on December 10, 1938, the 1938 prize awarding conference was held in the concert hall of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.
Fermi, an Italian scientist, won the physics prize.
However, unlike the winners in previous years, Fermi returned home with honors and received the celebration of the people of his motherland.
After the award ceremony, he quietly brought his wife and children to the United States.
Fermi loved his native Italy, but at that time, under the rule of fascism, scientists in Italy were brutally persecuted and scientific research was not allowed.
What’s more terrible is that the fascist government persecuted Jews and people of Jewish descent inhumanely.
Fermi’s wife is Jewish and his children are of Jewish descent.
How dare Fermi go back to Italy? Fermi went to the United States to continue his research on micro particles.
Once, he learned from a secret intelligence that German chemists Otto Hahn and strasman were conducting nuclear fission experiments.
Fermi immediately organized personnel to devote themselves to the research of nuclear reaction.
Experiments show that the energy generated by 1 gram of uranium is equivalent to the energy of burning 3 tons of coal and 200 kilograms of gasoline.
In other words, if used in military affairs, the explosive force generated by 1 gram of uranium is equivalent to the explosive force of 20 tons of TNT.
How terrible it is! If we are allowed to make use of scientific achievements to make nuclear weapons, the world disaster will be inevitable.
The more Fermi thought about it, the more terrible he felt.
He thought that he must persuade the US government to produce an atomic bomb as soon as possible, so as to avoid possible disasters.
Like Fermi, American scientist Hillard was very upset.
He regretted that young people had ignored his warning earlier.
As early as 1933, when the physics community was not very clear about splitting atomic nuclei, silard imagined that if an element could be found, its atomic nucleus would not only split and release energy after absorbing a neutron, but also release several new neutrons in the process of splitting.
Then, if these neutrons bombard more nuclei, they will release more energy and produce more neutrons.
The energy released by such a split ring after ring is extremely terrible.
Therefore, he once warned his colleagues around that the research on nuclear fission, like the fisherman in the myth in the Arabian Nights, is opening the cork.
Once the devil escapes from the bottle, it will have unpredictable consequences for human survival.
But at that time, silad’s concerns did not receive a positive response from the scientific community.
Some scientists believe that silad’s worry is undoubtedly “talking about booty before the fort is captured” and “premature worry”.
Even great physicists did not realize this.
In 1934, when someone asked about the practical value of atomic energy, the funny Einstein made an analogy: “it’s just catching birds in the wild where there are few birds at night.
” Now, the results of nuclear attack may be used by the “murderer” as a weapon of war.
Can’t wait any longer! Fermi and silad immediately visited Einstein, the great master of science.
They hoped to hear Einstein’s views and persuade the government through him to start the development of nuclear weapons as soon as possible.
At this time, Einstein also expressed great concern.
He immediately picked up his pen, Write a channel to the president of the United States: “I read the recent research manuscripts of Fermi and silard.
This makes me predict that elemental uranium will become a new and important energy source in the future.
In view of this situation, people should be vigilant.
If necessary, the government is also required to take prompt action.
Therefore, my obligation is to remind you of the following facts: it is possible to create a power in the near future A huge new bomb.
” After writing the letter, Einstein handed it to Sax, Roosevelt’s close friend and financier, asked him to forward the letter and asked him to state his interests to the president.
The disappointing thing was that President Roosevelt was not interested in it.
He said he did not understand the profound scientific theories mentioned in the letter.
Sachs repeatedly explained the importance to him.
It was not until the end that President Roosevelt said, “these are interesting, but it seems premature for the government to intervene in this matter at this stage.
” Sachs did not give up his efforts.
When they met again at breakfast the next day, Roosevelt said to Sachs, “what great idea do you have? How long do you need to finish?” When he handed the knife and fork to Sachs, he said, “don’t talk about Einstein’s letter today, not a word, okay?” “Well, we won’t talk.
” Sachs adopted a circuitous strategy, “I want to tell a historical story.
” Then he cleverly told President Roosevelt that the French emperor had lost the opportunity to cross the English Channel and conquer Britain because he did not pay attention to the steam engine warship invented by Fulton.
This is the result of not paying attention to advanced scientific and technological achievements! Roosevelt naturally knew the implication of saxophone.
The events in the story sounded like a historical alarm in his ear.
After hearing this, he handed the glass full of wine to Sachs and said, “you have won!” Saxophone’s successful persuasion opened the first page of the history of mankind’s creation of the atomic bomb.
On October 19, 1939, President Roosevelt ordered the establishment of a special committee code named “s-11” to immediately start the development of the atomic bomb.
In August 1942, the US government officially formulated the “Manhattan plan” for the development of atomic bomb.
Fermi and a large number of other outstanding physicists put into work.
Based on the original research, Fermi further discussed the small law of uranium fission reaction.
Fermi conducted a nuclear reactor test on December 2, 1942 and achieved complete success.
This is the first time that mankind has realized a controllable nuclear reactor.
Later, physicist Oppenheimer secretly presided over the establishment of a huge atomic bomb trial production base in the desert of New Mexico in the Midwest of the United States.
In July 1945, through the efforts of tens of thousands of experts and technicians, the US government finally developed three atomic bombs nicknamed “thin man”, “fat man” and “little boy” at a cost of US $2 billion.
At 5:30 on July 16, 1945, in the desert of New Mexico, the first atomic bomb “thin man” exploded.
When the “thin man” exploded, the instantaneous flash illuminated the mountains 16 kilometers away.
Then the mushroom cloud rose to an altitude of 10000 meters, and the launch steel tower was completely evaporated by the high temperature.