The predecessor of

Prussia, the electorate of Brandenburg, has always been the old and young frontier and poor areas belonging to the northeast frontier of the Holy Roman Empire in the middle ages. At that time, the real economic center of Germany was the urban agglomeration along the Baltic Sea, the Rhine River and frankinia. Brandenburg’s economy is dominated by farming. The land is not fertile, the population is not too large, and there is no large commercial city. The territory of East Prussia has become an agricultural state after losing danze, an important seaport, and there is no significant economic growth point at all. When the black death broke out, almost half of the population in these two territories was killed. Later, although they won Magdeburg and East Pomerania in the 30-year war, they were only better than nothing. The agricultural economic essence of Brandenburg Prussia did not change. However, in the 18th century, Prussia suddenly rose during the period of Frederick the great, defeated Austria to seize Silesia, and participated in the partition of Poland to obtain the greater Poland region of posensis Prussia, which became one of the European powers. What is the economic basis supporting this rise?

you are right. The essence of Brandenburg Prussia is an inland agricultural state. There are not even large commercial cities in the inland center, and there are no good northern ports, and the real inland center line really only passes through the south of the present German Italian region.. But the agricultural state can also do a lot of things..

must be mentioned above. During the period of Frederich wilhelmvon hohenzollen, Frederick I made many reforms in the early days of the Prussian kingdom. Mainly in the following points:

1. The state-owned land implements the tenancy system.

this is a royal decree issued by Frederick I on August 13, 1715, announcing that the private land of the monarch is indivisible, and the non transferable state-owned land is uniformly managed by the state on the issue of ownership, but the complete management right is delegated. In this way, the king’s right to dispose of the land is guaranteed to ensure that it is the output of the national economy (such as the combined management on some agricultural land). The decentralization of the management right has promoted the development of the individual economy to a certain extent.

this makes the landlord class of Junker in Prussia change greatly, that is, from the early landlord class to the manor landlord class, began to transition to bourgeoisization and entered a transitional period. At this time, Frederick I began to open completely independent management rights to the manors under the Juncker group, including private disposal of farmers and tax exemption. The above policies of

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were regarded as disadvantages in Prussian politics in the steinhardenberg reform and in the early 19th century, but in the period of Frederick I and II, this policy reintegrated the maximum productivity of the agricultural state to a certain extent.

2, the agricultural reform during Frederick II.

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are mainly to promote potatoes as the main cash crop. On the land of central Europe, they began to serve as the main food economy. With the development of agriculture and urbanization, people began to gather. Appoint a affairs officer to make a unified plan for the reclamation of new land and force the resumption of agricultural production in all regions of Prussia. This not only produced the existing effect, but also paved the way for the later Stein Hardenberg reform to a certain extent.

3, the mercantilism of Frederick I. In the era of

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, in fact, handicraft industry has gradually become one of the sources of finance. Frederick I paid more attention to this matter, and in the conscription order during his reign, That is to make it clear that the compulsory collection of skilled workers is not allowed to join the Army (you know, Frederick I is the “soldier king”, but he gave in on this issue), implement economic seclusion with high tax rates, protect the fragile domestic handicraft industry, give tax concessions, and plan handicraft concentration areas and commodity markets.

In the political will of Frederick I in 1722, he continued to elaborate the business concept of developing handicrafts and workshops, especially requiring the successor Frederick II to pay attention to the maintenance of the achievements of the existing workshops, and to maintain the continuous expansion of the scale of wool and linen workshops and the continuous development of handicrafts. The executor of this policy is von Mashal.

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based on the development of handicraft industry, to build the inland trade city (at this time, the Prussian commercial center city has begun to form. With the highway construction, it connects to the southern frankinia, and finally the commodity trade flows into the inland river trade system of the Rhine River). And pay attention to foreign trade, “Brandenburg Africa” trading company has been established with the Netherlands since the election, which is used to operate the trade between Europe and Africa’s Gold Coast.

During Frederick I’s time, he even used public finance to lend money to economic leaders, subsidize large-scale mining projects, port construction and bank construction, ban private usury, publish legal interest rates, improve the monetary system, subsidize schools and lay roads.

however, all the above are based on Frederick I’s high tax rate for the people. Of course, as a temporary policy, the high tax rate began to return to the policy slowly after the Prussian economy was on the right track.

and the Royal Decree of Potsdam, to a certain extent, opened the immigration policy of Prussia, mainly because the French King (Uncle Sun King) revoked the Nantes amnesty and had to flee from France to Huguenot Protestants in Germany. Most of these people are workers and small business owners engaged in port and textile industry. It just corresponds to Frederick I’s demand for the development of Folk Commerce and handicraft industry, and plays a great role.

4, the of Frederick II (the great).

the period of Frederick I was a rather militaristic society, and the period of the great emperor was similar, but it was not militaristic relatively. Every war he foughtThere are some risks, and there is a purpose to avoid them. For example, as soon as Austria ended its war against Turkey, Prussia found it and captured Silesia at a relatively small cost. In the whole war of succession to the Austrian throne, the second Silesia war also fully demonstrated the war potential accumulated during Frederick I. Silesia happens to be the textile center of Germany, and Prussia is developing large-scale textile industry at this time.. The combination of “spekds” and “spekds” is not only the internal affairs of Prussia, but also the internal affairs of Prussia, so “spekds” and “spekds” have a clear strategic purpose.. This enabled Prussia to start from the great emperor and build on the accumulation of the kingdom in the early stage. Although there were failures in foreign military operations, on the whole, Prussia gained a lot, including territory, geographical situation and commercial interests.

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are the economic basis for the rise of Prussia..