The invention of the ancient Greek alphabet.

The Greek alphabet was formed in the 11th century BC.

It is the first vowel phoneme character in the world.

It has had a significant impact on the further development of the letter phoneme character.

The Greeks have known the Phoenician alphabet since the end of the 9th century BC.

Continuous improvement makes it easy to use.

After the Greek alphabet was introduced into Eastern Europe and the Italian peninsula, the Slavic alphabet and Latin alphabet were formed.

Most alphabetic characters in modern European countries, such as Russian, English, Italian and so on, have evolved on the basis of Greek and Latin alphabetic characters.

Engraved with hieroglyphs β The Greek letters on the book board come from Phoenicia.

Phoenicia is an ancient city-state country, located on the coast of Syria, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west, Mount Lebanon in the East, Asia Minor in the north and Palestine in the south.

As the Phoenician base is located in the hub area of sea and land transportation in West Asia, navigation and commerce are particularly developed.

Because Phoenicians were mainly engaged in business and navigation, they often went to various places by boat to do business.

When doing business bookkeeping, they felt that the popular cuneiform characters at that time were too complicated and needed a simple text as a tool for recording and communication, so they created a text represented by 22 consonants on the basis of Egyptian letters.

At present, almost all Pinyin letters in European countries come from Phoenician letters.

Speaking of the invention of the Phoenician alphabet, there is another interesting legend.

According to legend, there was a Phoenician carpenter named Cadmus, who was known far and near as a wise man.

Once, when he was working in someone else’s house and needed a tool, he just forgot to bring it.

He picked up a piece of wood, scratched something on it with a knife, and then asked a slave to give it to his wife at home.

Cadmus’s wife looked at the wood chips and, without saying anything, handed the slave a tool.

The slave was stunned and thought that his master was using a mysterious way to show what he needed through wood chips.

It is said that what Cadmus scratched on the wood chip was the alphabet that first appeared in Phoenicia.

Many people knew this and came to Cadmus for advice.

Cadmus taught others the alphabet he invented.

In this way, the Phoenician letters gradually spread.

The evolution of the letter “d”.

(Egyptian hieroglyphs, Egyptian letters, Phoenician letters, Greek letters, Latin letters) the first Phoenician city to use Phoenician letters was the city of Ugarit.

The city of Ugarte was built around 4000 BC.

In 1400 BC, it was destroyed by an earthquake.

Before the ancient city of Ugarte was destroyed by the earthquake, it was a veritable “international city”.

Later, the letters composed of 22 consonants commonly used in the north and south of Phoenicia evolved from the letters of Ugarte.

Later, the ancient Greeks created Greek letters on the basis of Phoenician letters.

It first used 16 letters from the Phoenician letters to write the Greek language, and then added 8 letters to form 24 Greek letters.

The most important contribution of the Greeks to the alphabet is the creation of vowels.

Originally, there were no letters representing vowels in the Phoenician alphabet.

The Greeks saw that a few letters in the Phoenician alphabet represented consonants that were not found in the Greek language.

Therefore, the Greeks used such consonants to represent Greek vowels and formed perfect Pinyin letters.

This is one of the most important events in the history of the development of world characters.

In the process of improving the Phoenician script, the Greeks also changed the writing order of the script.

The Phoenician script is written from right to left, and the Greek script inherited from the Phoenician script was originally written from right to left.

But the Greeks later reversed the order of writing from left to right.

It is a reasonable order to write in this way, so it has gradually become the most popular method in the world.

The Greeks, who were full of aesthetic feeling and lofty reality, also improved the shape and symmetry of letters.

They changed the shape of letters into simple, eye-catching, symmetrical and beautiful geometric figures.

The emergence of alphabetic characters has had a far-reaching impact on the development of Greek society and culture, and its most direct impact is reflected in literature.

In addition to literature, the beginning of logical and rational thinking, the rise of natural philosophy and history are closely related to the use of alphabetic characters.

Homer, the great blind poet.

In the era of Aegean civilization, the Greeks could already use a linear character.

However, linear writing is still a very primitive written language, with many symbols and complex writing.

It is difficult to master without Homer’s long-term study.

It may only be used by a few professional scribes in the court.

With the collapse of the monarch and court that supported these scribes, the scribes also lost their place of use.

Over time, linear characters, like many ancient languages, were gradually forgotten because they were not used.

From about the 11th century BC to the 9th century BC, the Greeks returned to the primitive state of no words.

Coupled with the backwardness of politics, economy and other aspects of the Greek continent in this period, scholars vividly call it the “dark era”.

However, after the disappearance of written words, people’s oral creation and memory have developed.

People created a lot of short stories around the Trojan War and the return of the Greek hero Odysseus.

Homer, a legendary blind poet, combined these stories into two epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey.

It is said that Homer was the earliest and greatest poet in ancient Greece.

There have always been many theories about Homer’s life, and there is no final conclusion at present.

Homer is a blind musician who is good at collecting different poems and composing new works around a unique theme.

Most of the ancient blind music poems have amazing memories.

They can recite extremely long poems while playing the piano.

He traveled all over Asia Minor and the Greek peninsula, traveled widely under the door of princes and nobles, and sang folk stories related to the Trojan War.

The theme of Homer’s epic, which is sung while playing the piano, is the war of the Greek expedition to little Troy and the adventure of returning home after destroying the city.

Centered on the quarrel between Agamemnon, the commander of the Greek coalition army, and Achilles, the brave general, the Iliad focuses on the events that took place in a stage (51 days) in the tenth year of the war.

The Iliad consists of 24 volumes and 15693 lines.

The epic can be divided into three parts: the first part is 1 ~ 9 volumes, describing AchillesAgamemnon had to send a representative to plead with Achilles to join the war, but he was unmoved.

The second part is 10 ~ 18 volumes, which describes that the Greek coalition army was defeated again and the situation was critical.

Patroclus, a good friend of Achilles, put on Achilles’ armor and fought with Hector, Prince of Troy, but unfortunately died in battle.

Achilles was so sad because his friend was killed that he was determined to take revenge in the war.

The third part is 19 ~ 24 volumes, which mainly describes Achilles’s return to the battlefield, invincible, and killing Hector in the duel.

Priam, king of Troy, went into the enemy camp alone and begged Achilles to redeem the prince’s body and bury it with heavy money.

The theme of the Iliad is “the anger of Achilles”, which accounts for about one third of the whole poem, and the rest are interspersed with battles, competitions, funerals or other scenes.

Through the dialogue of various characters, people can feel the whole process of the Trojan War, which is an important feature of the structure of the whole poem of the Iliad.

As can be seen from the Iliad, many gods are no longer omnipotent.

Both Ares and Apollo can be defeated.

Zeus was fatuous and arrogant, and actually had no opinion.

Due to Zeus’ indulgence, Hera was very rude and rampant.

She even colluded with Athena in an attempt to detain Zeus in chains and seize his power.

Obviously, these ideas are different from the most primitive myths.

The struggle between man and God in the poem shows the belief in human power.

At the same time, many characters in the Iliad have their own personalities, such as Agamemnon’s ambition, Achilles’ stubbornness, rudeness, selfishness, and so on.

However, the different personalities of all these characters have a common basis: the martial spirit and bravery at the end of the clan society.

The Trojan War under such social conditions was a war of plunder between tribes.

In the Iliad, whether the akayas or trojans fought bravely, they were regarded as a glorious and heroic cause.

Therefore, the personalities of heroes are often static and unchanged.

The epic praises not only the akayas, but also the Trojans, and the heroism at the end of the clan society.

This is the basic style of the Iliad.

Homer’s Odyssey, which he is listening to, tells the story of Odysseus, king of idaca, who wandered for ten years on his way home after the capture of Troy.

The Odyssey reflects the development of society and the progress of knowledge at that time, especially the new spiritual outlook of the ancient Greeks: they believe that human power can overcome destiny.

Homer’s epic is a literary work.

Its language is fluent and vivid, its conception is exquisite and rigorous, and its characters are prominent.

It is regarded as a model of heroic epics in Europe.

Because it is based on a major historical event, its artistic description must contain the core of real history.

Homer’s epic is not only the most important literary work to study the Greek history from the 11th century BC to the 9th century BC, but also the great creation of the Greek nation in terms of spiritual culture in this period.

The style of epic is the combination of simplicity and nobility, simplicity and magnificence.

There are not only concise and profound tragic events and heroic odes, but also plain oral and life narration.

There is a high degree of poetic imagination, but also ordinary things.

The integration of the two has a unique flavor and has become an unfortunate masterpiece in the history of world literature.

Therefore, just as Homer gave birth to the later Greek nation, Homer’s epic also laid a very important cornerstone for Greek civilization.

Aesop and Aesop’s Fables Aesop lived around 620 BC.

He was originally a slave in ancient Greece.

He lived in the era of the formation of the slave city-state in ancient Greece.

At that time, slave owners did evil for wrong, and slaves and lower class civilians were bullied.

However, slaves and lower class civilians were not submissive to the tyranny of slave owners and nobles.

They used fables as weapons to fight slave owners.

Aesop is the most representative of many slave born fables.

He was appreciated by his master with his intelligence, gained personal freedom and was allowed to travel around.

With his extensive knowledge and rich talents, Aesop created wonderful and thought-provoking stories one after another.

Later, his stories were adapted and compiled into a collection.

This is the world’s oldest collection Aesop’s fables.

In fact, Aesop’s Fables circulated today are not made by Aesop alone, but a compilation of ancient Greek fables.

They have been a collective creation of the ancient Greek people for a long time.

Individual chapters may also come from Asia and Africa.

Aesop’s “Aesop’s Fables” has various ways of expression, simple structure, compact plot and concise language.

Aesop’s Fables has a total of 360 chapters, which are extremely rich in content.

Most of them adopt anthropomorphic methods, use a short animal story to explain a truth, endow all kinds of animals, plants and creatures with human thoughts, characters and language, and let them think, move and talk like human beings, so as to form a living world.

Its simple and understandable truth is not only an enlightenment textbook to instill the concept of good and evil, beauty and ugliness into children, but also a code of words and deeds that adults can’t put down.

The short stories in Aesop’s Fables mainly reflect the struggle experience and life lessons of the bullied lower class civilians and slaves.

Fables express the social relations at that time by describing the relationship between animals, mainly the unequal relationship between the oppressor and the oppressed.

The fable writer condemns the unreasonable phenomenon of people oppressing people in society and calls on the bullied people to unite and fight against the wicked.

The fable condenses the wisdom of the working people at that time, summarizes their various life experiences, and expresses their views on society and nature.

For example, cock and fox tells people to be good at using wisdom to defeat the enemy.

In the stories of lion and deer, bird catcher and guanque and two pots, it is revealed that when the regime is in the hands of greedy and cruel rulers, the poor can not live in peace.

The wolf and the lamb reveals that the rulers have no excuse to oppress the people.

Some stories in Aesop’s Fables also summarize the life and struggle experience of the working people in ancient Greece.

Some of them have been quoted by later generations for a long time and become well-known allusions, such as fox and grape, crow and fox and so on.

Aesop’s Fables has a great influence on later generations.

It was later EuropeThe creation of Zhou fables has laid a solid foundation.

The fable creation of La Fontaine, a Frenchman in the 17th century, and Krylov, a Russian in the early 19th century are deeply inspired and influenced by Aesop’s fables.

Euclid and the Bible of mathematics Euclid (330-275 BC) is a transitional figure between Athenian science and Adriatic science.

He completed the geometry of circles and lines developed in Plato’s Academy and was the first person in charge of the Mathematics Department of Alexandria library.

Because of Euclid’s great contribution to geometry, his name became synonymous with geometry in the next 2000 years.

Euclid’s most important work, the original of geometry, is one of the most influential works in human history.

It lays the foundation of mathematics in later generations and plays a page in Euclid’s original of geometry for the development of science.

The blank space is the margin note.

Has played an incomparable role.

This book systematically expounds the geometric knowledge of circles and straight lines, as well as the knowledge of numbers known at that time, and establishes the theory of constant interrelationship between “points” without breadth, “lines” without width and “surfaces” without thickness.

This theory has also become the classical basis for the development of geometric theory in the future.

The basic material of this book comes from the heritage of early mathematicians, and Euclid’s own contribution is mainly reflected in the excellent genius of material organization and logical derivation.

He arranged the theorem into a certain sequential structure, filled the logical loopholes, and redesigned the proof in many places, so as to form a perfect and huge deductive system.

As George Sutton said, “the original geometry” is a huge milestone.

It is as harmonious, elegant, concise and amazing as the Parthenon, but it also has the incomparable loftiness and durability of the Parthenon.

Euclid greatly reduced the number of axioms, so that later people’s great efforts to further reduce the number of axioms were all in vain: abandoning any axiom can only get a completely different geometry.

Even the greatest genius in history was amazed by the style of exposition he created.

When Spinoza stated his ethics in a “more geometric way”, it was based on Euclid’s book.

The same is true of Newton’s principles of mathematics.

In addition, the original geometry is also a tool for students to receive strict logic training and scientific training.

Until today, the original geometry has almost always been recognized as a textbook in European universities.

Archimedes (287-212 BC), a great scientist, was a famous mathematician and physicist in ancient Greece.

Archimedes made remarkable achievements in mathematics and physics, pushing Greek mathematics and physics to the peak of that era.

He used the mathematical exhaustion method to accurately calculate the PI in the ancient world to between 3.

140854 and 3.

1428571, which is the most in-depth and scientific discussion of the PI in the ancient world.

In physics, Archimedes spiral Archimedes used the focusing principle of concave mirror to gather the light and heat of the sun to burn the invading Roman war ship.

He is the founder of mechanics and fluid mechanics.

He discovered the proportion principle later named after “Archimedes principle”, and demonstrated and developed the basic principles of mechanics, especially the lever principle.

He once said proudly, “give me a fulcrum and I will turn the earth over.

” He has also studied the principle of hot wires and light reflected in flat and spherical mirrors.

More importantly, he applied his theory to practice, thus inventing and creating machinery such as lever, pulley and screw pump.

He studied philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and physics in Alexandria and made outstanding achievements in mathematics and physics.

Archimedes devoted more energy to studying specific scientific topics and attached importance to solving practical problems with technology.

He has also studied the principle of hot wires and light reflected in flat and spherical mirrors.

It is said that he invented a “burning mirror” and used it to win a war.

The story goes like this: when the Roman army besieged the ancient city of Syrah in 214 BC, Archimedes gave his intelligence and wisdom to defend his motherland.

He designed many military machinery, such as giant stone catapults, ship colliders and ship grabbing cranes, which inflicted heavy losses on the enemy.

When the Roman army besieged Syracuse where Archimedes was located, Archimedes summoned all the women, old and young in the city to form a fan shape with mirrors, gathered the sunlight on the Roman warships and burned all the enemy ships.

When the Romans were helpless, they had to adopt the method of long-term siege, and it took two years to capture the city.

On the day of the destruction of the city, Marcellus, the Roman commander who greatly admired Archimedes, ordered that Archimedes should not be hurt, and sent a soldier to invite him.

At that time, Archimedes was gazing intently at the geometry and asked to go after the problem was demonstrated.

Angered by Archimedes’ attitude, the soldier drew his sword and stabbed the old scientist to death.

Marcellus was very sad about Archimedes’ death.

In addition to his anger, he killed the soldier, comforted Archimedes’ family and built a mausoleum for him.

Archimedes devoted his life to exploring science.

It is said that when eating at ordinary times, he still draws geometric figures in the ashes of the brazier, and sometimes he forgets to eat.

It is this spirit of hard study and years of hard work that makes Archimedes a scientific giant who has made outstanding contributions to the treasure house of human science.

Ancient Greek medicine ancient Greek medicine and physiology originated earlier.

In Homer’s epic, we can already see people like doctors.

In Agamemnon’s expeditionary army, there was a doctor named makaan, who was good at treating wounds such as knife and sword.

In the epic, we saw the name of the later Greek god of medicine, Asclepius.

In Odyssey, Odysseus also disinfected the house after killing the suitor, indicating that people at that time had a better understanding of themselves and paid attention to the relationship between environment and health.

After the emergence of natural philosophy, the discussion of human beings has made progress.

Anaximander guessed that human beings evolved from fish in the sea, while the Pythagorean School, starting from its mysterious worship, banned people from eating foods such as beans.

As far as empedokler was concerned, the understanding of mankind itself was further theorized.

Starting from his four root theory, empedoklerThe theory of “species evolution and survival of the fittest” was put forward early.

He said that from the mixing of the four elements, there are all kinds of creatures, which exist in various ways and wander the earth.

These creatures are just individual limbs, such as head, neck, legs, hands and so on.

Later, due to the large-scale battle between love and hate, these limbs chased and combined with each other, and animals and people appeared.

Needless to say, their shapes are various.

Some have two faces, some have a head without a neck, some have countless hands and feet, and there are monsters with head and body, half man, half cow, half man and half woman.

Finally, many creatures died out because they could not reproduce.

Only a few existing species were preserved, and man is only one of them.

Medicine and physiology are said to be particularly developed in Italy.

According to Herodotus, the doctors of Croton city-state are particularly famous.

A doctor named damocydes has worked as a national doctor in Eugene and Athens successively and received a high income.

Later, he went to Samos and became the personal doctor of the tyrant boricrates.

After Samos was captured by Persia and treated, he was sent to the Persian court as a prisoner.

He was deeply trusted for curing the ankle of King Darius.

He returned to the land of Persia to cure his mastitis.

When the Persian envoys came to crotons, the crotons refused their request and left democades.

It is also recorded that alcmeion of the Pythagorean School was not only a famous doctor, but also dissected the human body and found the visual nerve regardless of the religious customs at that time.

Empedokler used the method of dredging the river to put out the plague of Salinas.

It is said that once he cured a woman who was considered dead for a month, so he was regarded as a God by Sicilians.

Anaxagora has some research on zoology.

He focused on explaining some variations in animals from a physiological point of view.

It is said that once someone brought a sheep, which had only one horn.

The prophet lampon claimed that this event foreshadowed a struggle between the two factions in the city-state.

The result of the struggle was that one faction would win and dominate the power.

Anaxagora was very dissatisfied and thought it was purely a natural phenomenon.

The reason was that the other horn was sealed and failed to grow smoothly.

He ordered the sheep to be slaughtered, opened the sheep’s head and showed the reason to the public.

His actions obviously upset the Conservatives in Athens, so he was accused of blasphemy and had to flee Athens.

In the classical era, all Greek city states regarded citizens as the lifeblood of city states and paid great attention to the health of citizens.

In some city states, the city states paid money to hire doctors.

The aforementioned damocydes is just one of them.

However, all States may be willing to hire famous doctors.

More doctors may set up their own clinics or travel around.

On the other hand, due to the limitation of scientific and cultural knowledge, people’s understanding of diseases is still very insufficient, and there is nothing to do with many diseases, especially the plague.

In 430 BC, the people of Athens died of the plague.

At this time, superstition and religion will rise, and people will inevitably ask for divination.

Throughout the classical era, divination was the last resort for people to treat stubborn diseases.

At the end of the 5th century BC, the worship of Asclepius rose all over Greece.

The Athenians solemnly held a ceremony to invite the God of medicine from other places.

But the most popular incense is the holy land of Asclepius in Peloponnesus.

It is said that when people sleep in the temple, the God of medicine will cure their diseases in a dream, and individuals get prescriptions and fill them according to the rules.

Unexpectedly, it is also effective.

Greek medicine.

The doctor on the left is treating the patient, and the patient on the right is waiting.

Hippocrates engaged in medical research and practice under this background.

Hippocrates (about 460-377 BC) is a famous doctor in ancient Greece and the founder of European medicine.

He is known as the “father of medicine”.

We don’t know much about the life of the most famous doctor in ancient Greece.

Born on Coase island in about 460 BC, he has been practicing medicine with his father since childhood.

He has practiced medicine in Greece, Asia Minor, the coast of the Black Sea and North Africa.

He has also engaged in medical education in the medical school on Coase Island, his hometown.

He had enjoyed a high reputation before his death.

Plato mentioned him twice in his book and called him “the miracle doctor of Coase island”, and later Aristotle called him a great doctor.

He lived more than eighty years and finally died in Thessaly.

Unlike most doctors at that time, Hippocrates attached great importance to theoretical summary and wrote many works.

He may not have written all the works that are now in his name, but he must have completed some of them.

These works involve all aspects of ancient medicine and generally reflect the medical level at that time and his own medical thought.

Hippocrates did not believe in the fallacy of “God given diseases” and believed that all diseases, including epilepsy, which he and his contemporaries did not understand at that time, were caused by some internal and external causes.

For internal reasons, he put forward the four fluid theory, which holds that the human body is composed of four body fluids: blood, mucus, yellow bile and black bile.

The different mixing proportion of these four kinds of body fluids leads to different temperament of people.

Which one of them is dominant is reflected in which temperament.

For example, those with more blood are more blood and those with more mucus are mucus.

Once the body fluid is out of balance, the body will get sick.

For external reasons, the impact of the natural environment on people is very important, so when a doctor arrives at an area, he should know the location direction, soil, water quality, climate, eating habits, lifestyle, etc.

In the process of treatment, doctors should not only fully study the condition, but also consider the patient’s physique and family, and strive to coordinate in many ways to achieve the purpose of eliminating the disease.

Otherwise, it is likely to be twice the effort and half the effort.

Hippocrates has also studied many specific diseases.

He has very accurate knowledge of urinary calculi, fractures, cranial injuries, joint reduction and other diseases and human structure.

Hippocrates’s greatest achievement is to liberate medicine from primitive witchcraft, treat disease and treatment with a rational attitude, and lay a scientific foundation for medicine.

Hippocrates has also made significant contributions to the field of surgery.

At that time, religious customs prohibited human anatomy, which was broken by Hippocrates and othersBan, secretly carried out human anatomy, obtained a lot of knowledge about human structure, and laid a solid foundation for surgery.

Hippocrates believed that all human diseases were caused by physiological disorders and external influences, and advocated the theory of body fluid.

He attaches great importance to the impact of natural environment and external conditions on human health, and emphasizes that doctors should pay attention to the impact of various factors on human body, which is very close to the viewpoint of modern ecology.

In terms of etiology and treatment, he also has many innovative ideas, such as emphasizing natural law, not easy to use drugs, but believing in the healing power of nature, etc.

Hippocrates’ greatest influence on later generations should be the ethics he established for the profession of doctor, which is commonly known as “Hippocratic oath”.

Its contents are as follows: respect teachers and parents and carefully teach their children medical knowledge.

Make every effort to take medical measures in favor of patients, so as not to bring pain and harm to patients.

Don’t give poison to anyone.

Entering other people’s homes is just to see a doctor, do not do whatever you want, do not accept bribes, and do not seduce the opposite sex.

Never divulge information about other people’s private lives, whether related to medical treatment or not.

These contents contain the main professional norms of doctors, which have been spread in the West for more than 2000 years.

In 1948, the general assembly of the World Medical Association adopted the Geneva declaration based on the “Hippocratic oath”.

The following year, the general assembly of the World Medical Association announced it as an international code of medical ethics.

Therefore, the Hippocratic oath has become a valuable heritage of all mankind.

Hilofiros and eracistolatu were the two most famous doctors in Alexandria at that time.

Herophilus has written on anatomy, on eyes and other works, but they have been lost, and only a few fragments remain in Galen’s works.

His works on anatomy first introduced the general guidelines of anatomy, and then described in detail the nervous, vascular, digestive, reproductive, skeletal and other systems of the human body.

He used a special chapter to discuss the structure and function of the liver.

Due to his rich anatomical knowledge, he has a better understanding of many problems than the Hippocratic school.

For example, on the brain, he not only refuted Aristotle’s mistake that the heart is the source of wisdom, but also distinguished the brain from the cerebellum, and realized the connection between the brain and the spine and nerves.

He has carefully studied various cases.

The names of some diseases used today are still named by him, and some diseases were first discovered by him.

Erastus latus is slightly younger than Herophilus and is also a famous anatomist.

He correctly described the role of epiglottic cartilage in preventing food from entering the respiratory tract, and further understood the structure of brain and heart.

He investigated the distribution of arteries and veins in the whole human body and observed the microvessels within the reach of the human naked eye.

He believes that after the human body inhales the air, the air enters the heart from the lung, becomes active aura in the heart, and then is transmitted to the whole body along with the artery.

Part of it is transformed into soul aura for thinking in the brain, and then the soul aura is distributed to the whole body.

Here, erasistoratu actually has a preliminary concept of blood circulation and recognizes that the heart is similar to a hydraulic pump, and there is some invisible connection between arteries and veins.

Have a preliminary concept of blood circulation.

This is a major breakthrough in the history of Western medicine.

The tradition of attaching importance to human structure and human anatomy in the Hellenistic era has made western medicine break the mysterious concept of human body earlier and establish medicine on the basis of strict physiological anatomy, which is conducive to the further development of medicine.

Therefore, the development of medicine in the Hellenistic era is an important milestone in the history of Western medicine.