Why did “spkds” be abolished later?

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are roughly understood as follows. The inheritance of adopted children is divided into two categories. In the Republic period, it is mainly to ensure the family status, and the reason is mainly due to the lack of male offspring (that situation is a minority). At this time, it is mainly inheritance. A family figure who has merit and political status without male offspring can keep his political status and merit name (these can be inherited, and the property is not the most important) in the family in some way by adopting adopted children, so as to maintain the political status of the whole family. According to Roman custom, if there are female children, half of them will take their son-in-law as their adopted son, or let their grandson inherit it. The most important political status of

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is to inherit some names and continue to be the protector of a group of people. (these people are also the most important vote holders and agitators in the election). Moreover, this way can also enable the most capable people in the family to inherit the most important political assets (or other assets) of the family. The practice of

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continued at least in the royal family in the early Julian Dynasty, but the difference is that the adopted sons often come from two close families or two bedroom branches of the same family. And it was further consolidated by marriage (by marriage, both families became direct supporters of the royal family) except for vodavi, His successor, Tiberius Julius caesaraugustus, was also an adopted son (but he became the heir mainly because the adult grandson of vodavi also died. No succession means that the throne fell aside. Strictly speaking, the throne at this time is still a Republican position. If no one succeeds, the Senate can choose another emperor) )The intended successor of Tiberius is also an adopted son (his own nephew), but they are related by marriage or blood. Equivalent to what China said about Fang son. The whole Julian Dynasty was a process in which the crowdy family and the Julian family adopted each other’s suitable male heirs and married with their daughters.

a relatively complete blood relationship diagram of Julian Claudian Dynasty

Julio Claudian familytree in bold is the person who became the emperor, the number symbol represents the first marriage, and the dotted line represents the adoptive relationship. People who don’t feel clear can see the special genealogy page of the wiki.

a simplified genealogy is given in the Chinese wiki link above.

it can be seen that although all the throne are inherited by adoptive sons, this is mainly because other heirs with closer blood relationship die and are exiled (because of rebellion, debauchery, or poisoning by stepmother), and each heir has a certain blood relationship with his predecessor.

it is said that there are not many children, which is more nonsense, For example, Caligula in the Julian Dynasty has nine brothers and sisters (it’s just that it’s rare to live to adulthood, but ancient civilizations have this problem, so how can this be used to explain the special reason of Rome? It’s more likely that the men of the Julian family have reproductive genetic problems, and they always have few children. Caligula’s father comes from another family, and his mother has the blood of the Julian family). Moreover, because the Romans could divorce and remarry, it was very particular whether the children of the previous marriage were adopted by their stepfather or entered the biological father’s family. So sometimes even if there is a little blood relationship, because they belong to two families, it is common to express marriage in the middle (Caesar and Pompeii once married each other’s daughters. If these two marriages leave children, I’m afraid it will be more complicated later). Therefore, this period can be summarized as selecting the capable people in the two families and maintaining the royal blood.

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came to the Antony Dynasty in order to reduce the instability of the imperial system and prevent the destruction of their own family (because if parents and children are used, once powerful generals usurp power, they may kill their own family). Because of this, the succession of parents and children to the throne in the previous dynasty led to many massacres (fear of Neng Chen usurping the throne), civil war (son-in-law, nephew and Neng Chen claimed the right of inheritance against their immediate successors) and extermination. Each such change brought havoc to the whole aristocratic and rich class (to raise funds for the civil war, declare public enemies and confiscate the property of the rich), and weakened the administrative system of the Empire (many talented people fought in different camps, and each emperor had to conquer the whole empire almost again when he came to power). See the situation of the three emperors of the father and brother of the Flavian Dynasty. The first two have been fighting in all provinces almost all the time. But their pedigree is much simpler.

therefore, in the period of the Antoninus Dynasty, it was mainly the result of the struggle and balance between the nobility of the Senate and the military officials of other provinces (nirva and Trajan), and then it was mainly to appoint the most powerful people in the Imperial military circles as adoptive sons, and there was not necessarily a personal or family close relationship between adoptive sons and adoptive fathers, There is not necessarily a marriage relationship (but generally try to arrange a political marriage). Because at this time, the Imperial Army tended to be provincial. Appointing the most powerful soldiers as successors can best subdue the local strength factions with strength. And these people will no longer have the motivation and need to use the support of the army to compete for the throne and have a civil war. This is the main purpose of being accepted as an adopted son during this period. After Marco Aurelio inherited it with his parents and children, rebellion began everywhere immediately. But in fact, at first, Marco orillo wanted to adopt his son-in-law and succeed Tiberius Claudius pompeianus, but he refused.

the blood relationship diagram of the emperor during the Antoninus Dynasty.

Nerva, you can see that there are more than 10 families involved. Therefore, considering that many of them are provincial nobles, and many of them have the blood relationship of barbarian nobles who obtained Roman citizenship, it can be said that they are selected from the nobles of the whole empire. And attract large families from all over the province.

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military provinces and barbarian mercenariesWith the continuous development (the army is no longer a national army composed of citizen soldiers) the drama that every emperor has to conquer the whole empire almost again after the Anthony Dynasty.

after this, the severu Dynasty resumed parent-child inheritance, but severu himself was not a descendant of the Romans (he was half Carthaginian and half matriarchal Roman), while his own wife and the biological mother of the later two emperors were Arab descendants of Syria. And he had been so busy fighting the rebellion and conquering the nobles who claimed to be emperors in various provinces that he had never been to Rome until his death. His two sons were also fratricidal for power. Of course, after the last four rebellions, his family was exterminated.

family pedigree of the seviru Dynasty

later, the emperor even appeared the son of African slave release.

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the chaotic Civil War era of the third century crisis has made the whole empire completely provincial, barbaric and localized. Basically, the whole integrated Roman cultural identity has declined. The Empire was completely maintained by the military deterrence of the emperor, who came to the provincial Legion. Gaul and Britain even completely separated from the Empire and had independent emperors.

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and later the four emperors’ co governance system is only a deformation and restoration of the adopted son inheritance law of Anthony Dynasty. However, at this time, due to the provincial and barbaric development of the army, this way only complicates the Civil War surrounding the throne. Of course, after Constantine’s re conquest, he tried to use religion to strengthen the identity of the Empire. However, it also weakened the authority of the imperial administration, and the Empire was actually more divided in faith.