, the “father of history”, the founder of Hamadan was diocesan, the founder of the Midian Kingdom (about 715 ~?).

It is said that he was originally the son of the tribal leader.

He was very smart.

In order to obtain the status of tyrant, he tried to uphold justice in his tribe and was elected as an arbitrator.

His reputation gradually spread all over the world, so the midians elected him king, built him a palace matching his status as king, and established a guard army.

Then he forced the Medes to build him a city as his new capital, which is today’s Hamadan.

However, the city is located on the east-west traffic artery, and its emergence may be much earlier than the diocesan period.

Herodotus also has a detailed description of the city of Hamadan.

He said that the wall of Hamadan is thick and tall, which was built in circles.

The inner wall of each circle is higher than the outer one.

Since the city is built on a plain, this structure is very helpful to defend against the attack of foreign enemies.

According to the Iranians who briefed Herodotus, the walls of Hamadan have seven circles, and the outermost circle is white, which is roughly the same length as the walls of Athens.

The second circle is black, the third circle is purple, the fourth circle is blue, the fifth circle is orange, the sixth circle is wrapped in silver and the seventh circle is wrapped in gold.

The palace of Diogenes is within the walls of gold.

According to the cuneiform materials left by the Babylonians of the same era and the later records of the expedition of Alexander, Hamadan, like the cities in the two river basins, has no seven walls, let alone gold and silver walls.

Judging from the situation in the early days of the Midian Kingdom, the city of Hamadan may be inhabited by tribes or races, and each residential area may be separated by a wall, just like the residential area of medieval Iranian cities, it is also inhabited by tribes.

The total number of these walls in Hamadan, together with the palace walls and outer walls, may be exactly 7.

Of course, the streets of ancient Hamadan city may also be the same as today.

The residential areas are like cobwebs, circle after circle, forming seven surrounding circles around the palace.

However, since the Hamadan site in the ancient Persian Empire has not been excavated so far, the situation of the ancient Hamadan city is still shrouded in a mysterious veil today.

Although there are no written materials, we can still see the general situation of MIDI cities from the relief of Assyrian court.

They all have strong walls and towering towers.

There is a moat outside the city wall, which is enough to resist the attack of powerful enemies.

As the largest city of Medes and the center of Medes’ uprising against Assyria, Hamadan should be more majestic and solid.

At the same time, King Dodd said that it was close to the wall.

This is the same as that of other capitals in West Asia, such as Nineveh and Babylon.

The palace there is also very close to the wall, or the wall itself is part of the palace defense system.

After the demise of the Midian Empire, Hamadan became one of the four major cities of the ancient Persian Empire.

Ancient Persian emperors came to Hamadan’s Summer Palace every summer.

Later, Hamadan became the ruling center of the Seleucid Dynasty in East Iran.

During the Sabbath period, Hamadan was once the capital of the Sabbath and one of the important towns in the middle of the silk road.

Hamadan has been prosperous for more than 2700 years in Iran’s history.

Until today, it is still the main city in Iran and the center of agricultural and animal husbandry production in Iran.4. Susa, the city of wealth, has an ancient city in Iran.

Its history is thousands of years earlier than that of Iran.

It is Susa city.

The city has a history of more than 8000 years, about 5300 years earlier than the country established by the Iranians.

Before that, it had been the capital of Iran’s indigenous elans for more than 2000 years.

Susa is the earliest birthplace of Iranian civilization.

Therefore, it can be said that “Susa city first and then Iran”.

The court of Susa in the era of Elam, within the Acropolis in the northwest of the city.

The Acropolis is built on a man-made mound.

It is backed by the kalhei river bank, 33 meters higher than the river bank and 6 meters higher than other parts of the city.

It is a very solid city.

However, such a strong Acropolis could not resist the fierce attack of the Assyrians, and the royal palace had been destroyed by the Assyrians many times.

Before the establishment of the ancient Persian Empire, Susa had become the capital of the Persians.

During the reign of Cyrus the great, Susa was one of the four major cities of the Empire and began to build palaces in the city.

This is because the Iranians are the most literate people in Iran, and the Persians need the talents of the Iranians to help them manage the country.

The administrative officials of the government at that time, especiallyThey are royal economic managers, almost all of whom are Elamites.

Elamite has been used as an official language for hundreds of years before it was gradually replaced by Aramaic.

The palace architecture of Susa was fully developed during the reign of Darius the great.

He ordered the construction of Susa palace, which has been retained until now.

The edict was written in three languages: Ancient Persia, Elam and Babylon, The content is as follows: aerial view of Susa site: Susa city is on an artificially built mound “.

This is the palace I built in Susa.

Its materials come from a distance.

Its foundation is dug deep to the rock stratum.

After the foundation is dug, it is filled with gravel.

Part of the foundation is 40 el (about 19 meters) deep , Part 20 El deep.

The palace is built on this foundation.

The Babylonians did all the digging of foundations, the filling of rubble and the making of bricks.

” Cedar is transported from the mountains of Lebanon.

After the Assyrians transported it to Babylon, the carians and Ionians transported it from Babylon to Susa.

Teak was transported by Gandhara and Kerman.

The gold used here was transported from Sardis and Bactria.

The precious lapis lazuli and chalcedony used here were transported from Sogdiana.

The turquoise used here is transported from huala to the mold.

Silver and ebony were shipped from Egypt.

The materials used here to decorate the palace wall were transported from Ionia.

The ivory used here was transported from Nubia, Sindh and alajosia.

The stone pillars used here were transported from Elan abiladus.

The prisoners of war who processed stones were Ionian and Sardis.

The goldsmiths who made the whole ware were the Medes and the Elamites.

Those who made wood were Sardis and Egyptians.

Those who make bricks are Babylonians.

Those who decorated the palace walls were the midians and Egyptians.

King Darius said, “in Susa, all the magnificent buildings that have been ordered to be built are completed.

” In this short edict, it is mentioned that the materials used in court buildings come from 15 regions, from distant central Asia and India to Egypt and the Greek world.

The craftsmen who participated in the palace building were from at least five nationalities, not counting the residents of those places where the materials were transported.

There are 12 kinds of building materials explicitly mentioned, most of which come from afar, and only gravel and bricks are probably made locally.

It can be said that Darius I used almost all the human, material and financial resources of the Empire at that time to build the Susa palace.

The main architectural work of the Susa palace was completed by the Babylonians because they had rich architectural experience and were good at building magnificent buildings of platform type.

The court of Darius I was built on a huge artificial platform, covering an area of about 37500 square meters, including 110 rooms, corridors and halls, covering an area of about 20000 square meters.

The full picture of Susa palace is unknown today.

Modern archaeological excavations have proved that it is far more magnificent than the imperial edict of Darius I.

The reception hall of Darius I alone covers an area of 10000 square meters.

The roof of the hall is supported by six columns of colonnades up to 20 meters high, and the top of the colonnade is decorated with ox heads.

The walls of the Susa Palace are inlaid with exquisite glass brick bas reliefs, most of which are royal guards, various animals and magical monsters.

This kind of glass brick bas relief is the wall glass contained in ancient Chinese classics.

It was the most advanced decoration art at that time.

After a large-scale expansion, the Susa palace has always been the Royal Palace of the ancient Persian Empire.

The King spent most of his time in Susa, where government agencies were concentrated.

The taxes of the Persian Empire probably went to the Treasury of Susa.

Therefore, in the eyes of the Greeks, Susa must be the richest city in the world.

Therefore, Herodotus issued a heartfelt sigh: “if anyone owns the wealth of Susa, he can fight against Zeus for wealth!” After the fall of the Persian Empire, Susa remained one of the most important cities in Iran for a long time, and achieved urban autonomy.

During the Sassanian period, Susa residents revolted against Sassanian rule, so they were ordered to be completely destroyed by Sassanian king.

The court and residential houses of Susa were turned into rubble and buried under the loess.

They were not discovered by Western archaeologists until modern times.5. The mysterious Persian polis, hundreds of kilometers southeast of Susa, is the birthplace of ancient Persian civilization – Fars province of Iran.

In the northwest of serazi City, Fars Province, there is a mysterious mountain peak, which is locally known as “Kuh Rahmat” (good heart mountain).

At the foot of the mountain is a wide plain, which is now the world of shepherds and a necessary place for business travel.

At the end of the plain, there is a magnificent city site, which is Persepolis.

Bospolis is today known by Iran as “the throne of jamsid”.

Jamsid is a mythical figure in the Iranian epic.

He ruled Iran for 700 years and made many contributions to Iranian civilization.

Finally, he angered the gods and lost in the hands of gangla whites because of his arrogance.

In fact, the city has nothing to do with him.

A bird’s-eye view of Persepolis close-up view of Persepolis Palace (restoration picture), which was the world’s most magnificent capital at that time.

Persepolis was founded in 520 BC, that is, the first year after Darius seized power and just suppressed the national uprising.

The whole project went through three generations of kings and lasted 70 years before it was completed.

At the foot of Shanxin mountain, there is a huge artificial platform with a height of about 13 meters and an area of about 150000 square meters.

The Persian court is built on this huge platform.

The whole court covers an area of about 135000 square meters.

The east wall of the king’s palace is about 4-15 meters high.

The main entrance of the palace is a huge stone step, made of artificially mined white limestone, with a total of 111 steps.

When people enter the city of polis from the outside, they must pass through this big step.

There are armed guards on both sides of the steps to prevent people from entering the palace at will.

In front of the big steps is the colonnade built by Xerxes.

At the entrance of the colonnade, there are four huge statues of human heads and cattle bodies, guarding the main entrance to the palace.

There is also a convenient door in the southwest corner of the platform for the access of daily necessities.

The site of the “gate of nations” of the Persian polis palace.

The entire Persian polis palace is a group of huge buildings with rigorous design.

It mainly consists ofOften cool.

Therefore, on the land that has been flat and dry for many years and can only grow a number of drought resistant shrubs, amazing oases have emerged.

The hanging garden is obviously far from the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II or the growth and breadth of babita, but its beauty, elegance and irresistible charm are unmatched by other buildings.

Some people once described the wonders here: “it is the Royal Garden of King Nebuchadnezzar, which is very high from the ground, and the hanging roots of tall trees are watered by water from beating fountains.

” Philo in the 3rd century BC wrote: “The garden is full of trees, which is like a country in the mountains.

Some parts of it are stacked layer by layer, like a theater.

It is densely planted, and the branches and leaves are scattered, almost touching the trees, giving people a comfortable shade.

The spring water gushes out from the high fountain, first seeps into the ground, and then twists, rotates and erupts, washes and swirls through the water pipe, moistens the roots, and the soil remains moist forever.

” King Nebuchadnezzar’s good intentions did not win the favor of his wife.

It is said that nemesis, Nebuchadnezzar’s wife and owner of the sky garden, finally turned into a dove and flew away.

In ancient times, the Greeks once called the sky garden one of the seven wonders of the world.

However, this garden is not a magnificent building in people’s eyes.

Its length, width and height are only tens of meters.

It was only because there were no particularly tall and magnificent buildings in ancient Greece that such a temple tower building dozens of meters high was called a miracle.

However, recently, there has been a new saying about the location of the sky garden.

It has been suggested abroad that the hanging garden is not in Babylon, but in Nineveh, the capital of Assyria.

The builder of this garden was not Nebuchadnezzar, but sinakhrib, king of Assyria.

They are based on the fact that classical Greek writers who have personally visited Babylon do not mention the hanging garden in their works.

This is understandable to others, but it is obviously incomprehensible to Herodotus, the “father of history”, who specializes in reporting local places of interest and anecdotes.

If they could only see the tower of Babylon but not the hanging garden, why did Greek writers hundreds of years later see the hanging garden? Another important basis is that Nebuchadnezzar’s edicts have been handed down so far, but there is no mention of the construction of hanging gardens.

On the contrary, the edict left by sinakhrib mentioned that he built a garden in Nineveh and introduced the Tigris River flowing through Nineveh city into the garden to irrigate flowers and trees.

The imperial edict also mentioned the water extractor and copper water pipe in the garden.

Moreover, a relief called Nineveh sky garden was also found in the Nineveh court relief.

The relief scene is very similar to the description of Babylonian hanging gardens by classical writers.

This hanging garden is actually a royal garden designed by Assyrian garden designers for the Assyrian court.

It generally uses natural hills or man-made hills to plant all kinds of precious trees, exotic flowers and plants for the king’s amusement and relaxation.

In some gardens, there are all kinds of rare birds and animals for people to watch.

There are also gardens with ferocious lions for the king to hunt.

There are many royal gardens and hunting scenes in Nineveh court relief.

It is also reasonable for this kind of hill style garden to be called “sky garden”.

The most important basis is: in the archaeological excavation of Babylon, people did not find the ruins of the hanging garden in Babylon at all, but found a lot of evidence in Nineveh.

Therefore, we can now say with certainty that the real hanging garden is not in Babylon, nor is it related to Nebuchadnezzar.

In fact, it is in the northwest suburb of Nineveh city.

It is the Royal Garden of Assyria ordered by sinakhrib.

The garden has not only a perfect artificial irrigation system, but also a good gravity irrigation system.

Therefore, hundreds of years after the demise of the Assyrian Empire, the garden is still lush and retains its fascinating charm.

However, so far, the true face of the legendary sky garden is still hidden in the fog of history.7. The inscription on the pottery cylinder made in the era of babita Nebuchadnezzar tells the construction of a temple.

There are different views on the origin of babita in Babylon.

The Old Testament Genesis records a story: in ancient times, people all over the world had the same accent and language.

When people were moving eastward, they came to a place called Shina.

They were surprised to find a plain, so they settled here.

They discussed with each other and said, “come on, let’s make bricks.

” so they burned the bricks thoroughly.

So they used brick as stone and stone paint as mortar.

And they said, come, let us build a city and a tower, the top of which is open to heaven, so that we may proclaim our name and show our strength and unity, so that we will not be scattered throughout the land.

This tower is the famous babita.

When God heard the news, he decided to leave the high heaven and come to the world to see what happened.

When he saw the sky tower built by the world, he was really surprised and angry.

He thought to himself: now all the people in the world are one nation.

The outer wall of the front of Nebuchadnezzar’s audience room is a language.

They unite with each other and have great power.

If they can build such a magnificent city and tower today, what else can they fail to do in the future? How can God rule mankind? So God came to the world and changed people’s language, so that they could not understand each other’s language and dispersed everywhere.

In this way, people left the city of Babylon, and the construction of the city of Babylon was forced to stop, so did babita.

Another theory is that after the establishment of the new Babylonian Kingdom, Nebuchadnezzar II ordered the reconstruction of the tower of heaven.

He ordered the whole country, regardless of nationality and region, to participate in the construction of the tower, including the “prisoner of Babylon” described in the Bible.

It is said that he once ordered his officials to build the tower high into the sky and “want to compete with heaven”.

The babitong tower ordered by Nebuchadnezzar to rebuild has seven floors, symbolizing the seven Obsidian star.

It is 90 meters high.

The length and width of the tower base are about 91 meters respectively.

The wall surface of each floor is inlaid with glass bricks of different colors, and the highest floor is sky blue glass bricks.

This is a small temple with gold at its four corners.

The temple is dedicated to the golden statue of Marduk, the main god of Babylon.

The statue is said to weigh 800 elantus (1 elantus = 30.3 kg). The scene of Nebuchadnezzar building the babi tower of heaven.

The suffering Jews symbolize babiRealize that the purpose of archaeological excavation is not to search for treasures, but to explain the development process of human civilization through physical objects.

Among them, the development of agriculture and animal husbandry is particularly important.

Fortunately, bradwood won his first battle when he came to the East.

He excavated the site of a prehistoric village in gamore at the foot of Zagros mountain.

There are 15 cultural layers in the site.

The lower part of the 10th layer belongs to the pre pottery age, which is equivalent to the early Neolithic age, but there are rectangular earth houses, stoves and chimneys at this time.

There are also ground stone tools, such as stone axe, stone spinning wheel, stone cup, stone bowl, bone needle, necklace and bracelet.

And figures made of clay.

Babylonian agriculture in the second half of 2000 BC.

Qianniu tractor improved pear and planter cultivated land.

Babylonian agriculture was known as developed, and its agricultural output was much higher than that of other parts of Western Asia at that time.

The most important thing is that carbonized grain particles, such as barley, wheat, peas and green beans, have been found at the garmor site.

There are also stone agricultural production tools, such as stone sickle, stone pestle and stone mortar.

There are also the remains of many domesticated livestock, such as the remains of goats, sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, dogs and other animals.

This proves that there has been a settled life of agriculture and animal husbandry.

The absolute age of gamore site is about 9000 years ago.

It is much older than the village sites that have been excavated before.

However, it is already a relatively advanced agricultural village, which is not enough to explain the origin of agriculture and animal husbandry.

Therefore, bradwood continued to excavate in Karim and shaher nearby and made many gratifying discoveries.

Because of these successes, his “sideslope theory” began to become a recognized theory.

However, the ruins found in Palestine and other places in the early 1950s have greatly shaken his theory.

In Jericho, a huge prehistoric town site was found.

A large number of relics of agricultural civilization were found in this site, about 10000 years ago, far exceeding gamore.

People have doubts about whether the two river basins are the birthplace of the agricultural revolution.

Fortunately, new agricultural sites were soon discovered in Shanidar and sawikmi in the Zagros Mountains in northern Iraq.

Among them, Shanidar is a cave in the ruins of ancient Babylonian village, which has been inhabited by humans as early as 60000 years ago.

In the early Neolithic age, the residents of the cave began to leave the cave gradually and go to the nearby seasonal residence of savikhmi to engage in agricultural and animal husbandry production.

They later established permanent villages there.

The remains of domesticated sheep, sickles, grinders, mortars and grinders were found in the village site, but no grain was found.

It is probably still in the stage of transition from gathering economy to primitive agriculture.

The absolute age of Shanidar and sawekmi village sites is about 10000 to 12000 years ago, which is the oldest agricultural village site known to people so far.

Later, people found the ruins of agricultural villages in Yemo, Southeast of Shanidar.

In this site, people found seeds and pottery of cultivated plants, bones of domesticated livestock, goats and dogs, and statues of goddesses.

Yemo absolute age is about 8000 ~ 9000 years ago.

It is already a standard agricultural village.

After the Yemo site, people found the hasuna site (about 8000 years ago) and the harev site (about 6000 years ago).

In this way, the ruins of agricultural villages in the two river basins can be basically connected from the early Neolithic Age to the emergence of class society.

It proves that bradwood’s theory is basically correct: the two river basins are not only the birthplace of the urban revolution, but also the birthplace of the agricultural revolution.

Magical invention 1 Batteries 4000 years ago.

Batteries existed in Babylon in 2000 BC? Although this makes people feel incredible, it is absolutely true.

In September 1936, German archaeologist Wilhelm kounger unearthed many ceramic pots dating back more than 2000 years in the village of gegat rabua, on the outskirts of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq.

The tank mouth is very thick, and the tank neck is covered with a layer of asphalt.

A small iron rod is inserted into the copper cylinder.

The diameter of the cylinder is 2.

6cm and the height is about 9cm.

The iron rod is 1cm higher than the cylinder.

The lower end of the iron rod is stuffed with about 3cm asphalt to separate the iron rod from the copper tank.

After careful study, kounger believes that the device is a battery used by ancient people.

These unearthed copper cans, iron bars and pottery are batteries used in ancient times.

As long as you pour some acid and alkaline water into the pottery pot, electricity will be sent out.

Because these ancient batteries were found in the sarcophagus underground in the suburbs of Baghdad, they are called “Baghdad batteries”.

What’s more incredible is that a large number of electroplated items were excavated at about the same place.

It is conceivable that one of the uses of these batteries is electroplating.

However, these electroplated products are about 2000 BC, more than 2000 years before the pottery pot battery discovered by kounger.

This means that some electroplating technologies were used as early as 4000 years ago, while modern electroplating technology did not come out until the first half of the 19th century.

Many people are skeptical and negative about this.

In order to prove kounger’s point, many scientists continue to carry out electrifying experiments with imitations.

In 1940, American engineer gray imitated these pots and filled them with wine, copper sulfate, alkali sulfate and other liquids that ancient residents might use as electrolytes.

A miracle happened.

The model really generated electricity, successfully obtained half a volt, and the battery worked continuously for 18 days.

After the Second World War, abbalicit of Germany did the same experiment and successfully obtained half a volt of electricity.

Then he did an electrolytic gold plating experiment: hang a small statue, apply a layer of gold powder water, and then connect the imitation ancient battery.

About 2 hours after power on, a golden gold-plated statue appeared.

This experiment finally confirmed kounger’s conclusion.

If the ancient Babylonians were to be recognized for their use of electricity, many of the world’s legends about the ever burning lamp might have found the answer.

The energy used by these long lights may be electricity.2. The revolution of the wheel the Sumerians in ancient Mesopotamia are a magical nation, and many of their inventions have played a great role in promoting the development of human history.

But no Sumerian invention can be compared with the wheel they invented.

Present societyIn every corner of the world, almost all products and tools depend more or less on wheels.

It was the wheel that completely changed the mode of human transportation and laid the foundation for the future mechanical age.

Around 4000 BC, Mesopotamians began to make wheels from wood and stone for pottery.

The wheel originally used in pottery production was a thick and flat disc with a concave center at the bottom.

It was installed on a stone or wooden dome seat on the ground, and a pottery workbench was made.

In the process of pottery making, due to the rotation of wheels, the work becomes easy and convenient, and is conducive to the formation of pottery.

Soon, this technology was popularized in the two river basins.

Many fragments of pottery wheels were found in ur site.

About 3300 BC, the Sumerians applied the principle of wheel movement to the means of transportation, and the world’s first four-wheel vehicle appeared, which was pulled by four donkeys.

At first it was only for the king to ride or sacrifice, and later it was used as a chariot.

On the “military flag” unearthed in ur, there are many chariots and fully armed soldiers.

At that time, the wheels of the chariot were made of two pieces of wood and fixed with horizontal wooden strips in the middle.

This structure is easy to remind people of the word “car” in Chinese characters, but this kind of car is very bulky.

The wheel that changed human life was taken from the part of ur military flag.

About 2400 BC, spoke wheel replaced spoke wheel, metal shaft replaced wooden shaft, and human tamed wild horse.

The previous heavy ox cart or donkey cart finally became a fast and light chariot.

The armies of Hittites and Assyria swept the world with their powerful iron chariots.

In 1270 BC, the Hittite army faced 20000 soldiers led by Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II in Syria.

The Hittite had 2500 two horse chariots, each with two people, and a total of 17000 infantry.

The result was a complete victory for the Hittite army.

Of course, some people now believe that the wheel was not invented by the Sumerians, but by nomadic tribes in the arid grasslands of Central Asia.

The reason is that the vast and flat arid grassland is more suitable for driving than the sandy land in Mesopotamia.

Unfortunately, these nomadic tribes did not establish cities, and archaeologists were unable to excavate their sites.

However, so far, all unearthed cultural relics and historical records have proved that the Sumerians are most likely to invent the wheel.3. The prototype of the tank, the Assyrian army, once dominated the two river basins for a time.

In addition to the fierce belligerence of the Assyrian nation, a very important reason is its advanced military technology.

The Assyrian archers, who were all dressed up by Assyrian soldiers, were well equipped.

In 1030 BC, with the wide use of iron, the world’s earliest iron scale armor appeared in Assyria.

It can be seen from the unearthed Assyrian reliefs that the Assyrian archers at that time were dressed in refined fish scale armor, wearing conical copper or iron helmets, and the neck was protected by fish scale armor collar.

Their protective power was comparable to that of knight equipment in the middle ages.

The Assyrian army used the siege aircraft called “ancient tanks” when attacking the city.

The siege machine is actually a tower shaped chariot with four to six wheels.

The upper part of the chariot is covered with armor to protect the archers on the tower.

The siege machine is equipped with two kinds of machine heads.

One is a flat head siege hammer, which can destroy the wall built of brick and stone.

The other is a thick spear.

When the siege hammer breaks a gap in the wall, the siege machine enters immediately.

During the siege, the archers on the tower will be attacked by the fire arrows of the city’s defenders.

But don’t be afraid.

Archers can fight back with armor, and there is a water tank on the tower, which can put out the fire with water before the fire arrow ignites the siege machine.

This siege machine is powerful and almost invincible.

What’s more incredible is that the Assyrian army was able to swim across the river in full armed with inflatable animal skin bags in the 9th century BC, and launched a sudden attack unknowingly.4. Papyrus boats on the two rivers in 1930, archaeologists found a seal engraved with the ship among the cultural relics unearthed at the ur site.

According to research, this round seal has a history of 5000 years.

This means that Sumerians knew how to build ships at least 5000 years ago.

We know that there are few woods in the two river basins, so what materials are these ships made of? The papyrus boat 5000 years ago was made by Sumerians.

Archaeologists have boldly verified the ancient customs in the two river basins today.

They found that countless papyrus grows in the two river basin, and many residents along the coast use it to build houses and even build ships.

In today’s Iraq, there is still the custom of making small rafts with papyrus, which are generally used to fish in shallow river areas.

Therefore, archaeologists believe that the ships depicted on the clay plate 5000 years ago are undoubtedly made of papyrus.

Can this kind of ship only withstand wind and waves? Can we trade by sea? Archaeologists have studied a large number of clay documents and proved that a huge trade network has been established in Mesopotamia as far as 4000 years ago, and ur is the most important trade center.

Archaeologists have found some round seals from today’s Bahrain and other places, which are exactly the same as those unearthed in ur.

In addition, at today’s southern tip of the Persian Gulf, inflatable leather bags were unearthed, swimming across the river in full force.

The two pictures are from a mural.

The mud version of the purchase list is, which clearly records the purchase of these goods from ur.

These facts show that ur merchants did have trade activities across the Persian Gulf at that time.

At that time, the ship carrying cargo was most likely a papyrus ship.

Through the field verification of modern experts, it is proved that this papyrus ship does have cargo carrying capacity and can stand the test of wind and waves.5. The earliest magnifying glass in the world.

At present, among the many cuneiform clay plates found in Mesopotamia, some are large, while others are small and almost indistinguishable to the naked eye.

People can’t help asking: How did the Sumerians depict these tiny cuneiform characters in ancient times? How do they read and recognize these words? An accidental archaeological discovery in 1853 provided possible answers to these questions.

At that time, sir Layard, a British archaeologist, discovered many treasures in Nimrud, one of the earliest magnifiers in the world, the capital of the ancient Assyrian Kingdom, one of which aroused Sir Layard’s interest.