The first version of the “throfspones” series is the history of the “throfspones” series. In the existing series, the author George R R. Martin has built an extraordinary world. The world is divided into the western continent and the eastern continent. The north of the western continent is an ice wall, which separates the ice and snow world in the north; The south is a kingdom of seven principalities. The eastern continent is a huge grassland and desert. Some port cities in the eastern continent are free cities, forming alliances and relatively independent.

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on the grandeur of the world outlook, only the “Middle Earth” world in the Lord of the rings can be comparable to “ice and fire”. However, the Lord of the rings is deliberately divorced from reality, and the emergence of magic elements such as elves and magic is very direct. In contrast, the magical elements of ice and fire are subtle and hidden. Martin is obviously more fascinated by the surging fate and complex joys and sorrows of human society. When he wrote, he referred to a large number of European history to refine and integrate it. Therefore, reading ice and fire is like reading a book on the fate of mankind. You can find the allusion of history everywhere.

it should be noted that art comes from life and is higher than life. Ice and fire do not copy history. Some history has changed in ice and fire. In the real world, there is no plot as dense as that in the novel, which is openly plotting war, love, hate and hatred. However, the historical element of “ice and fire” does provide a new reading perspective.

“ice and fire” is largely based on medieval European history, as follows:

1 Feudal system

the Kingdom system in the western continent coincided with the feudal system in the middle ages of Europe. On the Iron Throne of King’s land sits the king, and the Lords of seven principalities are loyal to the king. However, each principality has considerable independence. There are some small nobles under the Lord, each with their own territory and castle. In addition, there are some knights who serve the nobles. The king has the power to command seven lords, and the Lords can summon knights and lords loyal to him. However, “the servant of the servant is not my servant”. The king cannot directly command the knight loyal to the Lord, otherwise it will be understood as treason. The king has the power to summon lords, and the king has to provide protection for the whole kingdom. For example, in ice and fire, repair the ice wall in the north and collect manpower for night’s watch.

loyalty does not mean unlimited obedience. Feudal allegiance in European history was influenced by Germanic warrior culture. In Germanic culture, it is conditional for soldiers to listen to the leadership from scratch. The leader must seek the best interests for the soldiers. Absolute authority does not exist. Therefore, in the feudal system of Europe, strong nobles may directly confront the king. The Duke of Burgundy in the hundred year war between Britain and France directly fought with the king of France. Similarly, in ice and fire, there are all kinds of subordinates who are immobile, unreliable and even rebellious. For example, the Frey family of twins is loyal to Riverland, but they don’t listen to Riverland’s command. The Bolton family loyal to stark directly defected to stark. This changing loyalty, alliance, opposition and betrayal have created all kinds of tense plots for ice and fire.

another feature of the feudal system is the eldest son inheritance system. The early Germanic tradition was to divide the family property equally among their descendants. For example, the Frankish empire was divided into three. This often leads to national decline and scuffle. In the middle and late Middle Ages, the eldest son inheritance system became the main way of aristocratic territory and property inheritance. After all, medieval property and territory were acquired mainly by inheritance. Hereditary families should think about the future in a few generations. The eldest son inheritance system can maintain sufficient territory, force and property integrity, and further maintain the influence of the family in the future.

other offspring must find other ways out. The gap between them and their eldest son is huge. These children have several classic ways out. One is the religious line, becoming a priest. In the middle ages, the church was the only public functional organ, and priests had great social influence and power. The other is the military route, which gathers enough equipment to receive enfeoffment through meritorious service on the battlefield. The mercenary regiment like second son in ice and fire is composed of such second sons who have no right of inheritance. Finally, lucky people, through the arrangement of their parents, seek a rich wife. “Soft food” has been an industry since ancient times. Old Frey’s series of marriage arrangements with the stark family and his children’s expedition with Robb are essentially to solve the future livelihood of future generations.

inheritance rights will change due to some factors. The death of the eldest son is a major factor. Bran always thought he would become a knight under his brother, and after Robb was killed, he became a de facto Lord. The right to inherit can also be granted or deprived by some legal means. In the history of Europe, the right of inheritance has been deprived and re granted. In the ice and fire, after bran disappeared, the concubine jonsnow may also return to the stark family and become the heir of the Lord through the king’s amnesty. Once the identity of Prince joffrey’s private son is established, his inheritance becomes illegal. That’s why Stannis wrote about this. If there is no male heir in a family, there will be female heirs, such as Sansa of the stark family. Marry such a wife, fame and wealth. The queen kept Sansa in custody and forced Sansa to marry the little devil.

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the military system coordinated with the feudal system is the knight system. Knights are a special class of warriors. They were loyal to the Lord and obtained their small territory from the Lord. But Knights need to bring their own horses and weapons. Such a set of equipment was expensive in the middle ages and could not be borne by ordinary farmers or small citizens at all, so fighting was a matter of Knight monopoly. After Robb rebelled, he gathered a large number of loyal knights and finally captured Jamie the regicide alive. After the Lord wins, he needs to distribute the booty and reward the brave knights, such as dividing more territories or raising the level。 Such a tree as hearttree is considered sacred and the core of faith. Such a simple worship of nature is very similar to the belief in the early civilization in history.

sevengods is actually a God, seven in one. A God has seven faces, each of which sets a moral code. Sevengods is the main belief in the western continent. This is very similar to the characteristics of Christian monotheism, Trinity and emphasis on morality. God also has a huge church, scriptures, armed forces, and even involves the struggle for kingship. The Roman Church in history has gone beyond it. What role did Christianity and the church play in European history?

lordoflight is a religion from the East. It has just begun to spread in the western continent. Stannis switched from sevengods to this religion. This religion believes that the world has two sides: light and darkness. This is very similar to Zoroastrianism in Persia in history. The main feature of this religion is binary opposition, which believes that there are two existence, namely Lord of light and the great other. The worship of fire in this religion is very similar to that of Daoism. But Lord of light seems to have some magical witchcraft, such as sacrifice and resurrection. Later, the Persian state perished, and part of the teachings of Taoism were absorbed by later Islam. The religious correspondence before

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is incorrect, so it is corrected. Thank you for your comments.

6. Scholars

there is a special group of scholars in ice and fire: maester. They have rich knowledge of astronomy, chemistry and even geography. These people and scholars serve the Lord, abide by strict vows and provide the LORD with the best advice. A maester needs a long training. In the real history, there are indeed many intelligent people with rich knowledge. The classical education in Greece is to cultivate generalists. Similar groups include Celtic Druids, medieval priests, Calvinist elders and so on.

7. Other

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ice and fire correspond to historical events. There are many such revelations on the Internet, such as the following:

when Stannis attacked King’s landing, there was the shadow of the Arab siege of Constantinople. In particular, the defenders used fire to repel their opponents, similar to the defenders of Constantinople used Greek fire to repel their opponents. The confrontation between

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Stark and Lannister is also make complaints about the war of roses in Britain. About the war of roses, please refer to my reply in another post. Why is the war of roses called the war of roses?

littlefinger’s character and behavior are very similar to Cromwell, Henry VIII’s favorite.

summary

after watching the game of thrones, they had a great interest in the history of medieval Europe. The comings and goings of allegiance, marriage, Duel and conspiracy in this magical novel condenses the history of medieval Europe.

the smelly and long middle ages are still fresh because of an American drama novel. The power of literature is so powerful.