in the early 1st century AD, China was in the transition period from the Western Han Dynasty to the trendy Eastern Han Dynasty. If we want to say that the most powerful country at that time should be Han Chao. After all, Liu Xiu was also a very powerful emperor. When we take a look at the changes and changes taking place all over the world this time, what was the scene of Europe and America at that time? In fact, the first century is quite wonderful and a very important period for the world. However, China has a history of thousands of years before, so it is nothing from the perspective of the first century.

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the year of the birth of Jesus in the historical narrative of Christianity in A.D. 1 is just a watershed of the global pattern in the classical era.

before that, civilizations around the world still established a small-scale multilateral system in their original regions. After that, all civilizations in the world entered the era of Empire in their own history. The original civilization pattern of

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is to establish their own small-scale system.

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from the initial origin of civilization to the subsequent large-scale diffusion, in fact, there are their own small multilateral pattern systems all over the world. This situation has not fundamentally changed in the first half of the classical era. Whether it is the world empire of Persians, the city-state world of Greeks, or the vassal world of East Asia, they are just different copies of the early Sumerian urban agglomeration. These civilizations, which exist in a small world situation internally, are not only different from the external world. Within them, there are also different forces and different styles.

although in the middle stage of the classical era, there have been huge Persian empires and many Hellenistic empires. But these giants cannot eliminate this small-scale difference within the territory.

the Persian world empire has never changed the situation of relative isolation in various places.

until the middle and Late Hellenistic era, the civilized forces of the new generation began to rise. These include the Romans who once lived on the edge of Greek civilization, the Parthians who once lived on the edge of Lianghe Persian civilization, the Indo Europeans in Eastern Central Asia who once lived at the intersection of multi civilization borders, and the princes under the emperor of Zhou in the Far East. By coincidence, they started in A.D. 1 and created four empires known later: Rome – Parthia – kusana – Eastern Han Dynasty.

of course, there are great differences between the historical process of each region and its own attributes. When they started or completed the process of imperialism, they could not all focus on the node of A.D. 1. But it is in this critical year that their historical path trend has either been very obvious or the necessary foundation has been completed.

the road network established by the Romans will become the blood vessel of the Empire.

first take the Roman Empire with the strongest momentum at that time. Its classic republican system was practically terminated decades ago. However, Rome under Augustus still took a long time to ensure the transformation and successful operation of this primary imperial system.

on the one hand, Augustus basically controlled the military leaders in various places through the victory of the Roman civil war, and also suppressed the Senate, the representative of the old and young in the Roman democratic era. In terms of foreign relations, many regional powers once scattered around Rome have been eliminated one after another. Ptolemy finally killed the Greek Empire. Then use the huge resources provided by Egypt and other places to further stabilize the internal situation. Use military reform and national road construction to strengthen Italy’s control over the whole Mediterranean world.

Augustus is the first Roman emperor worthy of the name.

Rome in A.D. 1 showed the strength that once disappeared under the care of Augustus. They repeatedly defeated the Germans on the Rhine border and incorporated a large number of Germanic tribal forces willing to defend the border for Rome. In the East, although it appears to be very peaceful, it has controlled a huge international system. Control many descendants of Greek, Asian Minor, Jewish, Arab and Persian civilizations in their own hands.

beyond the borders of Rome, the only remaining kingdom of Bendu and Cappadocia became the allies of Roman border defense. Rhode Island and Lucia Peninsula, which remain independent, have been mascots under the protection of Roman hegemony. Judea, Armenia and other countries in the East are all part of Rome’s strategic defense system. Rome had political domination and one-sided military superiority over the remnants of these local forces.

the Parthians maintained their empire around A.D.

the Parthian Empire and his imperial system were next to the Roman international system. Strictly speaking, the Parthians are only members of the Iranian language family and a branch of Persian civilization. However, after occupying the whole Iranian Plateau and two river basins, he became the general agent of the two rivers, Persia, Arabia, eastern Greece and Eastern nomadism.

although their army once defeated a Roman division in kale and counterattacked to Syria and other places. But it was soon fought out of these places by the reorganized Roman army. Since then, the two sides have maintained peace on the surface for a long time. But the strength of the Parthians was not enough to compare with Rome, which controlled most of the Mediterranean. So at that time, there was even a Roman agent in charge of the Empire.

Queen Musa once established the only feminist politics in the history of Parthia.

was personally sent by Augustus to Queen Musa of Parthia royal family, sent her son to Rome as a hostage, and then implemented feminist Politics in Parthia for many years. Her aides are undoubtedly supporters of the Romans. Although the Parthians are still making money by controlling trade routes