in ancient European history, many slave uprisings broke out in ancient Rome during the slave period. For example, the budica uprising on the British island, the two major Jewish uprisings against Roman rule, and so on. But one of the most famous uprisings that threatened Roman rule was the slave uprising of Spartacus. But no matter what kind of uprising ended in failure, even the most shocking Spartacus uprising is no exception. Now let’s see what caused the ultimate failure of Spartacus uprising.
73-71 BC was the end of the Roman Republic (509-27 BC). A large-scale Gladiator slave uprising led by slave Spartacus took place. The uprising was the largest of the three slave wars in ancient Rome. This period is equivalent to China’s Western Han Dynasty, 16 years after the death of the great emperor.
Spartacus is a Thracian in the northeast of the Balkans. When Rome invaded northern Greece, he was captured, sold as a gladiator slave and sent to a gladiator school in Capua for training. He encouraged his companions to seize arms and flee to Mount Vesuvius to launch an uprising. The uprising quickly grew from more than 70 gladiators to more than 100000, and defeated the Roman army many times. At the beginning of 72 years before
, the rebels moved to the south of the Italian peninsula and then pushed northward along the east side of the Apennine mountains. In the middle of the year, the Roman Senate sent consuls lentulus and gailius to lead two legions to suppress. Spartak led his army to the north and planned to cross the Alps and leave Italy. Taking advantage of the weakness of the enemy’s dispersion of forces, he first defeated the blocking Legion under the command of lengtoulus, and then defeated the pursuit Legion led by gailius. Along the way, the uprising team grew to about 120000 people. The rebels arrived at the city of Mutina in southern Gaul and opened the way across the Po River to the Alps. However, Spartak did not cross the Alps as planned, but moved south. The Roman Senate was very alarmed, worried that the rebels would attack Rome, declared a state of emergency, and granted Krasu the power equivalent to an autocrat to lead six legions to continue intercepting together with the above two legions.
in the autumn of 72 BC, Spartacus did not attack Rome, but led the rebels to assemble on the Italian peninsula of brutia, and planned to cross the Strait of Messina to Sicily by chiriqia pirate ship. But the pirates did not keep their word, did not provide ships, and Spartacus’s plan to cross the sea with his own raft failed to come true. At this time, Krasu led nearly 10 legions to chase them and build a large trench (about 55 kilometers long, 4.5 meters deep and wide) across the peninsula at the isthmus of the blutium (now Calabria) Peninsula behind the rebel army to besiege them, And the ancient “eleven grid killing order” (the eleven grid killing order is a military order used by the Roman army to ensure the morale and fighting spirit of soldiers. The military order stipulates that every ten soldiers who are not in a good fight will be killed by lot). Spartacus took advantage of the enemy’s lack of vigilance on a windy and snowy night to command the rebel army to fill a short trench with branches, soil and wood, and then use the cavalry as the guide to break through the blockade. After the battle of brutia, Spartacus broke through the obstacles, but suffered heavy losses, and the army lost nearly 23.
in the spring of 71 BC, the rebels were forced to try to raid the southern Italian port of Brindisi and cross the sea to Greece. In order to wipe out the rebels as soon as possible, the Roman authorities transferred back the troops of rukurus from Macedonia and Pompeii from Spain, and surrounded the rebels from the East, North and South with Krasu. When the rebels approached brundisi, rukurus’s army had landed there. Pompeii led his army from the north, and Crassus followed. At this critical moment, there was another division within the rebel army. Most slaves, including Spartak, advocated leaving Italy, rushing out of the Alps, entering Gaul, where Roman forces had not yet reached, getting rid of Roman rule, gaining freedom and returning to their hometown. The local herdsmen and poor farmers who participated in the slave uprising were unwilling to leave Italy and hoped to continue to fight with the Roman army to seize the lost land. This difference caused 30000 insurgents to leave the main force, and a team of about 12000 people led by Kress broke away from the main action and was destroyed by Krasu. Faced with a strong enemy, Spartacus decided to fight the nearest Krasu army before several enemies met.
in the spring of 71 BC, the two sides met in Apulia. The commanders of both sides led their troops out of the camp and made a battle formation. The trumpeters were ordered by Spartacus to blow bugles and horns, and the ranks of gladiators and slaves rushed to the Roman phalanx with fierce momentum. Krasu’s Legion could not withstand the terrible impact. Their front began to waver. Spartacus fought in the center of the front line. As soon as Spartacus saw that the enemy’s team began to retreat, he immediately ordered mamilius and his 8000 cavalry waiting behind the infantry team to attack the enemy’s right or left wing, ready to attack the right wing of the Roman front. Krasu watched the development of the war. He ordered 10000 cavalry to snipe the enemy’s cavalry. Thus, the cavalry of mamilius, who made a surprise attack on the right wing of the Roman front, unexpectedly met the superior cavalry of the enemy. By this time, Rome’s deputy general momius had led his four legions to attack the right wing of the Gladiator fiercely. At this time, Krasu pulled up his last Reserve Corps and sent a signal to order the retreating team to withdraw from the battlefield. Those teams quickly split to the left and right, allowing the new force led by Krasu himself to go to the front line. The right wing of the Gladiator cavalry collapsed in the enemy’s attack. The left and right sides of the Gladiator front retreated under the pursuit and detour of the enemy, and the gladiators were almost completely surrounded by the enemy. Only in the middle of the front, in Spartacus, there was resistance against the enemy.
night fell, but the battle had not stopped, and the exhausted gladiators were still resisting. Spartacus refused to step back. He rushed up with more than 1000 soldiers around him. Into the Roman battle with a dagger. But they exceptHe set no example except his death. More than 60000 gladiators died, and more than 10000 gladiators who survived retreated one after another. Finally, Spartacus was surrounded by Roman soldiers with shields. Seven or eight shotguns stabbed him in the back. Spartacus died. As a result of the battle of
, 60000 insurgents including Spartacus died, about 5000 fled to northern Italy and were destroyed by Pompeii, and 6000 prisoners were crucified all the way from Rome to gapua. Yu Bu has been fighting in many parts of Italy for ten years.