I.

The emergence and evolution of Indian religion all kinds of religious forces have flourished in India for nearly 4000 years.

Today, the vast majority of Indians still believe in religion.

According to a 1981 survey by the Indian government, 99.

36% of the Indian population are loyal believers of today’s major religions in India.

These religions are Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and PASI (old translation or fire worship).

In addition, some Indians have converted to Judaism, while some tribal people believe in primitive Shamanism.

In world history, it is difficult to find a country that has been shrouded in a strong religious atmosphere for such a long time as India.

Indians believe that it is to believe in religion, but it is inconceivable not to believe in religion.

In India, there are temples almost everywhere, sacred pools in every village and shrines in every household.

It is no exaggeration to say that if anyone does not understand Indian religion, no one can have an in-depth understanding of the spiritual situation of the Indian people, Indian politics and society.

The geographical environment of India is one of the important reasons for the emergence and long-term spread of religion.

As mentioned, India is “backed by snow mountains and three vertical seas in the north”, bordering the bay of Bengal in the East, the Arabian Sea in the west, the vast Indian Ocean in Nanjin and the Himalayas with extreme ice and snow in the north.

The northeast is the lush L and mysterious Assam primeval forest, and the northwest is the Thar desert without birds and animals, water and grass, as well as the Sulaiman mountain and Hindu Kush mountain with high mountains and snow mountains.

In ancient times, navigation, shipbuilding and extremely low level of productivity have brought great inconvenience to people’s actions.

Few brave pioneers may not be able to conquer daunting and towering mountains and vast and mysterious oceans.

Although the long-standing Indus River, Ganges River and their many tributaries bring people the benefits of irrigation and transportation, they are often ravaged into disasters.

The subtropical and tropical climate of the Indian subcontinent brings people torrential rainstorms and unbearable summer heat all year round.

In the face of this closed and dangerous geographical environment and uncontrollable natural forces, people feel the vastness of the universe and the smallness of individuals, and feel the need to seek a support sufficient to settle down, so they fantasize about using prayer, sacrifice or witchcraft to influence the gods who dominate the nature to obtain benefits and protection, and endow these gods with mysterious supernatural nature, This gave rise to the original religion.

In addition to the influence of geographical environment, Indian religion also has its historical reasons for its emergence and development.

After entering the class society, class oppression has brought people more pain than natural disasters.

When people can’t understand its social roots, they have the idea that the misfortunes and blessings of life are controlled by God, and infinitely exaggerate and expand this subjective understanding, so as to make it divorced from the objective reality and nature and become an absolute personified and elvish force.

In addition, since the 15th century BC, the Indian subcontinent has been invaded by Aryans, Greeks, Macedonians, Huns, Persians and Arabs, and there are frequent wars in the subcontinent.

The emergence of class oppression and the long-term turbulent social environment have further provided fertile soil for breeding religion.

The emergence of slavery and feudalism and the alternation and alternation of various forms of political power make people feel that things in the world are like floating clouds and changeable.

Life is like a dream.

Everything is empty.

In the bitter sea of real life, people place their hopes on gods and the future, and thus multiply various forms and contents of religions and celestial systems.

It is generally believed that Indian religion is very complex.

The so-called complexity refers to its long history, various changes and extensive content.

The earliest religious belief in India can be traced back to the 30th century BC.

There have been signs of religious worship in the Indus River Valley culture in the late prehistoric society at that time.

From the 20th century BC to the 15th century BC, the first recorded religion in India, Vedism, appeared.

Vedism, named after the early Vedic era in Indian history, is a mixture of religious beliefs of the Dravida, the original inhabitants of the Indus River Basin, and the Aryan nomadic tribes from Central Asia.

Strictly speaking, Vedism is only a religion of nature worship.

The darapitans and the conqueror Aryans worshipped and worshipped all significant natural phenomena as personified gods, including 36 gods, such as the God of heaven, boruna, the God of earth, bodhidivy, the God of the sun, Surya, midoro, shapitri, the God of dawn, ushas, the God of thunder and rain, Indra, the God of wind, yayou, the God of fire, ajini and soma.

Although Vedism belongs to multi God worship, the worshipped gods often have the distinction of honor and inferiority, but the honor and inferiority of each god varies from time to place.

Therefore, as M.

Muller, a famous German Oriental scholar in modern times, said, Vedism is a real “alternating theology”.

At this time, India was in the gradual disintegration of clan society and the breeding of slavery society.

The relatively primitive and simple Vedism is a transitional religion from primitive religion to class society under this social form.

After the Aryans conquered northern India, they absorbed the advanced culture of the darovitan people and began to change from nomadic to settled life.

In addition to enslaving the conquered clan members, there was also a polarization between the rich and the poor within themselves.

At the beginning of the 10th century BC, a number of slavery City States appeared one after another.

The remarkable feature of Indian slave society is that during the formation of Aryan slave state, class relations changed sharply and a caste system centered on Brahman priests was formed.

In this strict social hierarchy, the lowest caste’s sudara is the free people who have lost their land or the conquered dravidans, who have no means of production, or are hired workers or slaves.

Later, there appeared “Dalits” with lower status than sudara.

In order to strengthen the rule of lower castes and working people, the Brahman group used religion as a spiritual weapon to maintain the strict hierarchy and its privileged status.

Brahmanism came into being.

Since then, religion has formed an indissoluble bond with Indian society.

Brahmanism evolved from Vedism, but the concept of God has changed.

The Vedic gods have gradually lost their power, and “Brahman” is the Supreme God with omniscientism and omnipotence and the creator of all things.

Brahma’s deified attribute is almost difficult to express in words: immortality, immutability and standing on everything.

Although the polytheistic Brahmanism does not have temples or idols, it has developed from private daily life to the throne of the kingA very cumbersome set of theories and sacrificial rites.

Brahman priests, known as the “God of the world”, were the monopolists of all knowledge and the guides of the people’s spiritual life at that time.

They spared no effort to promote the theory of “karma” and “reincarnation”.

They said that people’s thoughts and actions before death can create the good and evil of “karma” (that is, the activities of body, mouth and mind), so as to determine the caste of people in the afterlife.

Only those who follow the rules and keep themselves in line can be exempted from sin and rebirth, be forgiven by God in the future world, and be transformed into a higher caste in the cycle of caste, on the contrary, they will be reduced to a lower caste.

Of course, its purpose is to persuade people, especially workers and slaves, to be content with the status quo and endure exploitation and oppression.

Brahmanism’s thought of karma and reincarnation was also inherited in other religions in India, and became a spiritual shackle that bound the people for a long time.

Brahman group is also the center of real society, controlling political leaders of all sizes.

Without them to preside over the ceremony of inauguration, the social status of any political leader will not be recognized.

Even in peacetime, they often interfere in the actions of political leaders.

In the 6th century BC, sixteen more important kingdoms and tribal alliances had been formed in northern India.

In the expansion war of these countries and alliances, the power of the shatili caste represented by kings and warriors continued to grow, and there were rich merchants in the Barker caste.

They are increasingly dissatisfied with the Brahman group, which holds the highest privilege in society, and the Brahmanism, which maintains a strict social hierarchy.

As a result, anti Brahmanism and freedom of thought of Salmonella appeared in the ideological circle of India, which led to the emergence of Jainism and Buddhism in the areas with weak Brahmanism in northern India.

The rise of Jainism and Buddhism coincided with the rapid development of slavery economy in India, the emergence of a large number of urban countries and the prominent class contradictions.

The Aryans had already moved eastward to the Ganges River Basin at this time, and their enslavement of the local indigenous people had caused serious ethnic contradictions.

Brahmanism can no longer fully adapt to being the ideological weapon of slavery countries.

In the social environment of universal powerlessness, humiliation and despair, many people of lower castes and slaves have the illusion of escaping from the world and try to seek self liberation through religion.

It was against this historical background that Daxiong and Sakyamuni, who also came from the Royal chadili caste, founded Jainism and Buddhism.

This is what Engels said, “the founder of religion must feel the needs of religion and understand the needs of the masses for religion”.

By the 3rd century BC, Buddhism had become the dominant religion.

The first Peacock Dynasty that basically unified the Indian subcontinent appeared in Indian history.

The kings of the Peacock Dynasty, from King Ping Sha to King Asoka, were converts and supporters of Buddhism.

The Peacock Dynasty, which is famous for its Buddhist Dynasty, not only built temples and towers in India, called on people to patrol Buddhist tracks and hold the third Buddhist Scripture gathering conference, but also sent a group of eminent monks and virtues to teach abroad on a large scale, Thus, it has a far-reaching impact on the later generation of Buddhism, which is more important than Asia and has developed into one of the three major religions in the world.

At that time, Buddhism was mainly Mahayana Buddhism (the so-called “riding” was the “riding tool” or “road” to seek liberation).

Instead of worshiping idols, they only worshipped relic (i.e. Buddha bone) and @ doubo (Buddha bone burial ground), and advocated personal practice to become Arhats.

With the development of history and the needs of the ruling class, Mahayana Buddhism has been differentiated within Buddhism, putting forward the “Bodhisattva theory”, believing that Bodhisattva is also a kind of God, and boldly advocating that God should also reincarnate while “popularizing all sentient beings”, thus opening up a road for the development of Mahayana Buddhism.

Mahayana Buddhism regards Mahayana Buddhism as a preacher in the real world.

The Buddha was promoted to a God with boundless power, compassion, omnipotence and personification, and made up all kinds of magical stories for him.

Buddhism began to worship idols.

Mahayana Buddhism preaches that the world is like a dream, the reality of suffering in the real world is untrue, and the sermon that only Nirvana with hope on the other side of the world can be truly liberated by adhering to the precepts and practicing in accordance with the Buddhist doctrine is adapting to the consciousness that the monarch is the Lord of the country, the divine power of the monarch and the irresistible command of the monarch, thus easing the class struggle of the people to change the reality.

In this regard, the reactionary nature of Mahayana Buddhism, which claims to popularize all living beings and make everyone become Buddha, is obviously more obvious than Mahayana Buddhism.

After Asoka’s death, the collapse of the central government provided an opportunity for religious belief to be laissez faire.

Brahmanism, which has declined for nearly a thousand years, slowly awakened.

On the basis of absorbing some connotations of Buddhism and Jainism, it evolved into Hinduism.

In the 4th century, Chandra Gupta I first abandoned Buddhism and established the Gupta Dynasty, which is known as the “Hindu Dynasty”.

Mahayana Buddhism focuses on the development of religious theory.

However, its enthusiastic pursuit of tedious and empty theoretical argumentation gradually separated Buddhism from the majority of disciples, led to the gradual end of the dominant position of Buddhism, and Buddhism entered the last esoteric period.

Esoteric Buddhism is a mixture of Mahayana Buddhism, Hinduism and local folk beliefs.

It is characterized by highly organized spells and rituals.

It advocates oral recitation of true words and mantras, hand binding and seal, and mental contemplation (i.e. word secret, body secret and meaning secret).

At the same time, it can become a Buddha on the spot. 8. In the 9th century, due to the prosperity of Hinduism, the extreme corruption of Buddhism, internal factional disputes and frequent foreign invasion, Buddhism began to decline and basically disappeared in the 13th century.

After the reform of shangkala in the 8th century, Hinduism restored the Sanskrit commonly used in the Brahmanic era and began to pay new attention to and devote itself to the study of Vedic classics.

Hinduism classifies the power of the universe into three kinds, and extracts three main gods from the Brahmanic gods to worship: the creation God Brahma, the destruction god Shiva (the prototype is Indra) and the protection god Vishnu.

People’s preference and alienation for the three main gods naturally gave birth to the three major Hindu sects.

The interests of the gods are equal, and the world can be at peace.

The emerging Hinduism also adopts the samsara theory and the karma theory, and attaches importance to sacrifice sacrifice.

Like Buddhism, it attaches importance to Holy Land patrol, idol worship and extensive temples.

In fact, Hinduism is the epitome of the old religions in India.

It not only contains the doctrinal elements and philosophical spirit of Brahmanism, Buddhism and Jainism, but also praises the religious leaders and gods o as the saints of Hinduism.

Because of this, Hinduism can flourish day by day and eventually become the national religion of India, making the incense of Buddhism and Jainism fade day by day.

In 712 ad, IraqThe emperor did not pay attention to sacrifice and advocated harmony and goodwill among all religions.

At that time, Hinduism and Islam had already prevailed in India, and Christianity began to be introduced, which greatly restricted the spread of Sikhs.

Most Sikhs lived in Punjab, and it remains the same today.

The Sikhs were persecuted by the Mughal Empire and gradually became stubborn and martial.

Sikhism is also gradually closely linked with the issue of striving for the political status of Sikhs.

Although the number of Sikhs was small, they were powerful.

They established an independent Sikh state from 1765 to 1849 until Punjab was annexed by the British East India Company.

From then on, the burly, brave and aggressive Sikhs were often called up to serve in the British colonial army.

This group was the “red headed a San” in the Shanghai concession of old China.

In addition to the above-mentioned major religions, in the 7th-12th century and 17th-18th century, some Persians who were oppressed by Islam and successively avoided India introduced Parsi into India.

The religion is also known as two gods or yin-yang religion, because it believes in ahuramazd (light God and good God) and angramaniu (dark god and evil god).

In addition to the two main gods, pacifism has several secondary gods.

In fact, it is a dual polytheism.

Judaism is the religion of the Jews.

After the subjugation of the Jews, they scattered all over the world, and Judaism spread all over the world.

In India, the number of followers of PASI and Judaism is very small, mainly living in Mumbai.

It should be noted that although their number is small, many believers have great influence in political, business, military and cultural circles. II. Doctrines and characteristics of Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism in India, known as the “religious Museum”, almost all the major religions in the world can be found.

The doctrines and characteristics of Islam and Christianity have long been known to most people.

Now only those who have a great impact on Contemporary India, such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism, are described below.

(I) Hinduism in the 8th century, the Vedanta philosopher shangkala followed the main teachings and theories of Brahmanism and reformed Hinduism on the basis of the so-called undifferentiated idealist philosophy that the individual spiritual “I” and the cosmic spiritual “Brahman” are the same.

At the same time, he also absorbed some connotations and customs of other religions in India, such as the Yoga system practiced by Mahatma, the founder of Jainism, for 12 years, and the Manjusri Bodhisattva of Buddhism is respected as the goddess of literature and art of Hinduism.

In essence, the doctrine of Hinduism is not an original ideological system created by a religious leader, but a synthesis of various religious theories, philosophies and folk customs in the long-term development of society.

Modern Hinduism is a complex mixture of spiritual and cultural phenomena in Indian history.

The main features of Hinduism can be roughly summarized as “five polytheism”: polytheism_ There are many incarnations, many sects, many religious rules that affect people’s customs and myths and legends that can carry as much as a car.

The highest god worshipped by Hinduism is the omnipotent neutral God Brahma.

Under this neutral God, there are three male gods, namely Brahma, who is responsible for creation, Vishnu, who is specialized in protection and preservation, and Shiva, who is in charge of destruction, production and reproduction.

In addition, there are other less important gods, such as goddess of knowledge, goddess of Ganges RIver, goddess of literature and art, elephant god (the land God of Town God’s Temple in China).

In addition to the above-mentioned great gods, many people also believe in other gods o, such as the goddess UMA, the wife of Shiva, the God of power.

The Hindu God has countless incarnations and different images, and believes that the God o departments worshipped by other religions in India are the incarnations of the Hindu God at different stages.

It is difficult for people without in-depth study and field investigation of Hinduism to say how many incarnations they have.

It is generally believed that Vishnu has 12 incarnations, such as Rama, black sky (Krishna), human lion, town snake stone carving and so on.

Shiva also has more than ten incarnations such as six handed balab and Linga (male genitalia).

The goddess UMA, Shiva’s wife, has more than 20 kinds of incarnations, including the image of a kind girl with a spring face, as well as the evil face of a ferocious and terrible girl with blood dripping from her mouth and a sharp blade.

Believers’ different worship and belief in the LORD God, the incarnation of the LORD God, other gods and doctrines have led to countless sects.

At present, the main sects include Vishnu sect, Shiva sect, Trinity Shiva sect, skeleton Shiva sect, Linga sect, Rama sect, black sky sect and sexual power sect that worship the goddess UMA (also known as nanjinmu or Kali goddess).

No matter how many factions there are in Hinduism, its main teachings can still be summarized as follows: 1 Preserve and strictly maintain the caste system and claim that everyone’s caste is determined by God and will remain unchanged forever.

Admonish people to be content with their caste and keep their duties. 2. Insist on the causal karma theory and life cycle theory that good and evil have cause and effect and soul has reincarnation.

It is believed that if people behave well in this world, their souls can enter the kingdom of heaven and be liberated.

On the contrary, they will fall into hell, reincarnate into Dalits or animals in the afterlife, and suffer deeper suffering. 3. The theory of Non Violence holds that the power of spirit, truth and morality is irresistible and will eventually overcome all evil and violence. 4. Benevolence Theory, that is, cultivating good results can accumulate Yin Gong, which can make people in a favorable position in cause and effect karma and life cycle. 5. The theory of abstinence and asceticism advocates and encourages people to get rid of all kinds of worldly desires, and advocates using various methods to consciously torture themselves in order to purify the soul. 6. All kinds of teachings.

On the basis of absorbing local folk customs, Hinduism has made religious provisions and requirements for believers’ words and deeds in the form of doctrine, such as cremation to raise the dead to heaven.

Widows die for their husbands to overcome all women’s morality.

Child marriage is the duty of Hindu women.

High castes should wear the “holy belt” of identity.

Wearing a ring can prolong life.

Wearing bracelets can bring happiness and longevity, as well as cows, that is, holy cows, etc.

There are also some differences in Hindu doctrine.

For example, while advocating that the divine caste is eternal, he also tries his best to advocate that people may be reduced to a lower caste due to their own evil “karma” in the reincarnation of the soul.

While advocating abstinence and asceticism, he also believes that one of the purposes of life is the enjoyment of human functions.

These contradictions are not difficult to understand, because every sermon has its special wonderful function.

The lower caste should keep its own and obey the higher caste, because the caste is divine and eternal.

Workers must not have “evil” thoughts or plot against the law, otherwise they will be reduced to Dalits or animals in the afterlife.

So waitThe plan, however, can not provide a good medicine for the transformation of society, but can only give people spiritual hope, comfort, satisfaction and sustenance.2. “Twelve karma theory”.

When analyzing the suffering of life and its causes, Buddhism puts forward the idealistic theory of twelve causes, which holds that the existence of various God phenomena in the world depends on the twelve God causes of mutual conditions or causal connection: ignorance (ignorance), action (will), knowledge (consciousness), name (body and spirit), color (body), six entrances (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind) Receive (feeling), love (greed), take (seeking for external things), have (living environment), life and death.

Its center is that the pain of life is caused by “ignorance”.

Only by eliminating ignorance can we get relief.3. “Triple causality theory”.

This is one of the doctrines put forward by Buddhism after combining the theory of twelve causes with other Buddhist theories in the process of its development.

Buddhism claims that all living creatures have three lifetimes (past, present and future) and live in constant reincarnation.

There are six paths to reincarnation: Heaven, man, devil (Asura), beast, hungry ghost and hell.

Only when a person’s behavior in this life conforms to the “law” of Buddhism can he avoid the pain of reincarnation, otherwise he will be doomed in reincarnation forever.

The core of this sermon is to publicize “karma” and “reincarnation of life”, and demonstrate that only by converting to Buddhism and eliminating “ignorance” can we get rid of the sea of suffering and enter the paradise of the paradise.4. “San FA Yin Theory”.

In the long-term development of Buddhism, Zhuzhe summarized its main teachings as a Three Dharma seal system of “impermanence of all actions, non self of all dharmas and nirvana”.

Its center is that all things, including human spirit and body, are in constant changes of birth and death.

The “self” and the “spirit” of the universe do not exist.

Nirvana silence means that the ultimate goal of Buddhists should be an absolutely quiet and mysterious mental state opposite to the real material world.

The key of sanfayin theory is to advocate the illusory impermanence of all things in the world and guide people to escape the social struggle of reality.

The main Buddhist classics are the “three Zang”, namely the law collection, the scripture collection and the theory collection.

Various kinds of Dharma collections are all kinds of commandments about eating, drinking and daily life set for monks and nuns.

Sutra collection is the main theoretical work of Buddhism, and ahan Sutra is the earliest classic of Buddhism, including the basic teachings of Buddhism.

The Sutra collection is also a treasure house of Buddhist literary works.

The theme of practice is basically the same as that of law collection and Scripture collection, but it mostly appears in the form of question and answer, which records the dialogue between the Buddha and his disciples, including Buddhist philosophy, ethics (Yinming) and logical thought.

On Tibet is an important document of Buddhist research.

Since the 19th century, Buddhism has spread again in India under the intervention of many external factors, but a considerable part of the three Tibetan classics of Buddhism has long been lost in India.

Only China has preserved quite complete postscript Tibetan Sutra, Chinese Tibetan Sutra and Pali Tibetan Sutra, thus preserving a number of treasures for Buddhist Research and the treasure house of human culture.

(III) Sikhism Sikhism is the fourth largest religion in India after Hinduism, Islam and Christianity, accounting for about 1.

9% of the total Indian population.

Although the number of Sikhs is smaller than that of Hindus, it has a great influence.

Sikhs are mostly engaged in agriculture, commerce or conscription.

About 10-14% of Indian soldiers come from Sikhs every year.

The main characteristics of Sikhism can be summarized as “four anti five K”: opposing abstinence.

Oppose cumbersome sacrificial rites.

Oppose polytheism.

Combine with military forces and oppose power politics.

Adult male believers mostly practice the “five K” custom.

It is summarized as follows: Sikhism opposes the polytheism and idol worship of other religions in India, advocates the belief in one God, and believes that God has no specific image but is everywhere all the time.

Everything in the world is the expression of God’s highest power, God is the highest moral code, and is the source of all people’s strength and any activity.

Sikhs’ bounden duty is to maintain their own honesty and often consciously maintain spiritual consistency with God, without being bound by the surface articles of cumbersome sacrificial rituals.

The guru of Sikhism is revered by his disciples as his ancestor.

Sikhism was a moderate reformist in Hinduism at the beginning of its establishment, and was supported and sponsored by Akbar the great.

During the second to fifth generations of ancestors, Sikhs gradually had a fixed organizational form and adopted the ancestral power hereditary system, requiring believers to absolutely obey the patriarch and worship him as a God.

The increase in the number of Sikhs and the strengthening of the patriarch’s rule over believers aroused the suspicion of Mughal officials and eventually resulted in the crime of chahanjie the great, thus ending the road of peaceful development of Sikhs.

During the armed repression of the Mughal empire against Islam, Sikhism gradually evolved into a religious faction with armed forces.

Male believers lived together for military training before marriage, and often participated in the armed struggle against the Mughal army, other sects and private enemies of their ancestors.

In 1765, the Sikhs established an independent Sikh state in the struggle against the Mughal Empire.

When the tenth generation founder govind Singh (1666-1708) succeeded to the throne, he not only announced that Sikhs were completely separated from Hinduism, but also established a powerful Sikh military organization “harisa” (i.e. “truly pure organization”), Sikhs became more stubborn and militaristic, and further carried out the struggle for Sikhs’ political power with the help of military means.

The five K custom also developed in the era of govind Singh.

The so-called five K is the Hindi abbreviation of five things that Sikhs must practice with their whole life.

Five K to expand to life without haircut, shaving, wearing a long comb and a hairdressing handkerchief.

Protect the weak, treat death like home, and be ready to die at any time.

Recognize the 10th generation of ancestors, Mr.

and Mrs.

goyid Singh, as their biological father and mother, obey their ancestors and worship them as gods.

Male believers must wear fat shorts, short swords and iron bracelets.

The word “Singh” (meaning lion) should be added to a man’s name.

Although govind Singh abolished the ancestral hereditary system, the emergence of these customs tempered Sikhs into a stronger and rugged physique, increasingly brave and aggressive character, and formed a group under the banner of religion without reservation in spirit, which made almost every believer truly become a “Singh” in the world, thus laying the basic outline of the contemporary image of Sikhs and Sikhs.

The main teachings of Sikhism can be summarized into the following two points: 1 Everyone is equal before God.

Sikhism inherited the traditions of Buddhism and JainismThe idea of equality of all living beings firmly opposes the Hindu caste system and believes that “caste is meaningless.

God doesn’t ask people about their origin, but only cares about what they do”.

Advocating that love for God is the only way for human beings to get rid of social oppression.

The progress of Sikhism’s thought of “equality before God” over other religions in India is to recognize gender equality, oppose the bad habits of discriminating against or belittling women, and strongly advocate the elimination of the inhumane practices of widow martyrdom and female infanticide.

Since the 18th century, the thought of equality advocated by Nanak has undergone significant changes.

The so-called equality of all before God has become the recognition of equality among Sikhs only, excluding other sects.

This change is undoubtedly the result of the national oppression brought by the Mughal Empire and the British colonists to the Sikhs, as well as other social factors such as religion. 2. Promote self-cultivation.

This doctrine was developed after absorbing some elements of Hindu Vedanta philosophy and Islamic Sufism.

Sikhism believes that human rationality comes from the spiritual spring “God”, and then flows out of “soul” from “rationality”, and then out of the material world from “soul”.

It claims that man can be integrated with God through the function of intuition.

In fact, self practice is to guide people to yearn for the mysterious realm.

Echoing this, Sikhism also advocates that the phenomenal world takes the patriarch or patriarch as the noumenon, and people can approach the patriarch or patriarch through pious practice and silent prayer.

Due to the small number of Sikhs, internal unity and great pressure from external religious and political aspects, Sikhs have few internal factions, which are mainly divided into lion sect (5K sect), orthodox sect (easy sect), akali sect and NANDA sect.

The only Sikh Scripture is called “grant”, which was compiled in a variety of medieval Indian languages in the 16th century.

Its genre is quite similar to Solomon’s poetry in the Old Testament.

Its contents are numerous and complicated, mainly including the life stories of ancestors, hymns and the speeches of important Sikh and Islamic activists.

No matter how profound and esoteric the teachings of Indian local religions or foreign religions are, no matter how unique specific characteristics and religious customs they reproduce, the whole connotation of all religions is the same in essence, as Engels pointed out, “Religion, in its essence, is to deprive people and nature of all their contents, transfer it to the illusion of the God on the other side, and then the God on the other side shows mercy and returns part of his thoughts to people and nature.

” The essence of all religious theories is to guide people to pursue “the illusion of the God on the other side”. III. The dual role of Indian religion.

Indian religion with a long history and complex content has deeply penetrated into India’s history, culture, politics, economy, folk customs and other fields.

At the same time, it also has a profound impact on the population of the vast areas of the world.

Buddhism goes without saying that Hinduism has also developed believers in dozens of countries in South Asia, Southeast Asia and southern Africa, accounting for more than 12% of the world’s population.

Jainism and Sikhism were also introduced into East Africa, Central Asia, the Arab world and many countries in Europe and the United States in modern times.

For example, there are nearly 200000 Sikhs in the United States alone, and there are more than 30 ancestors and nearly Western monasteries.

Therefore, when we study the problems of gods in modern and contemporary India, we may encounter contents related to religion at any time.

Although religion is a vulgar and naked idealistic sermon, which praises “inferiority, cowardice, self humiliation and obedience, and praises the various characteristics of fools”, we cannot deny it in a simple way, but must expose and criticize its reactionary nature with the scientific attitude of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, It seems that the specific impact and role of religion on Indian society should also be made public.

Marxism holds that the objective law of social development promotes the development of human society, and the production struggle and class struggle practice of the people have played a decisive role in the process of social history.

However, it is undeniable that in a specific country like India, religion has also become an important factor to promote the development of Indian society and history.

India’s class society first appeared in the Indus River Basin centered on Brahmanism.

Brahmanism, which advocated the supremacy of theocracy, and Brahman monks with the face of “human God”, controlled the thoughts and actions from kings to slaves, and dominated the Indian society at that time.

Brahmanism has gradually become the main obstacle to India’s social development and ideological progress, so there are emerging sects such as Buddhism that deny Brahman privileges, advocate ideological liberation and implement social and religious reform.

In the sense of overthrowing the corrupt privileged class of Brahman and breaking the ideological arbitrariness of Brahman group, the emergence and dissemination of emerging sects undoubtedly has important historical and social significance.

This significance is reflected in that it frees people from the shackles of Brahmanism, frees political leaders and slave owners from the long-term oppression of the Brahman group, and provides a new spiritual pillar and an active political atmosphere for the self creation and self display of all social strata outside the Brahman group on the basis of equality, Thus, it promoted the development of slavery in India to a certain extent.

Under such circumstances, under the leadership of King Chandragupta, northern India, as the center of early Buddhism, used the spiritual force of Buddhism against Brahmanism to win the hearts of the people, reorganized the army and military, and finally created the first powerful empire in Indian history, the Peacock Dynasty, in the 4th century BC.

The Peacock Dynasty basically ended the separatist regime of the Indian peninsula and provided a favorable social environment for the political, economic and cultural development of the Indian subcontinent.

This historical progress undoubtedly has a “causal” relationship with the spread of Buddhism.

The Peacock Dynasty, which worshipped Buddhism, gradually abandoned the policy of religious tolerance during the reign of King Asoka, resulting in the intensification of sectarian struggle.

The formalism of Buddhism, such as popularization, idol worship, holy land and holy trace tour, has not been able to meet the needs of some people for profound religious righteousness.

While King Asoka vigorously promoted Buddhism, he mainly relied on martial arts to maintain his rule, which made people everywhere angry.

All these factors made the religious and ideological circles enter a new era in which a hundred schools of thought contend and a hundred flowers bloom in the process of the collapse of the central government after Asoka’s death, and gradually produced a new Hinduism.

In the 4th century, Chandragupta I unified India again with Hinduism as his ideological weapon and owned most of the territory of India, creating IndiaThe second powerful empire in history is the Gupta Dynasty.

The emerging Hinduism integrates the main connotation of various original religions in India, which not only reconciles the interests of various religious factions to a considerable extent, but also provides a stable and peaceful social environment for the forward development of social productivity.

Slavery in India gradually disintegrated during the Gupta Dynasty, ushering in a new feudal society for the subcontinent.

There is no doubt that another progress in Indian history has a “causal” relationship with religion.

These facts fully show that every epoch-making progress in Indian history is closely related to the emergence of religious reform or emerging religions.

It can be seen that religion is one of the important factors to promote the development of Indian history.

Religion is also inseparable from the development of Indian cultural undertakings.

It has made great contributions to Indian literature and art, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, logic and astronomy.

For example, in Buddhism, Engels once said that Buddhists are in a high stage of development of human thinking, and Buddhist philosophy contains profound wisdom.

Buddhist culture has had a wide and far-reaching impact not only on India, but also on the culture of other countries, such as China, especially the center and end of ancient Chinese culture.

As far as India itself is concerned, the influence of Hinduism is more extensive and far-reaching.

Hinduism is the most important inspiration and material for the creation of Indian culture from ancient times to the present.

Even today’s primary and secondary school textbooks are instilling the mystery of religion into the brilliant children.

The deep-rooted influence of the long history of religious communication on India is not limited to history and culture, but all-round and multi-level.

Religion has always occupied an important dominant position in the field of social life and ideology in India.

The feelings and thinking patterns of the vast majority of Indians are tightly bound by religious ideas.

Therefore, when launching the national democratic revolution, modern and modern Indian bourgeois revolutionaries often rely on the power of religion.

After the founding of the Congress party, the moderates in the national movement were obsessed with the struggle of parliamentary participation in politics.

In order to restore the people’s national self-esteem and guide them to participate in the national liberation movement, the Democratic tirak began to resort to the historical and religious traditions of India.

When Indian national capitalism has just started, the revolutionaries represented by tirak can not get rid of the world outlook of religious idealism.

They still believe that religion is the support of national history and “an important means to make people close to and sympathize with each other”.

Tirak used the Bhagavad Gita to demonstrate the rationality of the political program of the Democrats, called on the masses with a new positive interpretation of Hindu classics, and carried out nationalism and patriotism education for the masses with the celebration of religious festivals, so that the Democrats had extensive contact with the masses and initially launched the people’s army in the national movement.

In the climax of the revolution from 1905 to 1908, the petty bourgeois revolutionist obindo Gauss put forward “spiritual nationalism”, whose core content is the conditions for India’s political revival with religious spirit and enthusiasm.

He argued with religion that freedom is human nature and divine human rights.

Guided by the “invincible, omnipotent, immortal and irresistible” God, the national movement will eventually win.

History has proved that the practice of a group of revolutionaries, such as tirak and o’gauss, in serving the national movement, has played a decisive role in mobilizing the Indian people to participate in the national struggle and aroused the revolutionary enthusiasm of the masses to a certain extent.

Mohandas kalamchand, an outstanding patriotic politician and India’s most popular bourgeois leader, devoted himself to the use of religious weapons in the national movement.

He said that God is the law governing all living creatures.

The “Rama era” marked by hand spinning and weaving is a moral society based on benevolence, asceticism and self-control in the ideal of the Indian people.

Gandhi also derived his popular non violent thought from the Hindu creed of adhering to “truth”, abstaining from killing and self-control, and drew religious moral concepts from the “universal love” of Christianity and the “benevolence” of other religions.

Gan Gong believed that the non violent religious and moral power would eventually make the British colonists who loved justice in essence correct their mistakes.

Starting from the concept that “once politics loses religion, it will lose its soul”, Gandhi used his unique religious theory, anti imperialist thought and strategy to cultivate the indomitable struggle of the workers and peasants, Chu God, patriotic enthusiasm, national self-esteem, self-confidence based on religious morality and self sacrifice spirit of fearing violence in the national movement.

Once his battle order was issued, it was like a spell, and the whole country responded unanimously.

Even in the face of the crazy suppression of the colonists, there was no intention of shrinking.

There is no doubt that religion has played a positive role in promoting the development of Indian history, prospering culture and carrying out the modern national liberation movement.

But like idealist philosophy, it “leads people’s understanding to monasticism (where the class interests of the ruling class will consolidate it)”, thus bringing huge conservative forces and accumulated inertia to the progress of Indian society.

The combination of religion and village community system has formed a unique closed society in India.

For thousands of years, the village community has been the basic unit of Indian society.

It has its own administrative staff, the five member Presbyterian Council of civil institutions and the SAPO Parliament.

Each village community is basically a small kingdom that implements political and economic autonomy, and the whole India is a large collection of these small kingdoms.

The villagers do not care about the political instability of the whole country, as long as the whole country is divided and the whole country remains intact.

No matter who the state power falls into, the village head is still the leader of tax collectors, judges and people.

Farmers and craftsmen still have to farm and pay taxes in accordance with the caste system and social division system maintained and advocated in the manu code, the yarginya valkya code, the Nalanda code, the theory of political affairs and some other religious classics.

Although they were enslaved, religious morality made them isolated from the world, content with the status quo, and even insensitive and isolated from the world.

The combination of religion and village community system has led to the long-term division of India in the history of feudal separatism and the competition between large and small kingdoms.

Even during the reign of the Mughal Empire and the British founders, there were still more than 600 large and small states in India.

Until the partition of India and Pakistan, there were still more than 300 small states in India.

The long-term existence of this situation has led to the complexity and great diversity of Indian languages.