is actually an interesting campaign when it comes to “marathon campaign”, because this campaign seems to have something to do with marathon, but in fact, although it has something to do with careful analysis, it still has some connections, but in fact, it just fought a campaign in a place called “marathon”, So some people have been asking where the marathon battle broke out? Why is this issue controversial? Let’s analyze and uncover the secrets of these problems together!
marathon plain, where the battle of
marathon broke out, is located on the Aegean Sea forty-two kilometers northeast of Athens, facing the attic Strait and surrounded by mountains behind. Marathon plain is crescent shaped, nine kilometers long and about three kilometers wide in the middle. One day in September 490 bc, a Persian army landed here, breaking the usual silence of Marathon plain.
in fact, this is a real historical event, which is also recorded in historical materials. Therefore, many disputes are that it is not clear whether this place is true or not. In fact, it is true.
marathon campaign introduction
marathon campaign was the war launched by the powerful Persian empire against Athens in 490 bc. The 11000 men who fought in Athens were all heavy infantry. According to the Convention, they discharged a dense square array eight lines deep on the west side of Marathon plain.
this time is in the rainy season. The terrain in the middle of Marathon plain is only high, and there are mud marshes on both sides. Athens used the terrain to win by wisdom. A total of 6400 Persian troops were killed, while only 192 were killed in Athens. The wide gap in the number of deaths between the two sides fully reflects the overwhelming advantage of the Greek dense array over the Persian square array.
Name: Marathon battle
location: Marathon plain
time: September 490 bc
participants: Persian Empire, Results of
of the Greek coalition forces: the Greek coalition forces won
the number of troops participating in the war: 11000 Greek coalition forces, about 100000 Persian
casualties: 192 Greek coalition forces, 6400 Persian
the main Commander: mitiad, Darius
reported the victory. In the marathon battle of
, the Greeks defeated the Persian army. The Greek commander sent an envoy pheilippides to run back to Athens from the marathon plain to report the victory. The whole journey was about 42.195 kilometers, and there was no stop on the way. When felipides returned to Athens, he only said, “we have won!” Then he fell down and died immediately. In memory of the hero, the Greeks held the first marathon race in 1896. Later, the marathon was called a fixed event in the Olympic Games.
mitiyad was elected as the commander in chief of the campaign because of popular expectation. Just as the Athenian army was preparing to line up down the mountain, a reinforcements arrived unexpectedly. The reinforcements came from the small Greek country of Plataea. Many years ago, Athens helped them repel the aggression of their neighbors. Plataea was grateful to Athens. This time, when he learned that Athens was in trouble, he immediately sent National soldiers to help. Although there were only 1000 Pilates reinforcements, it greatly boosted the morale of the Athenians. In order to prevent the Athens front from being bypassed by the Persian cavalry, mithiad decided to weaken the strength of the central phalanx and extend the Athens front to both sides, making the bogs on both sides a natural barrier. After such redeployment, the infantry phalanx in Athens was only four rows deep in the center, while the two wings remained eight rows thick. After the formation of Athenian infantry, mithiad immediately ordered the charge. At this time, the Athenian army was about 1500 meters away from the Persian front. Usually, Greece’s dense phalanx first moves steadily within the range of the enemy’s bow and arrow, and then starts to rush towards the enemy’s array at high speed. In order not to give the Persian army enough time to organize and dispatch, mitiyad ordered the soldiers to run forward at the beginning, and then gradually speed up and sprint at full speed 300 meters away from the enemy. Greek infantry showed a very high level of training. They carried heavy weapons and equipment and ran all the way without any confusion.
the Persians saw the great disparity of troops, and the Athenian infantry without cavalry rushed from a distance, as if watching a group of fire fighting moths destroy themselves. Persian infantry were in full readiness. When the Athenians rushed to a distance of 300 meters, they began to shoot with bows and arrows. The arrows shot by the Persians were as dense as locusts, falling on the high-speed Athens array one after another, and bouncing off the armor and shield of Athenian infantry like rain beating plantains, which could not cause any damage. Before the Persians sent out a few rounds of bows and arrows, the Athenian infantry had rushed forward. The dense spears of the Greek phalanx pounded the Persian shield with great kinetic energy. In a deafening sound of metal collision, the two armies fought together. Sure enough, as mithiad expected, the shield lines on both wings of the Persians could not withstand the fierce impact of the Greek dense array. The formation of the Persian phalanx is much looser than that of the Greek phalanx in order to give light infantry enough space to bend their bows and shoot arrows. In this way, every captain with a shield in the front row of Persia must bear the combined impact of two columns of 16 infantry in Greece. The shield line of Persia collapsed under such a violent impact, and many people were pierced by Greek spears and shields. The Persian captains in the front row were all killed in the battle, and the light infantry behind them were exposed in front of the Athenian spears. The Persian infantry who had lost their shield pulled out their machetes and went forward to fight without fear. They were in groups, desperately using machetes to push away the Athenians’ spears in an attempt to get close to hand to hand combat; At the same time, the infantry behind them were still relentlessly firing arrows. But the first four rows of spears in the dense array of Athenians overlapped forward, even if the Persians could pull them awayThe first row of spears can hardly escape the stabbing of the next three rows of spears. In this way, Persian infantry fought one after another, but they could not get close.
the Persian cavalry wanted to detour behind the Athens front, but the two wings of the Athens phalanx were almost close to the swamp on both sides of the plain, and the Persian cavalry had no room for maneuver. In desperation, they had to attack the Athenian phalanx in a close formation, but due to the lack of armor protection, they also fell under the spear of the Athenian phalanx one after another. In the face of the indomitable and fierce attack of the Athenians, the fighting will of the Persian soldiers began to waver. The central part of the Persian front is composed of Persian veterans who have experienced many battles, and their combat effectiveness is quite strong. However, the central phalanx of Athens, which attacked them, has only four rows and columns, and the impact is insufficient. The war situation is stuck here. Persian infantry once broke through the Athenian front and forced the central phalanx of Athens to retreat collectively to maintain a complete formation. But the two wings of Persia were in flight at this time. The two wings of Athens began to encircle the center and attack the central phalanx of Persia, and the retreating central phalanx of Athens also took the opportunity to kill back. By this time, the Persian army was doomed.
Persian coach DATIS saw that the situation was gone and ordered to retreat. The Persian soldiers abandoned their positions and fled desperately to the Persian warship on the sea. The Athenian soldiers chased after them and stabbed many Persian soldiers who were not fast enough. The Athenians did not stop after they reached the sea. They began to disperse and attack the Persian warships moored on the shore in an attempt to set them on fire. Driven by the desire to escape, Persian soldiers fought desperately, and most of the casualties of the Athenians in this battle occurred here, including the Athenian military and political chief kalimash and two of the ten generals. Finally, after the Persians lost seven warships, the large forces were able to retreat safely. Two thousand Spartan reinforcements didn’t arrive until after the battle. They lined up around the battlefield to watch the results of Athens. The Spartan soldiers were amazed by the corpses of Persians everywhere on the battlefield. As the saying goes, Adversity shows truth. The Pilates came to help at a critical juncture and won the respect of the Athenians. After the battle, Athens granted Athenian citizenship to all Pilates, and Pilates officially became a member of the Athens family.
marathon is undoubtedly a battle to change the fate of the Greeks. More than 2400 years later, a giant in China (in fact, he was) declared angrily: “imperialism is a paper tiger.” The Greeks had a deep understanding of this through the marathon war. A nation’s self-confidence has always been played out. The Greeks gained unprecedented self-confidence in the marathon battle, and the sense of national pride and cultural superiority began to rise. After the marathon war, Athens became famous on the Greek peninsula and became the leader of the Greek alliance.
for the Persian Empire, the defeat of the marathon was just a trivial setback, leaving almost no trace in Persian history. Ten years later, Xerxes, the newly enthroned king of Persia, led a million armies to return. Xerxes had no impression of the marathon, let alone learned any lessons. In a series of subsequent battles, the Persian army had to hit its head and blood in front of the dense array in Greece and lose hundreds of thousands of troops.
the famous tactics
the reason why the Athenian army was able to defeat the Persian army in the marathon battle was mainly due to the battle sequence arranged by the Athenian army at that time. In this battle, the Athenian army presented a battle sequence of strengthening the forces on both wings on the basis of a simple parallel battle sequence; The Persian army just put out a simple parallel battle sequence. With the progress of the war, the central part of the parallel battle sequence with two wings of the Athenian army began to concave inward, and finally showed a nearly vertical battle sequence, forming a double attack on the Persian army deep into the enemy line.
in fact, the application of the parallel battle sequence of heavy two wings to the vertical battle sequence is not premeditated by the Athenian army, but formed naturally with the development of the war situation. The Athenian army will strengthen the two wings at the beginning of the battle, just out of a consideration to prevent being surrounded by the Persian army that wins one-third of the strength. More than 200 years later, Hannibal took this battle sequence again during the canny war, and won a complete victory. However, Hannibal used this battle sequence out of careful calculation. At the beginning of the battle, he put forward a battle sequence with a concave central part to lure the enemy into depth and finally surround and annihilate it.