Babylonian religion lasted for thousands of years, and there were a large number of gods.
As George Rox summarized, “there are hundreds of human like gods with no power in the sky, and each God is assigned a special task or special scope of activities.”.1. The head of the gods, ansumi, known as an, and Akkad, known as Anu, has been listed as the nominal head of the gods since 3000 BC.
Ann, which means “sky”, is the God of heaven.
According to the rough statue of God, it depicts the image of a worshipper.
Through the exaggerated eyes of the characters, we can imagine the awesome God.
In other words, he lives in the highest heaven called “an Zhitian”, and is the Supreme God.
All other gods honored him as the “father”.
When the gods encounter danger, such as flood disaster, they all come to him to pray for protection.
When the gods need to sue someone, they also come to him.
For example, the goddess Ishtar is severely rejected by the hero Gilgamesh.
She comes to Anu and says to him, “Oh, father, Gilgamesh curses me.
” And asked Anu to send “a longicorn” down to earth to oppose Gilgamesh.
Anu combined the symbol of monarchy, that is, power and justice.
In front of the throne where he sat, the symbol of his authority was placed, “the scepter, crown, crown and Scepter symbolizing monarchy”.
The image of Anu engraved on the stele is a triple crown placed on the throne.
Anu also commands an army: the stars he created to destroy evil are called “Anu’s soldiers”.
Anu never left heaven to descend to earth.
When he gave up his majestic habit, he also walked in the sky named “Anu road” reserved for him.
Although Anu enjoys supreme authority, he also has a weak side.
In the creation myth, when he went to fight Tiamat, he did not dare to fight the monster, but left the honor of defeating Tiamat to Marduk.
Anu’s spouse is the cloudy side of the sky.
Antu flows milk from his breasts, which is rain.
In one myth, ANU fertilized the earth and gave birth to rain, sometimes appearing as his spouse.
In the early Sumerian Dynasty, Ann was the patron saint of the city of Uruk.
In later history, Ann’s supreme power seems to have been replaced.
First enlier, then Marduk.2. Aeolian enlier aeolian enlier is more important and active in human affairs.
At first, he may represent the moist spring breeze, moistening the growth of all things.
Later, he became the God of hurricanes.
His weapons were flood and strong wind.
Like Zeus in Greek mythology, enlier embodies the power of nature.
Similarly, like Zeus, he was soon regarded as the relief of the palace of nasibar II in Assyria, which dominated people’s fate – the winged bird head God. God. For human beings, enlier is a God who blesses and brings disaster.
It is he who falls in the rage and destroys human beings in the flood.
According to the myth, his spouse is the grain goddess ninglil, who was robbed by him.
After his behavior was punished by the court of gods in nipur, he was sent to the underground world.
Ninglil went with him, and he gave birth to many underground gods on the way.
As a result, they may replace the eldest son moon god su’en, Nana, who first came to the underground world.
It is conceivable that this myth reflects that the wind deprives all things in the season of high wind, which is regarded as forcible occupation in the creation myth.
After harvest, the wind stopped, which was regarded as their death, and the stored underground grain entered the underground world because of its departure.
Enlil was the leader of the Council of the gods, which was located in the temple of nipur.
He also relied on destructive storms to implement the resolutions of the Council of gods, which reflected his nature.3. The third of the three great gods of Sumer is ninghulzag.
There are three myths and legends about her: one legend says she is the wife of tranquility.
One legend says her husband Ning hulzag is Shure.
One legend says she is enlier’s wife.
Like enlier, he is also the God of wind and rain.
Ninghulzag is the Great Mother God.
One of her important roles is the goddess of fertility.
As a “delivery woman”, she is the protector of pregnant people and animals in the delivery room, sheep pen and cattle pen, and the protector of Kish city.
In adabo City, she also has a main temple called AI mach, which means “huge house”, which matches a more far-reaching name Ning mach, which means “Lady”.
A relief at the entrance of the temple of ninghulzag in ur City, in which there is a lion headed eagle accompanied by two female deer.
The eagle symbolizes the rain after a long drought, and its spread wings can cover the sky.
In Akkadian, she is called belite Eli, which means “Queen of the gods”.
It is said that Nineveh city is named after her name “Ning”.4. Stream God – enqi in mythology, ninghulzag always competes with enqi.
Akkad called enqi EA.
According to myths and legends, enqi is a cunning freshwater God.
With the increasing influence of the male dominated God enqi, he replaced ninghulzag as one of the three dominant gods in the early 2000s BC.
Enqi, which means “the manager of land production”, has the characteristics of supplying irrigation water.
Without him, the southern two river basins will become barren deserts.
He was the patron saint of the southern city of elidu, where there was his temple APSU.
Enqi is characterized by intelligence, because other gods fighting with him are usually powerful gods such as Enlil and ninghulzag, and he wins with his smart intelligence and never relies on violence.
Therefore, sometimes he is also called the God of great wisdom and the God of knowledge.
As the God of knowledge, he taught all crafts, arts and knowledge to mankind.
Carpenters, masons and goldsmiths regarded him as their own protective god.
At the same time, he is also the patron saint of the southern city of elidu, whose temple is called “APSU”.5. Lord of life – malduk in 2000 BC, with the rise of Babylonians, the main god of the city also became the first of the gods.
This is malduk in Babylon.
In the Bible, it was originally the God of the storm, and his name means “son of the storm”.
In his early days, he was equal to ASAR Lu He, the rain god in the south.
ASAR is the “master of heavy rain”.
His city is close to elidu and is considered to be the eldest son of enqi.
In Sumerian mantra, it means the God of clouds and rain.
In this picture, Marc wears a gorgeous shirt and holds it tightly with his left handThe pole and ring symbolizing the king’s power stand beside a snake and dragon.
Observe the attack of the disease on human beings on the ground and report it to his father enqi, so that his father can know how to fight back from elsewhere.
With the passage of time, malduk’s role as the main god of the city and later as the main god of the country gradually covered up his early nature.
He was politicized first as the bearer of the nationalist aspirations of the Babylonians.
His wife is salpanitum, and the temple is issagra.
In the epic of creation, Marduk boldly confronts the terrible Tiamat.
Before the war, he insisted that the gods gave him supreme authority and the privilege to determine the fate of mankind, and got all this.
When he defeated Tiamat, the gods thanked him and granted him 50 titles, each corresponding to a sacred symbol.
Therefore, in Marduk, all kinds of divinities are perfectly combined.
He is not only the “God who created cereals and plants and made them grow”, but also the great God who gave birth to his father’s light, made the gods new, the mage who brought the dead back to life, the wise man who knows the heart of the gods, the protector of justice and law, the creator of all things, the Lord of the gods, and the king of kings.
In this way, Marduk absorbed and assimilated all other gods and inherited their duties and privileges.
He established the universe, allocated residences to the gods, determined the orbit of celestial bodies, and created human beings with the blood of the golden clamp.
He is the “Lord of life” and a great doctor.
He got the power to rule four parts of the earth from enlier.
After that, he became the supreme commander of anunaki.
Every year at the zagmuk celebration banquet at the beginning of the year, he personally decided people’s fate in Dooku, the “clean residence”.
Even the supreme god Anu felt the influence of Marduk’s increasing honor.6. During the reign of Assyrians, Ashur, the king of gods, on the one hand, Assyrians inherited the culture, writing and religion of the conquered Babylonians, and the former Sumerian Babylonian gods still played an important role.
On the other hand, the Assyrian tribal gods and national gods were successively incorporated into the old temples.
Ashur, the Assyrian tribal god, Ashur, became the official patron saint of the country and rose to the status of the main God.
So Ashur became “the king of gods, the Lord of all things, the father of gods, the creator of heaven and hell, the Lord of gods living in the kingdom of light, the creator of mankind, and the God who determines the fate of mankind.”. Ashur was first of all a warrior God, with the martial and warlike nature of Assyrians.
He accompanied the Assyrians to the battlefield, helped them, commanded the soldiers to attack and gave them victory.
So he accepted the first booty, and the conquered became his subjects.
Ashur’s original features are gone.
It is usually depicted as a winged disc, riding on a bull or floating in the air.
These are symbols of martial arts, but he is not just a martial god.
As a great God, he is also the main god of the palm and abundance.
At this time, he was surrounded by branches, marked by a female goat.
His chief consort was the goddess nyril.7. Moon god – it is called Nana in sinsumeria and hina in Akkadian.
The former means “full moon” and the latter means “new moon”.
He is the patron saint of ur.
In addition to being imagined as an adult, the temple of the moon is often depicted as a bull.
His wife is ningar, which means “Lady”.
Xin is not only the father of the sun god Shamash and Venus Ishtar, but also the father of the fire god nusku.
Therefore, in the myth of the two river basins, the light actually comes from the night.
His image is an elder with a sky blue beard, usually wearing a headscarf.
Every night, he sailed in the vast night sky in a small boat, which was a bright new moon for mortals on earth.
But some people think the bright new moon is Xin’s weapon.
When the new moon becomes round, it looks like a glittering crown in the night sky.
Undoubtedly, this is the crown of the moon god Xin himself.
Therefore, Xin is called the “king of the crown”.
This continuous and regular change of the moon gives Xin a mysterious color.
For this reason, Xin is regarded as “a god whose mind cannot be seen through by any God”.
Because Hin brings light to the darkness, he becomes the enemy of those who do evil at night.
Hin also has other functions.
He counts time, because malduk made this decision on the day of creation: at the beginning of each month, you shine on the earth, and a new moon shines like two horns for six days.
On the seventh day, your crown is divided into two halves.
The 14th day is full of changes.
Xin is also full of wisdom.
At the end of each month, the gods come to him for advice, and he also makes decisions for the gods.8. Sun god – Shamash is called utu in Sumerian and Shamash in Akkadian.
Both names mean “sun”.
In mythology, every morning, the scorpion who lives on the mountain of the east to protect Shamash and protect all mountain roads opens a folded door on the hillside, and the sun god Shamash jumps out of the mountain gate and begins his daily journey.
The Sun God appeared and a brilliant golden light shone from his shoulders.
Holding a tool like a saw knife in his hand, he stepped warily up the mountain and met his coachman bunini.
Bunini drove the carriage and Shamash sat in it.
The Sun God began to rise slowly into the sky in the dazzling golden light.
As dusk approached, Shamash directed his carriage to the western mountains.
The temple of Shamash in Babylon is known as the “Temple of the judges of the world”.
As a judge, Shamash sat on the throne with a scepter and ring in his right hand, like Apollo, the Late Greek sun god.
Shamash was also a god of divination.
He revealed the secrets of the future to people through Baru, a priest specializing in divination.
After Balu offered sacrifices to Shamash, he observed the oil slick on the water surface of the holy basin, or examined the sacrificial liver, or explained the oracle of the gods from the position of stars, the movement of planets and the emergence of meteorites.
Shamash was worshipped mainly in lalsa and sipar, where divination flourished.
Shamash’s wife is Aya.
They gave birth to two abstract gods: kitu, the God of justice, and mishalu, the God of law.9. God of love – Inanna, called Inanna in Sumerian and Ishtar in Akkad.
On the one hand, she is the goddess of jujube warehouse.
On the other hand, as the goddess of grazing, she is the power to create pasture in shammu after spring rain.
A series of sacrifices in spring is essentially a ceremony to pray for a good harvest, and the harvest festival is a ceremony of Thanksgiving.
In the ceremony, it is often the king and the highest priestess who play two gods, symbolically expressing their desire for a rich harvest through their combination, and at the same time ensuring that the king will live forever because of the goddess.
Religious festivals are generally 11 days, sometimes up to 15 days.
The most important festival is the grand celebration of the new year held in spring.
This festival is intended to emphasize the reconstruction of cosmic order, the recovery of life and the determination of the fate of the coming year.
The most important devout believers during the festival (first 3000) these wide eyed believers are praying to show their awe and fear of the gods.
The activity is the “sacred wedding” held on New Year’s Day: the king plays dummuz, and a high priestess plays the God of love, inana, to repeat the legendary holy wedding ceremony between dummuz and the God of inana.
On the fifth day of the Babylonian new year, there is a sweeping ceremony in addition to the routine prayer and sacrifice.
People sprinkle holy water, apply holy oil all over the temple, and behead a pair of sheep, that is, press the bleeding sheep against the temple wall to absorb all the filth, then throw the sheep of atonement into the river, and then put up a golden “curtain of heaven” to wait for the son of Marduk.
At this time, the King appeared for the first time in the festival and entered the temple to attend the sweeping ceremony.
The purpose of the ceremony is to make the king understand that even the king is still the servant of the gods, and the king’s duty is only to manage the world instead of God.
The ceremony process includes: first, the high priest takes away the king’s scepter, sword and other symbols of the throne and puts them all in front of the statue of Marduk.
Then the high priest pulled the king’s ears and forced him to worship God.
At the same time, he explained to God that he had done no harm to the people of Babylon.
Finally, the high priest returned the throne symbol to the king and slapped him twice.
At this time, the king would show tears in his eyes, indicating that malduk had been kind to him.
On the eighth day, the king, the “son of Marduk”, led by Marduk in a luxury carriage inlaid with jewelry, set out from the Marduk temple, followed the holy road with colorful sheds, and went out of the city from the Ishtar Gate to the akhitu temple on the Bank of the Euphrates River.
After staying here for three days, he will return to isagira, the temple of Marduk in Babylon, and hold a ceremony to divine the fate of the king and his country within a year.
In this series of religious activities, no matter how grand the ceremony is and how complicated the procedures are, the purpose is to pray for the protection of God and bless mankind.