(the title mainly refers to the Netherlands painting school in the 17th century or the Dutch small painting school in the Renaissance. This statement is not so accurate that when I first saw this problem, I always thought of the Dutch small painting school). Painting always records the historical events of its era and reflects the economic and cultural conditions at that time, Like the screenshots of the documentary on social life, if you want to talk about the influence of Dutch painting school outside the history of art, I think you can talk about how it recorded the social changes at that time, especially the religious reform.
the development of the Netherlands mainly depends on commercial trade and handicraft industry. It is difficult to develop agriculture or industry due to the limited conditions in terms of terrain and resources (there are too many swamps, the terrain is low, and the sea water will be flooded as soon as it rises. But it is most suitable for trade). The street vendors make it easier for capitalism to grow in this place, As a result, there are many small citizen classes. When they have spare money, they raise funds to let those fleets go to sea to do business, transport salted fish, wool and spices, and then fight against Spain, which bullies them. When the fleet came back, everyone shared dividends. There were more rich people, more people who had seen the world, and more people came to Italy to learn advanced culture and feel the light of humanistic thought. By the 16th century, Netherlands had developed into the only advanced region in Europe that could be compared with Italy.
in the 15th century, “painters’ interest in describing secular life and the surrounding environment has greatly increased, and their works reflect the tendency of realism from time to time”.
the following is “Ghent altarpiece” made in 1432, which is still very Gothic and very religious.
can be called the first real oil painting in the world. Author: janvan Eyck
the following photograph of arnolfine and his wife was made in 1434, the same as the author of the same picture, but with “the rich and colorful scenes of the real world and real life broke through the asceticism of the Middle Ages”. For the metaphors of the items in the picture, please refer to @ Martin’s answer. It will not be repeated here.
at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries “The economy of Netherland is prosperous, and the capitalist relations of production have further developed; the advanced culture of the Italian Renaissance has also been introduced, and the humanistic thought has been widely spread in the intellectual circles of Netherland; the demand against feudalism is becoming stronger and stronger; the degeneration of the Holy See and the Catholic church has also been further exposed, and there are increasingly strong demands for religious reform in the society.”
paintings at this time began to satirize Catholic birds ~ the following picture is Hieronymus Bosch’s paradise on earth, “Bosch often satirizes them bitterly through fantasy comic images, such as mice, monkeys, demons and ghosts, or half human and half animal allusions, such as Catholic bishops, senior monks, theologians, feudal lords and other characters.”
has a detailed explanation of this painting at the bottom of the answer, and the BBC Renaissance series also has a special video of this painting. I saw it in Tudou before, but I can’t find it now. If you have trouble climbing over the wall to see this video, please give me a link, Qiu ~ (to my surprise, the brief history of foreign art published by the Central American teaching and research office did not mention such a famous painting) and genre paintings also began to appear, such as quinten Massys’s the money changer and his wife, “It vividly shows the banker’s activities and life: the husband weighs the money very carefully, and the wife is reading the prayer book, but the opened prayer book is put aside. She has no mind to read it, but pays close attention to her husband’s activities with great interest.” Well, this is my ideal life.
the people of hard-working lowland countries become rich through hard work. Netherland buys wool from Spain, processes and exports it, and most of it is exported to England, while the profit is only enjoyed by the Netherlands. Because the goods are produced in the Netherlands, the eldest Spain is very angry. Why doesn’t the younger brother pay the protection fee. Moreover, at this time, most of the lowland countries completed religious reform and believed in Protestantism. The big brother of Catholicism (or Spain) was really angry and increasingly restricted the development of Netherland from political, religious and other aspects. So capitalism began to resist feudalism, and the bourgeoisie resisted feudal landlords…
below is Pieter bruegheld, the greatest artist of the Netherland Renaissance A’s household survey in Bethlehem and baby killing in Bethlehem “suggest the scene of excessive collection and cruel slaughter by the Spanish army in Netherland in the form of religious paintings.”
after entering the 17th century, the business in the Netherlands continued to develop, giving birth to the “Dutch small painting school” and more and more independent painters. To a certain extent, the painters of the court and the church can gradually develop from the commercial consumption of the painters of the court and the church, Free creation (of course, this free creation can’t be separated from the aesthetic preferences of citizens, otherwise it can’t be sold. But compared with the past, there is more choice of painting themes).
PS: the contents in quotation marks are extracted from the brief history of foreign art and paradise on earth by the Central American teaching and research office. The painter’s real name is jeroenvan aken 1450-1516. Most of his paintings depict crime and the decline of human morality. Bohi expresses human evil in the image of devil, half man, half beast and even machinery. His paintings are complex, highly original and imaginative, and use a large number of various symbols and symbols, some of which are very obscure even in his time. Bosch is regarded as one of the enlighteners of surrealism in the 20th century.
the left “garden of Eden” of this triple painting depicts heaven, God, Adam and Eve and many magical creatures in Christianity. The middle “paradise on earth” depicts the paradise on earth with a large number of naked human bodies, huge fruits and birds;The owl appears in front of the picture. The four furnace shaped mountains farther away also correspond to the four furnace shaped mountains in the background of the left couplet. Flying monsters appeared in the sky, such as dolphins on the back of winged fish and Griffin head monsters. The man riding on the latter holds a branch symbolizing life in his hand.
there is a transparent glass ball in the foreground pool, in which sits a pair of seemingly innocent and flirting men and women. We can notice that on the whole, the glass ball and the fruit under it form a head to tail shape, while the glass ball is full of fine cracks. Cracks represent the transience and fragility of happiness.
3. The right couplet describes a typical Bosnian Hell: fire, grotesque and torture. As mentioned earlier, there was a big fire in the town where boss lived in 1463 – the fire in the picture is inseparable from it. The time of the whole painting is set in the dark, and the more or less beautiful natural scenery of the left Union and the Chinese Union is completely missing here. The color of the picture is full of anxiety. We saw panic stricken people escaping from the burning village, and human sin and punishment were revealed in the scene of hell. Humans are hunters, but here they are teased and abused by animals. Mice, rabbits, fat pigs, birds and dogs, wearing human clothes, seem to be performing the function of punishing fallen human beings instead of God. In the lower right corner of the picture, a fat pig wearing a nun’s scarf is hugging a naked man. With a smile on his face, the fat pig is handing the goose feather pen to the man. The man behind the fat pig was crawling with a toad on his badge, and a document with big red dots on his head and hand. The kid under the man put on knight armor and played with a quill pen. It can be seen that the naked man is a man of high status, and the fat pig is forcing him to sign legal documents. All this is obviously a mockery of earthly life. A group of gamblers appeared at the bottom left of the picture. Playing cards were scattered on the ground. The woman with a blank face had a large dice on her head and a jar and candle in her hand – the symbol of a prostitute. The hand pierced by the dagger in the big blue pot also holds the sieve. On the left side of the woman is a gambling table. In front of the devil, gamblers and lusters panic.
there is a monster with an elephant trunk at the lower right of the picture. A closer look showed that it was a bird headed monster with a big pot (perhaps symbolizing the crown) on its head, sending a man to its mouth. It sat on a shelf similar to a toilet, and a large transparent ball was excreting under its body. In the ball was the human being it ate into its stomach. Next to the cesspit under the toilet, a man with his back to the picture was excreting gold coins (suggesting the crime of greed), and a man was vomiting with a ferocious face (suggesting the crime of overeating). On the left side of the toilet is the familiar picture: in the hell of seven deadly sins, the woman punished for pride is hugged by a black dog demon, and a toad is crawling on her chest (suggesting the heart – the place where pride breeds). The dog demon is forcing her to look at a mirror reflected on the tree monster’s hip. The man lying in bed was visited by the devil because of his laziness.
more upward, are giant musical instruments stacked together. But in the hell of Bosch, they look more like instruments of torture. In the middle ages, music was regarded as a symbol of pleasure and desire. The devil beating the big drum mocks the poor creature locked in the drum; The huge harp is nailed with people seduced by the sound of the harp (the harp also appears in the seven deadly sins – obscene Music); The lute became a stake of fire; The horn seemed to become an oven, and the desperate hand from the inside explained everything. The huge music score unfolded seems to be evidence of the temptation of music to mankind.
occupy the central position of the picture. It is a tree man with an egg shaped body, stump like limbs, a face, a huge pink bagpipe on his head and two swaying boats under his feet. He looked back at the audience with such a haggard expression. Is he haggard because of suffering, or is he helpless to sigh for what he saw? The tree man’s face is said to be a self portrait of the artist himself. Bosch once drew a sketch for the tree man, which shows the energy he invested in this classic image.
bagpipes represented barbarism and vulgarity in Bosch’s time, and its pink made people feel that it was taken out of the tree man’s body. We noticed that the man with white cloth on his head turned a deaf ear to the whistle. The quilt of the tree man’s egg shaped body is also hung with the flag of bagpipes. In his stomach, several dark little people were meeting around the table. A gray monster in thick clothes is climbing down the ladder. To the right of the tree man’s face, next to a tree, a devil pierced the body of a naked knight with a sword (the combination of punishment for anger and jealousy in the seven deadly sins); Seven wolf like monsters are eating into another knight whose body has been cut in two. The seven monsters here are not accidental. They represent seven sins.
from the above, it can be seen that the most deadly crime of lust among the seven sins gets the most punishment in hell.
two sharp blades with Omega letters (note, not c) appeared before and after the tree man. One stretched out from the corner where the knight was killed, and the other was sandwiched between a pair of huge human ears. Omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet, symbolizing the end. Is hell the end of mankind? express volumes.
interestingly, in the interpretation of alchemy, the scene of hell is regarded as the preparation for rebirth. The purpose of distillation is purification – after experiencing the disaster of hell, human beings will get spiritual sublimation and return to the original purity.