Supporting Wu Tingyan’s “special war” not only did not subdue the South Vietnamese people, but caused the South Vietnamese people to resist more strongly.

The South Vietnamese people’s armed forces appeared and disappeared, attacked the US Wu army and destroyed the “strategic village”, which made the US and Wu Tingyan’s regime restless.

In 1963, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces successfully ambushed US helicopters in Aba village and wiped out a large number of puppet troops, which not only shocked the US government, but also intensified the contradiction between the United States and Wu.

Americans increasingly feel Wu Tingyan’s corruption and incompetence.

More seriously, on May 8, 1963, nearly 10000 Buddhists in hue took to the streets to protest against the order of the Wu Tingyan regime to prohibit them from taking to the streets to demonstrate and not allow them to fly the Buddhist flag on the birthday of the Buddha.

The protests spread to universities and later high schools.

Wu Tingyan was furious and ordered the army to shoot at the demonstrators, killing nine people on the spot.

This action aroused people’s hatred of the puppet regime.

The US government and public were deeply shocked by Wu Tingyan’s behavior, and President Kennedy was disappointed with Wu Tingyan’s regime.

In order to save Wu Tingyan’s unpopular regime and make him more obedient to the mercy of the Americans, Kennedy ordered to replace norting’s ambassador, who thought he had too close relationship with Wu Tingyan, and appointed Henry Capote Lodge, a “gentle man of Boston”, as his ambassador to Saigon.

Before leaving, Kennedy said to lodge, “I have confidence in you.

I want you to see if we can make that government behave better.

” Lodge was granted various special powers, including control over aid activities.

This means that he has the power of life and death over South Vietnam and can oppose or support Wu Tingyan.

In Saigon, lodge began making symbolic aid cuts – he achieved this by delaying his usual diplomatic visits.

He arrived in the evening.

The next morning he appeared in the street and asked people in French about the Buddhist crisis and Wu Tingyan’s rule.

He visited the Buddhist holy land Relic Temple.

The displeasure of Americans is now very obvious.

Two days later, lodge sent the first urgent telegram to Roger Hillman, assistant secretary of state for Far East affairs.

The telegram said that some South Vietnamese generals had increased contact with the embassy.

The generals received news that the special police controlled by Wu Tingyan’s brother Wu Tingru were planning to clean up the military.

These generals “may want to control the situation and carry out a coup”.

Hillman regarded the telegram as a document requiring special priority.

It was Saturday morning.

President Kennedy, Secretary of State Dean Lasker and Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara were all out of town for the weekend, but their assistants evril Harriman and James frester were still there.

With their help, Hillman began to draft an emergency response, which made it clear that Washington would no longer tolerate Wu Tingru’s influence on Wu Tingyan, and the president must remove his brother’s power.

If this is not done, the generals are told that all U.S. economic and military assistance will be terminated.

If the South Vietnamese generals take over the government at that time, the United States should support it.

After this work was completed, Hillman called President Kennedy and Secretary rasK and quickly briefed them.

They agreed with Hillman’s response.

So Hillman sent the famous “green light” telegram to Ambassador rocky in Saigon.

Ambassador Lodge summoned the commander of the US military, General Paul Huggins, and other senior personnel to carefully study the call from Washington.

The next day, on August 25, the embassy called back to Washington and said it accepted “the basic decision from Washington”.

In desperation, Washington gave the “green light” to the coup of South Vietnamese generals.

In this regard, Johnson confirmed in his memoir: “in (Wu Tingyan’s Army) After attacking the Buddhist temple, the State Council drafted a letter and delivered it to Saigon on August 24.

In fact, Ambassador Wu Tingyan urged the believers to take immediate measures to restore the situation.

If Wu Tingyan did not take measures as soon as possible, Ambassador lodge was ordered to propose to the main military leaders of Vietnam that the United States would no longer support the Saigon government militarily or economically.

This ultimatum means eliminating any influence of Wu Tingru and his politically active wife on the government and removing them from their positions in the government.

If Wu Tingyan disagrees, the United States will no longer support him.

If the military leaders take over the government at that time, we will support it.

” Johnson admitted: “this letter, which went wrong in a hurry, gave a green light to those who wanted Wu Tingyan to fall.

Once the ambassador carried out his mission, it stimulated the preparations for the coup.

” The generals of South Vietnam understand that if Wu Tingyan continues to exercise dictatorship and lose the support of the people, the U.S. government will undoubtedly reduce aid to South Vietnam.

President Kennedy’s ambiguous and shaky policy towards Wu Tingyan’s regime shows this.

Without American aid, Wu Tingyan would be finished, and so would South Vietnam.

The generals decide to act, but they must know to what extent Americans can tolerate and support them.

The CIA and the generals are in frequent contact, and everything is going on quietly and quickly.

The generals provided the Americans with a list of participants in the coup: the plan participants included Lieutenant General Yang Wenming, military adviser to the presidential palace, defense minister Ruan Yanchun, acting chief of staff of the armed forces major general Ruan wendun, deputy chief of staff of the armed forces Major General Li Wenjin, and brigadier general Chen Shanqian, chief of the joint general staff.

Supporters of the plan, major general Ruan Zhengshi, commander of the first military region and major general Ruan Qing, commander of the Second Military Region.

The sympathizer is expected to be major general sun shiting, commander of the Third Military Region and chief military officer of Saigon.

Rocky and general Huggins discussed again, and then rocky sent a telegram advising Washington to take action.

His message includes the following contents: first, we have embarked on a new path: overthrowing the Wu Tingyan government.

2、 The possibility of prompting generals to carry out a coup depends to some extent on themselves, but it also depends on us.

3、 We should take full action to urge the generals to raise matters as soon as possible.

After receiving Lodge’s telegram, the National Security Council quickly held a meeting in Washington.

The fierce debate lasted all day.

The final decision was to give Ambassador lodge the power to decide policies.

On September 2, Kennedy said in an interview with Walter Cronkite, a famous commentator on CBS, the United States will continue to support South Vietnam, but he added: “I don’t think this war will be won unless there is the support of the people.

In my opinion, the government has lost contact with the people in the first two months.

” It is clear that the US government has lost patience and confidence in Wu Tingyan, and the generals in South Vietnam are deeply encouraged.

On October 2, President Kennedy agreed to a significantly revised policy: the aid to Wu Tingyan can only last until the end of the year.

At that time, the United States will announce the withdrawal of 1000 US advisers, and military assistance will only be given to generals who oppose Wu Tingyan.

This policy is the result of a month of heated debate.

At the same time, Kennedy instructed Lodge not to take further action to support the coup, but to continue to find a successor leader.

As time went by, Washington fell into tension and chaos.

On October 30, the commander of the US military, general Huggins, sent back a fierce telegram to Washington, indicating that he did not believe in generals or rocky.

The cable said: “General Chen Wentong is either lying or stepping on two boats, hoping to profit from it.

He told KONE that the coup would be carried out before November 2, and he told me that he had not planned any coup at all.

” Huggins said that if there was a coup in progress, the ambassador did not tell him that he had obtained any information on such plans.

Ambassador Lodge argued, “we didn’t know.

They kept it a secret.

I paid tribute to it.

I wasn’t fully informed of the whole plan until the night before.

” The White House is extremely worried about differences between the Department of defense and the State Department.

On the same day Hodgins called Washington, lodge received a telegram asking him to dissuade the generals unless they were absolutely sure that the coup would succeed.

But lodge replied that it was too late and it was up to the Vietnamese.

We don’t want them to plan and control it, let alone let them control it.

Let’s say that we don’t want them to interfere with it The generals of South Vietnam launched a military coup aimed at overthrowing president Wu Tingyan at 1:30 p.m. on November 1.

Within three hours, all resistance was defeated except the presidential palace.

At 4 pm, after Wu Tingyan refused to surrender twice, the mutiny troops began shelling the presidential palace.

At this time, Wu Tingyan dialed Rocky’s phone.

He wanted to know the attitude of Americans towards what happened outside his window.

Rocky’s answer greatly disappointed him.

“I didn’t receive instructions.

It was 4 o’clock in the morning in Washington.

I couldn’t get in touch with Washington.

” Wu Tingyan asked, “you should always know what your policy is.

” Rocky replied: “I don’t know our policy in every situation.

Besides, I’m worried about your safety.

I’ve made arrangements to take you out of this country to ensure your safety.

If you don’t want to, I can provide another arrangement that can make you an honorary head.

You can keep an honorary position here, which is relatively safe.

” Wu Tingyan said, “I don’t want to do that.

I want to restore order.

I’ll go back and restore order now.

” Before, President Wu Tingyan and his brother Wu Tingru escaped from the besieged presidential palace through a secret passage.

The next afternoon, they were arrested by the mutiny troops in the embankment, an area inhabited by Chinese people in the city, and then shot and killed in an armored personnel transport vehicle rumbling through the streets of Saigon.

In Washington, when President Kennedy was meeting with the National Security Council, an assistant to the president brought a telegram just sent back from Saigon to report Wu Tingyan’s death.

There was silence at the conference table.

Kennedy was obviously deeply shocked.

He stood up and walked out of the conference room without saying a word to anyone.

He stayed outside for several minutes.

“Wu Tingyan, he fought against communism for nine years: he deserves a better outcome than being assassinated.

” When he re entered the conference room, he said this to his silent assistants.

Without the support of Americans, Wu Tingyan could not sit on the throne of president.

Without the acquiescence of the Americans, Wu Tingyan could not lose her power and life so soon.

It’s true that “success and failure are also Xiao He”.

The tragic end of the puppet was in fact doomed from the beginning.

Wu Tingyan’s sad end has long been expected.

In a statement issued on August 29, 1963 to support the Vietnamese against the U.S. – Wu Tingyan group, he predicted: “Wu Tingyan is a loyal running dog of US imperialism.

However, if a dog has lost its role and even become a burden for US imperialism to carry out its aggressive policy, US imperialism will not hesitate to use another running dog.

The end of South Korea’s Lee Seung Wan is a precedent.

The slave who stubbornly let us imperialism lead by the nose can only serve the US emperor in the end Nationalist martyrdom.

” The bloody coup directed by the White House and instigated by the CIA is over, but the Vietnam issue still haunts Americans like a devil.

The death of the Wu Tingyan brothers did not bring new atmosphere to the Saigon regime.

On the contrary, the political situation in Saigon has become more volatile.

For a time, coups were frequent.

“It’s noisy, you sing and I’ll come on stage”.

In this regard, Johnson, then vice president of the United States, described in his memoirs: “since then (the coup that overthrew Wu Tingyan) Until 1965, the change of government occurred almost every few months.

First military rule, then civilian rule, and then military rule.

First it was ruled by one person, then by three, and then by the Committee.

General Ruan Qing came to power, stepped down, and finally came to power again.

” On November 2, 1963, President John F.

Kennedy was assassinated and killed.

Vice President Lyndon Beth Johnson was hastily sworn in as the 36th president of the United States.

Originally, Vietnam was not part of Johnson’s reform plan, but it eventually became his primary problem and a nightmare that must be eliminated before realizing his dream.

He found that the Vietnam issue was no longer an abstract issue in his mind.

Now he had to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of military involvement.

A few years ago, Johnson strongly opposed the direct involvement of the United States in the war, but suggested that the third party should curb it.

But now his position is different.

At the insistence of Defense Secretary McNamara and Secretary of state Rusk, Johnson hastened to announce the overthrow of the Saigon military government 48 hours after taking officeThe ruling group established after Wu Tingyan continued to provide military assistance.

In January 1964, Ruan Qing, commander of the first army of the puppet army, launched the second coup in South Vietnam and self styled itself as the “Revolutionary Military Commission”.

On March 8, US Secretary of defense McNamara flew to South Vietnam and worked out a so-called “McNamara Ruan Qing plan” with Ruan Qing to replace the bankrupt “stirley Taylor plan”.

While the plan calls for strengthening military “clean-up and suppression”, it also timely shrinks strongholds and vigorously establishes “strategic villages” and no man’s land.

In February 1964, when interviewed by journalists, Ruan Qing arrogantly proposed that the South should invade the north with the full support of the United States.

His speech was not refuted in Washington.

In the following weeks, Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam stepped up their offensive, frequently approached Saigon and began to attack American facilities and personnel.

The Vietnam issue has attracted global attention.

The French president strongly called for a neutral solution in Vietnam, just as in Laos.

Cambodian King Sihanouk also stated that if Cambodia’s neutrality is respected, he will continue to receive military and economic assistance from the United States to ensure stability in the region.

In response, defense secretary McNamara publicly responded: “the situation in South Vietnam is different.

Its situation is severe because it is related to the balance of the free world.

South Vietnam is so important to the security of Southeast Asia and the free world.

I don’t think we have any choice but to take all necessary measures to prevent the victory of the Communist Party.

” In mid March, McNamara, who returned to the United States from South Vietnam, said that South Vietnam was on the verge of complete collapse.

To this end, he suggested to Johnson at the National Security Council that the phased withdrawal plan should be completely abandoned.

South Vietnam should start general mobilization, and the new army should accept the most modern American equipment.

Secret operations in the North must be increased.

Work out a specific plan to push the war to the north.

All these proposals have the support of the White House.

The Pentagon first worked out a plan to bomb North Vietnam in two stages: in the first stage, the US Air Force will be on alert for 72 hours and launch “retaliatory” attacks on military facilities in North Vietnam and guerrillas on the border between Laos and Cambodia at any time.

In the second stage, the alert period is 30 days, and the United States will begin a “gradually open military pressure plan” – or deep bombing of the north.

President Johnson approved it without hesitation.

The generals in the Pentagon were encouraged by this.

They not only believed that the bombing of North Vietnam was necessary, but should have been taken earlier.

Within 60 days of Johnson’s order, the Joint Chiefs of staff “drew up a huge list of attacks”.

This was carried out in cooperation with the US Pacific Command in Honolulu.

The final target of the advance attack is to focus the first step on all military facilities in North Vietnam that support infiltration into the south.

It is estimated that under the artillery bombardment and the bombardment of the 7th Fleet in the Western Pacific, all the facilities established by North Vietnam to fight in the South will be destroyed within 12 days.

In mid May, the completed plan was handed over to the president.

Johnson has to weigh it.

The issues considered include how to deal with the response of Congress, public opinion, allied public opinion and Hanoi to the part of the plan that has begun to be implemented.

On June 1, 1964, the United States held the 10th Honolulu conference and determined the plan to further expand the war of aggression against Vietnam.

The arrow is on the string and the bow is ready to go.

However, if we want to further expand the war, we should find an excuse.

Soon, the opportunity finally appeared: This is the “Beibu Gulf incident”.

On the night of July 30, 1964, the new commander of the US military in Saigon, General William Westmoreland, ordered the South Vietnamese Navy commando to drive a torpedo boat from inkang to the Beibu Gulf into the territorial waters of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to implement an action plan code named “34a”.

The plan includes two types of operations: first, ships and aircraft send South Vietnamese agents with radio equipment to North Vietnam to carry out sabotage activities and collect intelligence.

Second, fast patrol boats driven by South Vietnamese or foreign employees use hit and run tactics to attack facilities on the coast and islands of North Vietnam.

This operation falls into the latter category.

At the same time, the US destroyer Maddox also set out to the same sea area to cheer for the commandos and collect North Vietnam warning radar and coastal defense intelligence to cover the actions of South Vietnam commandos.

In the evening, South Vietnamese commandos launched amphibious attacks on Yudao and Huandao in North Vietnam.

The next day, the Maddox reached the northernmost end of its original route, turned south and sailed 23 nautical miles from the coast.

At this time, the torpedo boat of the South Vietnamese commando, which was returning after completing operation “34a”, came face-to-face.

The North Vietnamese army on shore found the fleet and sent three torpedo boats to scout.

As a result, there was an encounter between the two sides.

On August 2, the US ship “Maddox” approached the coast.

It urgently reported to Honolulu, and then Honolulu quickly sent a report to Washington that it was in combat readiness: “Maddox” was exchanging fire with three torpedo speedboats from North Vietnam, and its position was within the “international” waters 30 nautical miles from the coast.

In Washington, President Johnson presided over the Joint Chiefs of staff even though it was nearly midnight.

Assistant Secretary of State William Bundy translated and advised Johnson.

Bondi has no doubt that the United States and North Vietnam exchanged fire for the first time in the Beibu Gulf.

He said: “on August 2, an American destroyer must have been attacked.

There is no doubt about this attack.

There are bullet holes and everything else.

” Johnson immediately ordered another destroyer, Turner joy, to support the Maddox and instructed the two destroyers to return to the Beibu Gulf patrol.

In the early morning of August 4, the two American warships began to carry out the intelligence gathering mission codenamed “de Soto”.

When the two ships meet, they are located 50 to 76 nautical miles from the coast.

Meanwhile, when the US destroyers returned to the Beibu Gulf, more South Vietnamese “34a” ships were attacking coastal facilities.

When the naval command sent out the “de Soto” red alarm of “North Vietnamese attacking” again, it was midnight Pacific time (12 hours earlier than Washington time).

“At night, a destroyer reported another attack.

It saw the torpedo speedboat,” Bondi saidTrack, wait, wait.

” Within a few minutes, a joint chiefs of staff meeting was held, and President Johnson approved the immediate implementation of the first phase of the bombing plan – a one-to-one “retaliatory” strike.

The US 7th Fleet Command issued a command: prepare to shoot assault arrows.

At 3 a.m. in the North Pacific, the carrier aircraft began to load ammunition.

At dawn Pacific time, Honolulu generated electricity again: the sea was still rough, hindering the confirmation that the destroyer was attacked again.

In all the telegrams, it was not clear whether the destroyer had actually seen the North Vietnamese ships, but Washington believed the radio information overheard by the Maddox earlier.

After the information was translated, Johnson summoned congressional leaders to the Oval Office to inform them of the attack plan.

The four hour countdown is still in progress.

The white house told the national television network to prepare a speech that the president might deliver to the country.

At the Pentagon, the “research team”, elegantly named by McNamara, is transmitting the coordinates of targets in different ranges according to the target list.

William Bundy is in charge of liaison with the State Department to evaluate radio intelligence.

As time went by, there was no further news from the destroyer troubled by the storm.

With 30 minutes left in the countdown, Johnson was called to make up for the TV show.

Traffic lights were constantly on, and a telecommunication crossed the Pacific: “shoot an assault arrow.

” “The renewed hostilities against American ships on the high seas of the Gulf of Tokyo (Beibu Gulf) forced me to order us armed forces to take retaliatory action today,” Johnson said in a televised speech to the country after the bomber lifted into the air Johnson told U.S. citizens that he had ordered the U.S. military to bomb northern Vietnam.

For those hostile actions against the U.S. military, “we must not only deal with them with alert and defense, but also give a positive answer.

I was making this answer when I spoke to you.

Now I am taking air action against some auxiliary equipment of gunboats used in these hostile actions in North Vietnam.

” Johnson concluded that the incident made “all Americans deeply aware of the importance of the struggle for freedom and security in Southeast Asia.

” This “will enable all Americans to intensify their efforts to fulfill our obligations to the people and government of South Vietnam”.

After Johnson finished his speech, US bombers took off from the aircraft carriers Ticonderoga and constellation in batches and bombed four torpedo bases and an oil depot in North Vietnam selected by the Joint Chiefs of staff for the first time.

While the United States bombed North Vietnam, McNamara was asked at a press conference: “do you know about the incident involving South Vietnamese ships and North Vietnamese?” The former Harvard professor replied, “no, I don’t know anything.

” But the next day, He also announced six measures to increase troops in the Western Pacific: “First, a special task force group of attack aircraft carriers of the first fleet was transferred to the Western Pacific.

second, interceptors and fighter bombers were transferred to South Vietnam.

third, fighter bombers were transferred to Thailand.

fourth, squadrons of interceptors and fighter bombers were transferred from the United States to the Pacific forward base.

fifth, special anti submarine forces were transferred to the South China Sea.

sixth, selected army and Navy were transferred The Marines are on alert and ready to go.

” On August 6, the US Senate and house of Representatives held a secret hearing and drafted a resolution.

The next day, the house of Representatives passed by 400 votes to 0 and the Senate by 81 votes to 2.

The resolution not only approved Johnson’s limited war aimed at protecting the U.S. Army, but also authorized him to “take all necessary measures – including the use of armed forces to assist any member state or signatory of the Southeast Asian collective defense treaty that requests support to defend its freedom”.

The United States wantonly expanded the war and bombed northern Vietnam, which aroused the righteous indignation of justice and peace loving countries and people all over the world.

The day after the bombing of North Vietnam on August 5, The government of the people’s Republic of China issued a statement pointing out: “when the United States ignites the war of aggression, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam has obtained the right of action against aggression, and all efforts are made to safeguard the Geneva Agreement Our country has also obtained the right to support the anti aggression actions of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

The Democratic Republic of Vietnam is a member of the socialist camp, and no socialist country can sit back and watch it suffer aggression.

The US aggression against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam is an aggression against China, and the Chinese people will never sit idly by.

” However, there was a chorus of approval in the United States for the so-called “Beibu Gulf incident” bombing of northern Vietnam.

The results of the poll showed that the country appreciated the resolute handling of the Beibu Gulf “crisis”, and Johnson’s personal reputation rose from 42% to 72% overnight.

This made Johnson ecstatic and excited.

Johnson’s cabinet began to become tough.

The cabinet secretly planned to gradually upgrade and actively sought ways to accelerate the upgrade.

The advisers in the president’s inner circle are no longer hiding, and hiding has become a fetter.

Colleagues are telling the president that upgrading is absolutely necessary.

Taylor, who has just succeeded rocky as ambassador to South Vietnam, sent a telegram on August 10, strongly advocating the implementation of the second phase plan for North Vietnam: continuous bombing.

On November 1, South Vietnamese guerrillas attacked the border and air force base near Saigon with mortars.

Four Americans were killed and five B-52 bombers were destroyed.

Two days later, Johnson won the election by a landslide as a moderate candidate.

Johnson, who was not excited for a long time, fell into the distress of the “Vietnam War”.

The purpose of large-scale bombing was achieved, but what was the result? So he met with the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff to discuss the U.S. response to the attack.

The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff urged an immediate attack on the air base near Hanoi.

Johnson put forward three modern bombing plans and sent assistant secretary of State William Bundy to contact the Pentagon.

On November 5, Bondi submitted the memorandum of the planning team.

“The Bianhe incident is likely to happen again at any time, which will force us to act, but it will also provide a good springboard for us to act more forcefully.

The president is clearly considering maximizing the fundamentals of the Tokyo Bay incident,” Bondi wrote In the last week of November, William Bondi submitted the revised plan to the president and suggested that it be carried out“Surgical bombing – a form of bombing carried out by the United States thousands of times in Asia.

Target a is removed.

If it doesn’t work, then target B and others, and speed up the damage.

On February 7, 1965, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces attacked the US military bolegu base in central Kalai Province, killing 8 US troops, wounding 124 and destroying 10 US aircraft.

That night, Johnson ordered the implementation of the long established retaliatory bombing plan – “rocket operation I” plan.

In the next two days, US carrier based fighter bombers bombed several barracks and military communication centers in North Vietnam more than 70 times.

On February 10, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces attacked the U.S. military base in Guiren, Pingding Province, central China, killing 23 U.S. troops.

Johnson also ordered the implementation of the “rocket operation II” plan.

160 us and Saigon government aircraft bombed barracks in North Vietnam.

On February 13, the US president agreed to continue bombing North Vietnamese military targets south of the 19th parallel.

On March 2, the US military opened up the implementation of the “thunder operation” plan.

104 US Air Force jets bombed Guangxi ammunition depot and 19 Saigon air force propeller aircraft bombed Banglin naval base.

From then on to the end of the year, the United States carried out a total of 55000 bombing flights over North Vietnam, dropping 33000 tons of bombs.

After the sudden aerial bombing of North Vietnam by the United States, it aroused the anger of the Vietnamese people.

The whole country responded positively to the call of the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, armed, and all the people were ready to fight to the death against the American aggression.

A movement was launched in Hanoi that was ready to join the army, fight and defeat any enemy anywhere, Two million young people in northern Vietnam have asked to participate in the fight to resist the United States and save the country.

The government of the people’s Republic of Vietnam launched the people’s Republic of Vietnam to fight the Democratic aircraft.

Both anti-aircraft guns and light weapons are used.

On April 3 and 4, 1965, the United States achieved brilliant results in shooting down 47 US aircraft and capturing two pilots, causing the United States to suffer the heaviest loss since the war.

During the Vietnamese people’s resistance to us air strikes, many moving stories emerged.

Hom Kok Island, known as the T lookout in northern Vietnam, has fought more than 70 times with American aggressors since August 5, 1964, sometimes five times a day with American aircraft and immovable boats.

At 12:45 on March 14, 1965, 27 United States aircraft attacked the island in batches.

The soldiers on the island were furious, gathered their hatred at the muzzle of the gun, wounded four enemy planes, and sent one plane back to its “Hometown” together with the pilot.

In order to retaliate, the US military, in a hurry, continued to bomb the island.

If the bombs dropped on the island were lined up, they could cover the whole island with two layers.

However, the continuous bombing did not intimidate the brave soldiers.

They fought in unity and tit for tat.

From March to April 1964, they fought 92 consecutive battles with enemy aircraft and achieved brilliant results in shooting down 18 enemy aircraft.

In southern Vietnam, the story of Ruan YueKai, a lone hero who shot down four planes with a carbine, is widely spread.

The guerrillas in Xinxing Xixiang were ready to fight when the United States and puppets raided the jin’ou area.

One day, six enemy planes flew very low and almost touched the treetops.

Then came 23 more helicopters.

Soon, the US plane began to take turns shooting.

At this time, Ruan YueKai ran to a sweet potato field to hide.

After a while, 23 helicopters flew over his head.

When a helicopter was descending, Ruan YueKai raised his carbine and fired a burst of strafe.

The enemy plane was hit, lost its balance and fell into a nearby ditch.

Then another enemy plane rushed over and shot at Ruan YueKai.

Ruan YueKai showed no weakness and knocked down another enemy plane.

At this time, some of the enemy had landed and were coming towards him.

He fired immediately to repel the enemy.

An enemy plane was ready to land again.

It was hit by Ruan YueKai and crashed near jin’ou city.

Then, Ruan YueKai continued to shoot at the enemy aircraft in the air and shot down the fourth enemy aircraft.

Another way for Vietnamese soldiers and civilians to deal with us air strikes is to attack us air bases and airports and “reimburse” a large number of US aircraft in their nests.

For example, from September 1963 to may 1965, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces carried out nine major attacks on the US military airport.

The biggest ones are as follows: the great victory in Shuozhuang on September 9, 1963 destroyed more than 50 American helicopters and destroyed more than 100 enemies.

On October 31, 1964, the great victory of Bian he blew up and wounded 59 US aircraft, annihilated 200 enemies and injured 93 enemies.

On February 7, 1965, the great victory in boragu destroyed 42 US aircraft, killing and wounding 257 US troops.

In the 10 months from June 1965 to April 1966, the people’s armed forces attacked eight airports including Bian he, Zhu Xing and Fuli, destroyed 806 enemy aircraft and wiped out 6898 US pilots and ground crew.

The purpose of the United States is to stop the bombing of South Vietnam and North Vietnam, so as to force the people of South Vietnam to give in and stop the armed bombing of North Vietnam.

However, the development of the situation was not as expected by the Americans.

Instead of giving in, the North Vietnamese people were all ready to fight the United States to the end.

This is what Americans did not expect.

In the spring of 1965, two regiments (32nd and 101st regiments) of the 325th division of North Vietnam arrived in South Vietnam.

From May to the end of June, the US military found another trail of the 305 division of the people’s army in Laos.

By the end of 1965, there were about 10 regiments of people’s army in the south.

The entry of the North Vietnamese army and the further expansion of the people’s Liberation Armed Forces in southern Vietnam made the number of revolutionary armed forces in the South reach 140000 at that time.

The US government is extremely uneasy about this.

Under such circumstances, the United States has to consider putting ground troops into the Vietnam battlefield.

Westmoran, the commander of the US military in Saigon, first suggested sending Marines to defend Yangang.

Ambassador Taylor expressed surprise.

He called Johnson to remind him that if the Marines took over the security task of the Vietnam Republican Army, it would further “shirk greater responsibility” in Saigon.

“Once you send the first soldier ashore, you don’t know how many people will have to follow suit.

” He strongly advocated relying on air war to train more Vietnamese Republican Army.

Taylor criticized the unnecessary timidity of air operations and suggested developing a “stronger air attack plan”.

Assistant Secretary of state Bondi supported Westmoreland’s proposal.

He said: “on that stage, it seems that only by putting in American combat troops can we resolutely stop the fourThe continuation of fragmentation and corruption and make progress.

” General Ruan Wenshao, a new political force in Saigon, also contributed to the fire, saying: “the Communists control 75% of the countryside, and we only control the main towns.

We feel it difficult to expand our strength and urgently need the U.S. Army.” Because of the urgent need for ground forces, how can the president refuse the request of field commanders for ground forces to protect the lives of the U.S. Air Force? After much consideration, Johnson agreed to Westmoreland’s request and sent Marines to inkstone harbor.

On March 1, 1965, Ambassador Taylor visited interim Prime Minister pan Huiju in Saigon and revealed this completely surprising information: the US Marine Corps is coming.

Pan Huiju, who has only been in office for 10 days, knows nothing about it and is unprepared.

Will Ambassador pan Huitian, the US Marine Corps, be officially invited to Washington? Pan Huiju naturally can’t decide whether to “invite”.

After thanking Taylor, he said that he would reply after consultation with the leader of the armed forces Commission, general Nguyen Wenshao.

After discussing Ambassador Taylor’s brief notice of the upcoming arrival of 3500 U.S. Marines, the Saigon regime did not hesitate to issue an “invitation”.

However, when the Marines were officially approved to land, general Ruan Wenshao was worried that the Buddhists and students in Yangang, the second largest city in the south, would respond, so he asked the US Marines to land in a way that was not easy to be found as much as possible.

At 9 p.m. on March 8, 1965, two battalions (3500 people) of the U.S. Marine Corps landed in Yangang.

Their initial task was to protect the airport, communication facilities and port facilities of Yangang.

The 10-year Vietnam War kicked off.

In response to the increasing momentum of US forces, the Indochina people’s conference was held in Phnom Penh in early March at the proposal of Prince Sihanouk of Kampuchea.

The 38 political parties and mass organizations of the three countries of Indochina came to the meeting to discuss the plans for peace, independence and the solidarity of the three peoples in order to cope with the common enemy.

This meeting shows the strong determination of the people of Indochina to face the interference and invasion of US imperialism and solidarity.

Vietnam’s southern national liberation front also issued a statement on March 22, calling on the army and people in the south to carry forward the spirit of decisive battle and victory, resolutely eliminate the effective forces of the US military and strive for the final victory of national liberation.

At the end of March, the US Army established a combat command organization in Saigon.

On April 8, the United States established the so-called international military assistance agency in Saigon, with the participation of the South Vietnam group, Thailand, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, South Korea and the authorities.

In April 1965, the United States held the 11th Honolulu conference and decided to focus on the military attack on the people’s armed forces of South Vietnam while continuing to bomb the north of Vietnam, so as to ensure that the United States can gain a firm foothold in South Vietnam.

The meeting also decided to increase financial assistance to the South Vietnamese government and expand the South Vietnamese army from 550000 to 710000.

The US military has formulated a “ink stain” strategy for the next operation.

The main attempt is to form the campaign layout of the ring defense circle from the 17th degree north latitude line to seven coastal bases such as Yangang, zhulai, Guiren, Yazhuang, Jinlan Bay, ouga and Saigon, gradually “infiltrate” into the liberated areas and lure the main force of the people’s armed forces into a decisive battle.

In order to realize this strategy, the US military plans to launch the first “dry season offensive”, focusing on the southern eastern region, the central plain and the western region.

In addition, a large number of air forces were used to bomb the South Vietnam liberated area, in coordination with the “offensive” action of the US ground forces.

In order to thwart the “ink stain” strategy of the US military, the people of South Vietnam have become braver and stronger.

They have actively carried out extensive mobile warfare, mainly adopting flexible tactics such as surprise attack, ambush, attack point support and so on.

At the end of May 1965, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces wiped out four battalions and three companies of the U.S. military in three days in Baja area, Guangyi Province, with a total of more than 1700 people.

In August, 919 US troops were killed and several planes were shot down in Wenxiang area of Pingshan County in the north of Guangyi province.

Two months after the great victory of Wen Xiang, the people’s armed forces won the war in bolaime area, Jialai province.

They used the method of encircling and supporting to destroy 2500 enemy troops, including more than 1000 of the first cavalry division of the US Army.

In October, it also dealt a heavy blow to the two large military bases in central Vietnam, inkang and julai.

Among them, the Bajia battle created a typical example of ambush.

On the evening of May 28, the troops arrived at the Bank of tiaoqu River from a distance.

Despite the Long March, no one left behind.

At 5:45 a.m. on May 29, a part of the people’s Liberation Army stormed Fulu and annihilated two enemy platoons.

Lieutenant Ruan Wenyu, the battalion commander of the 1st Battalion of the 51st regiment of the puppet army stationed in egoo, shouted on the radio: “fire on Fulu! What’s the death of 50 or 60 people? Fire!” At 6:00 sharp, Ruan Wenyu transferred the puppet army of the second company of egoo to Zhuangshan.

They swaggered forward, knowing that they had entered the ambush position of the people’s Liberation Army.

At 0640 hours, one wing of the PLA opened fire on the enemy and wiped out the enemy in an instant.

At 0700 hours, Ruan Wenyu and two American “advisers”, one is a major and the other is a lieutenant, led the 1st and 2nd companies of the battalion to reinforce.

This time, they were much more cautious, and the goose high artillery pounded the way forward before setting out.

In order not to expose the target, the PLA did not move in the fortification.

When the enemy enters the ambush circle, attack suddenly and cut off the enemy’s retreat.

After a fierce battle, all the enemy were annihilated.

In the vast field of ferro, the bodies of the enemy were scattered.

The PLA captured hundreds of prisoners alive, including Ruan Wenyu, commander of the enemy puppet battalion.

While annihilating the first battalion of the enemy puppet army, another PLA unit launched a fierce attack on egoo.

At 12 noon on May 30, the enemy sent a regiment to reinforce, including the second battalion of the pseudo 51st regiment, the Third Battalion of the pseudo Marine Corps and the 39th mobile battalion.

In this battle, the firepower of the people’s Liberation Army is not as good as that of the enemy, but from the commander to the soldiers, they have a strong sense of revenge.

They put bayonets in the head of their guns again and are ready to die with the enemy.

American planes swooped and bombed one after another in an attempt to break the siege of the puppet army.

However, the dense fire net of the air defense forces of the people’s Liberation Army forced the enemy aircraft not to fly low.

In the evening, the 3rd Battalion of the enemy and puppet Marine Corps was annihilated, the 2nd Infantry Battalion was hit hard, and the 39th mobile battalion shrank at the top of Liding mountain and dared not go out.

As night fell on the earth, the remaining enemy concentrated their forces on three defense support points.

The PLA headquarters made a quick decision and launched a general attack.

After fighting all night, toAt dawn on May 31, the enemy was finally wiped out.

It was a three-day and three night campaign, destroying four elite main battalions of the enemy and annihilating more than 1700 enemy troops.

Over the past year, in the battle to defeat the enemy’s “ink stain” strategy, the army and people of South Vietnam also destroyed many “strategic villages”, and nearly 2000 were destroyed in the first half of 1965.

The liberated area has accounted for 45% of the total area of South Vietnam, with a population of 10 million, accounting for 34% of the total number of people in South Vietnam.

Faced with such a severe situation, Johnson exclaimed: “it is incredible that the Vietnamese Communist Party has developed rapidly in the south, but it is a fact.

If its backup is not cut off quickly, the Saigon regime will be in danger and the long-term military assistance of the United States will be destroyed.

” The president’s exclamation also bothered McNamara.

Aerial bombardment can only slow down North Vietnam’s support, not cut it off.

What shall I do? McNamara had an idea.

At the critical juncture of the Korean war that year, the general boldly sent troops to land from Incheon, cutting off the logistical supplies of the North Korean troops in one fell swoop.

The North-South attack quickly reversed the situation in North Korea.

Why not send troops to land in North Vietnam, occupy Hanoi, completely destroy the bases in North Vietnam and reverse the current adverse situation? While the Pentagon was arguing about the plan, the plan was revealed by the London Daily Express, which made McNamara very angry.

The skylight had been poked open and McNamara had to give up his whimsical plan.

At this time, Ho Chi Minh secretly visited China and asked China to provide more assistance.

On June 9, 1965, on the avenue from Pingxiang City to Youyi pass on China’s southwest border, a huge Chinese team to Aid Vietnam and resist the United States was moving towards Vietnam.

At that time, in order to uniformly organize and support Vietnam and uniformly handle matters related to assistance to Vietnam, China formed a coordination group composed of relevant heads of the Ministry of foreign affairs, the Ministry of railways, the Ministry of communications, the General Political Department, the General Logistics Department, the Navy, the air force, the railway corps, the engineering corps and the operation Department of the General Staff Headquarters.

Yang Chengwu was the leader and Li Tianyou was the deputy leader.

After that, China’s aid troops to Vietnam went to the Vietnam battlefield in batches.

From the secret dispatch of the first batch of anti-aircraft artillery troops into Vietnam on August 26, 1965 to the withdrawal of the last batch of troops from Vietnam on March 4, 1969, in three years and seven months, a total of 7 artillery divisions, 26 anti-aircraft artillery regiments, 8 anti-aircraft artillery battalions, 9 searchlight battalions and 12 radar companies participated in the war against the United States and Vietnam.

The Vietnam War is in full swing, and the “backyard” of the United States has also lit a fire of anti war.

Many workers and students took to the streets and began anti war demonstrations.

In particular, the U.S. National Student Coordination Committee took the lead in boycotting conscription and demonstrated in front of the White House, shouting slogans such as “we will never fight in Vietnam” to protest the Johnson Administration’s decision to escalate the war.

By the end of 1965, the total number of US troops invading Vietnam had reached 180000, including three divisions, three brigades and one regiment.

In the first dry season offensive, the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces annihilated a total of 110000 enemy troops, including more than 40000 joint forces of the US Army and the servant country, completely bankrupt the US Army’s first dry season offensive.

The failure of the first early season offensive also means that the “ink stain” strategy is basically meaningless.

The United States is not reconciled to this.

It continues to strengthen “fighting in the South” and “bombing in the north” to fundamentally reverse the war situation.

To this end, the US military once again increased its troops to South Vietnam and changed the “ink stain” strategy to the “suppression and destruction” strategy.

In other words, the joint forces of the South Vietnamese army and the servant country were used to guard the points and lines, while the US military concentrated its main forces and superior equipment, went deep into the borders of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, and carried out repeated “raids” on the bases of the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces for a long time, so as to destroy the troops of the national liberation front and its bases in Saigon, central and Northern South Vietnam, Advance to the Vietnam Cambodia border in the northwest of Saigon and west of bolegu, divide the South Vietnamese people’s armed forces into three parts, and cut off the transportation line of materials from northern Vietnam to the South Vietnamese patriotic forces through Laos and Cambodia.

By October 1966, the total number of US troops in South Vietnam had reached 328000, including 6 divisions, 3 brigades and 2 regiments.

In 1966, the U.S. military’s combat operations were mainly concentrated in Saigon and large bases and cities along the coast, in order to establish a unified and integrated base along the coast and drive the people’s armed forces to mountains, forests and sparsely populated areas.

But the plan failed to materialize.

In order to cope with the US military’s raids, North Vietnam has also continuously increased its troops to South Vietnam.

From January to March 1966, seven more regiments were sent to increase the North Vietnamese people’s army in South Vietnam to 92000.

At the same time, in order to ensure that a large number of troops and materials enter the south, North Vietnam has implemented strict defense of the Ho Chi Minh Trail and strengthened its emergency repair force.

By 1966, the air defense system set up along this passage in Laos had shot down about 25% of the US armed helicopters that came to attack, forcing the US military to stop using helicopters to destroy transport trucks in North Vietnam.

In the liberated areas of southern Vietnam, every family is a combat unit.

There are anti gun holes in the house and air raid holes, grain storage holes and cattle storage holes in the field.

Every village and township is a fighting fortress.

There are militia in the village and guerrillas in the township.

Fortifications have been built everywhere in the countryside, tunnels extend in all directions, and all kinds of traps have been laid at major intersections, roadsides and lawns.

The guerrillas in the liberated areas took the initiative to combine ambush, encirclement and annihilation, attack points and other tactics, so that as soon as the US military entered the liberated areas, it fell into the vast ocean of people’s war.

According to incomplete statistics, in the six months of the dry season from 1966 to 1967, the US military carried out 105 “sweeps” above Brigade (Regiment), including 13 above division.

The destruction of the liberated areas of South Vietnam has also reached an unprecedented level.

The South Vietnamese people’s armed forces launched a people’s war and carried out anti mopping operations, annihilating about 167000 enemies, including more than 50000 US troops.

The US military’s second dry season offensive ended in failure.

In the face of repeated failures, the morale of us and puppet sergeants was very low and lost their madness in the past.

When they could not win or give up, they began to play the “negotiation card” while continuing to start the war machine.