in history, various powers in the German region have sought reunification for many times and have been interfered by other European powers. Before 1871, Germany could not be called a political entity, but a collective name of many princes, which was called the German region at that time.

the German region was originally unified. In 962, Otto the great was crowned as the “Roman emperor”. The emperor had so much power at this time that he could challenge the authority of the pope in Rome. From 1157 ad, Frederick I added the word “sacred” to the title of the Empire and became the emperor of the “Holy Roman Empire”. Italy, inherited from the middle Frankish Kingdom, has long been divided into many city states. In order to obtain the protection of the northern Germanic people (who were looted 500 years ago), they also joined the Holy Roman Empire.

(Holy Roman Empire)

however, the strong European religious tradition has deepened the opposition between imperial power and religious power, and its core point is the struggle for the appointment of bishops within the Empire. This power of appointment directly determines the profits of the Empire – selling officials and barons is the law of peers around the world, and the Pope can sell his bishops for income. The separation of imperial power and religious power, as well as the open and secret struggle, finally led to the game between the centralized politics of the Holy Roman Empire and the forces of local separatism. Finally, in 1356, Charles IV issued a golden seal imperial edict, which confirmed that the emperor must be elected by the seven electors, and the centralization of the Holy Roman Empire fell short of success.

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are the confirmation of the political division of medieval Germany in the legal sense. They are the tragic root of Germany’s future reunification, and doomed Germany to not be reunified in the next 600 years. While other European countries have strengthened centralization of power, the practice of abolishing martial arts by the Holy Roman Empire gives too many opportunities for external forces to intervene in the internal affairs of the Empire, so that Voltaire said that the empire is neither holy, nor Roman, nor empire. As an institutional heritage, the golden seal imperial edict in 1356 deeply affected the development process before the unification of Germany. The system of electing emperors and princes established by it also indirectly formed Prussia and Austria, which were bright among the German princes in the future.

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the enfeoffment system in Shenluo is very complicated. The seven electors are the most noble titles and titles in these noble systems, because only these seven electors can be qualified to run for the emperor. However, under the Catholic Marriage and inheritance system, the seven electors often lost their descendants, so that collateral and relatives often inherited the rights of electors through marriage. The Habsburg dynasty in Austria was established in 1526 only when it obtained the title of king of Bohemia, one of the electors, as a foreign relative. The Principality of Prussia, which was established almost at the same time, was also based on the same reason. After the death of the elector’s Brandenburg family, the hohensoren family inherited Brandenburg Prussia as a foreign relative.

however, at this time, the Habsburg dynasty occupied the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, with vast territory and huge power. It fought almost all major countries in Europe on its own in the “thirty year war” from 1618 to 1648. At this time, the Principality of Prussia was only the principality regime under the kingdom of Poland and could not participate in German affairs. In 1660, taking advantage of the war between Switzerland and Poland, the emperor of Brandenburg cancelled Poland’s suzerainty over the Principality of Prussia, obtained independent status and began to participate in European affairs.

Why are European countries afraid of the merger of Germany and Austria?

(Prussia and Austria at the moment)

in 1701, because the Spanish royal family had no children, France and Austria wanted to inherit the Spanish throne with foreign relatives, triggering a 12-year war of succession to the Spanish throne. The Habsburg dynasty paid the price of canonizing the Duke of Prussia as king in exchange for sending 8000 troops to help the war. Prussia has since become a member of the German princes and participated in German affairs. After a lapse of 200 years, Prussia has achieved the same status as Austria in the status of German princes. Since Austria was founded earlier and inherited by marriage, it pays more attention to feudal orthodoxy, because the “orthodoxy principle” is beneficial to Austria. Prussia was founded late, and there was an army before a country. It was the product of the concept of military state, so it was relatively more aggressive.

from 1701 to 1871, the kingdom of Prussia and the kingdom of Austria participated in many major events in Europe, including the “seven-year war”, “war”, “three dynastic wars”, etc. under the containment of France and Russia, the German national consciousness began to awaken, especially after the revolution in 1848, at the German Marquis conference held in Frankfurt, In order to promote economic development and deal with the threat of aggression from France and Russia, German reunification has become a consensus. The only difference is whether the “big Germany scheme” or the “small Germany scheme”.

due to the reactionary policy of the Austrian Empire towards the constituent assembly (the feudal tradition of Austria is more powerful), the participating German states began to favor the “little German scheme”, that is, the unification scheme excluding Austria. Since then, after three dynastic wars, the Second Empire with the king of Prussia as the German Emperor (not the real emperor of the German emperor) was established in the palace of Versailles, France, and the balance of power in Europe was broken.

Why are European countries afraid of the merger of Germany and Austria?

(the confrontation group in World War I)

after the establishment of the Second Empire, they are of the same language and are in the geographical disadvantage of central Europe, so that the Second Empire and Austria Hungary naturally have the ideology of alliance. The alliance between the Second Reich of Germany and the Austro Hungarian Empire (established after the PuO Austrian war in 1867) has prevented France from forming a strong power in Central Europe for more than 200 yearsThe efforts of the great empire went into water. Europe was blocked into the situation of Eastern Europe Russia and Western Europe France. A rising international hegemonic country was formed in Central Europe, and this hegemonic country pursued militarism. This means that as long as this hegemonic country starts to pick things up, other countries will have to deal with them with violent soldiers – it’s just a day, let’s fight.

before the outbreak of World War I from 1914 to 1918, Germany’s aggressive offensive strategy embarrassed Britain and France. Therefore, Britain even gave up its long-standing unfriendly attitude towards Russia (global hegemony) and finally established the treaty group in 1907.

Rao is so. After four years of fierce fighting, although the Allies finally won, they also won miserably. One third of the young people in France died in the battlefield, one third were disabled, and one third of the young people developed Buddhist thought after seeing the tragedy of the battlefield, so that the appeasement strategy prevailed in France before the beginning of World War II – the blood of the French had run out in World War I. The situation in Britain is not much better. It forcibly turns a creditor country into a debtor country, and the Treasury of the British Empire is emptied, which provides convenience for the ascendancy of the United States. As one of the main forces of the three treaties, Russia collapsed in 1917. In 1918, when all the leaders of the Allies thought that the German blood had dried up, Germany launched a large-scale offensive on the western front, almost reversing the war. The tenacity and terrible combat effectiveness of militarism made Britain, France and the United States afraid when they mentioned this matter after the war.

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it is precisely because of the amazing combat effectiveness of the militarism of the Second Empire in the world war that European countries are worried about France’s excessive exploitation of Germany. France was unable to prevent the revival of Germany. In the Versailles contract, it was agreed that the international community must prevent the merger of Germany and Austria, hoping that this could make Germany’s power “limited” by the International League established after World War I.

however, the French idea eventually evolved into a more tragic World War II, and the troops of the third empire merged with Austria almost without blood. In the battle, only 6 million people (Austria Hungary Empire had disintegrated in 1918, and Austria was a pure German nation-state), and 14 people participated in the war of the third empire. At the end of the battle of Berlin, the southern army of the Third Reich was still fighting in Vienna and Prague.

Why are European countries afraid of the merger of Germany and Austria?

(the ghost of the Third Reich)

the combat effectiveness of the Third Reich has once again caused the Soviet Union, the United States, Britain and France to have a more serious fear of the powerful power of reunification in Central Europe. It is necessary to maintain the division in Central Europe and completely destroy the possibility of German national reunification. Therefore, at the Nuremberg Trial conference, the legal system of the kingdom of Prussia was interrupted, and militarism, Nazism and other ideas were prohibited by legislation. At the same time, the German region is divided into three parts: East Germany, West Germany and Austria. East and West Germany implemented completely different social systems and formed completely different ideologies. Under normal circumstances, after 40 years of development, East and West Germany have formed completely different ethnic groups in social cognition, values and ideological and cultural systems, except for the same blood line. The vast majority of people believe that Germany can no longer be unified.

Germany ushered in the opportunity of reunification after making harmless little white rabbits for human and livestock for more than 40 years to please the Soviet Union and the United States. With the obstruction of Britain, France, Italy and other European countries, East and West Germany finally completed reunification with the acquiescence of the Soviet Union and the support of the United States. However, this degree of unification has touched the bottom line of Europe. Europeans make World War II films from time to time to remind Germany not to forget the bad deeds of the past. In particular, the Soviet Union invited Merkel to the World War II parade and watched more than 200 Nazi German military flags be dragged down through the Red Square. Merkel’s psychology at this time does not know what she thinks, but in the official statement, she must be indignant at Nazism.

Why are European countries afraid of the merger of Germany and Austria?

(made in Germany)

a divided Germany, after a short recovery, has returned to the peak of European rights. With its strong economic strength, Germany has obtained considerable exchange rate advantage and cost manufacturing advantage in the process of Euro integration, completing the important step of economic integration in Europe. If Germany reunifies Austria at this time, the stimulation of European countries to the ghost of the third empire will make Europe establish an anti German Alliance. At the time of the unification of East and West Germany, France quickly established diplomatic relations with Poland and the Czech Republic, and the “small treaty group” called by the German media for Germany was established again.

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can be seen that not only other European countries have not forgotten, including Germany itself, but also the World War I and World War II in the tragic memory. Under such circumstances, how can Germany unify Austria?