according to the Yomiuri Shimbun, the former Prime Minister dongjiuyou palace disclosed to an associated press reporter that the highest level is seriously discussing the abdication of the emperor. If Yuren chooses to abdicate, he will get the support of the royal family. A few days later, dongjiuyougong directly informed the Japanese press that he personally urged his nephew Hirohito to consider three “appropriate times” for abdication. Although the first opportunity “when the surrender document is signed” has been missed, the other two appropriate opportunities have not yet come.

Emperor Hirohito (data picture)

this article is excerpted from “embracing defeat – Japan after World War II”, [US] John W. Doyle, translated by Hu Bo, life, reading and Xinzhi Sanlian bookstore, published

in 1945, Institutions to try Japanese leaders for war crimes are slowly taking shape, and prosecutions and arrests are coming in waves at unpredictable times. On September 11, the arrest of the first batch of war criminal suspects was announced, followed by an ominous calm until the second batch of arrest warrants were issued on November 19. In the first week of December, many senior military officials and bureaucrats were added to the ranks of “class a” war criminal suspects, including former Prime Minister Kamiyama and the closest interior minister Yukichi Mutu. On December 6, Joseph Keenan, the chief prosecutor appointed by President Truman, led 40 subordinates to Tokyo. Two days later, the international prosecutor’s Office (IPS) was established for the impending trial. According to the Japanese calendar, this day marks the fourth anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack. On January 19, 1946, the supreme commander of the Allied forces (SCAP) announced the formal establishment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. As for which defendants will be brought to court for trial first, it was not announced until March 11. The trial began on 3 May. Until now, the Supreme Command and the international prosecutor’s office are still theoretically possible to prosecute Emperor Hirohito for war crimes.

in the court circle, the idea that the emperor is a war criminal is naturally unimaginable, but the idea that the emperor should bear certain responsibility for the war and defeat has been seriously considered. The Emperor himself had such consideration before the Supreme Command made clear its position that it was firmly opposed to any policy other than the use of Hirohito. On August 29, the day before the victor set foot on the land of the kingdom of God, the emperor talked about abdication to Yukichi Muto, believing that it could be used as a way to exempt his loyal ministers and army and Navy generals from war responsibility. It is not advisable for the emperor to inform the emperor. In mid September, with the knowledge of the emperor, the emperor’s inner uncle dongjiuyou palace led the cabinet to secretly discuss his abdication. Although some cabinet members argued that the emperor had no constitutional responsibility for the war, other ministers stressed that the emperor had a moral responsibility for the defeat of the country, the war dead and the war survivors.

in the first week of October, the Prime Minister of dongjiuyou palace privately met with his nephew Yuren and advised him to abdicate. Dongjiuyou Palace said it was willing to give up its royal status. His proposal was allegedly rejected on the grounds that “the time has not come”. A few weeks later, Yuren told his junior minister in a flat tone that in case of abdication, he hoped to find a talented researcher to assist him in his marine biology research (this is the field of knowledge chosen by the emperor a few years ago to establish his image as a real “modern man”).

on January 4, public opinion on war crimes heated up, and a large-scale “thorough” inventory of the incumbents who incited militarism and extreme nationalism began. The emperor asked Yukichi mutoya’s successor to investigate whether the Supreme Command wanted him to abdicate. Fujita opposed this. Yuren has always been enthusiastic about studying the precedents of successive emperors. In late January, he asked scholars to teach him about the abdication of emperor Yuduo. Emperor Yuduo reigned from 887 to 897 and abdicated at the age of 31. Yu Ren also regarded the British royal family as a reference model of modern Royal etiquette and asked officials to briefly report on the practice of the abdication of the British king.

the topic of emperor abdication soon leaked to the media. In late October 1945, the Duke of Jinwei openly mentioned the possibility of the emperor’s abdication, and then issued an amendment statement under the pressure of the cabinet, causing a commotion. The Duke of Jinwei said with unusual bluntness that the emperor had a great personal responsibility for failing to avoid the war with the United States and ending the war as soon as possible. On February 27 of the following year, this topic jumped into the public’s view again. According to the Yomiuri Shimbun, former Prime Minister dongjiuyou palace told an associated press reporter that the top level is seriously discussing the abdication of the emperor. If Yuren chooses to abdicate, he will get the support of the royal family. A few days later, dongjiuyougong directly informed the Japanese press that he personally urged his nephew Hirohito to consider three “appropriate times” for abdication. Although the first opportunity “when the surrender document is signed” has been missed, the other two appropriate opportunities have not yet come. According to dongjiuyou palace, Yuren should consider abdication when the constitution is amended or when the occupation period ends and the peace treaty is concluded. The press even speculated that the most likely is the Regent of the emperor’s brother Takamatsu palace until the crown prince becomes an adult.

the sensational report of Yomiuri Shimbun is consistent with the views put forward at the emergency meeting of the Privy Council of the province. At the meeting, the emperor’s 31 year old younger brother Sanli palace indirectly urged the emperor to be responsible for the defeat. Sanli palace urged the government and the royal family to get rid of “old-fashioned thinking” and “take bold action now”. Lu Tian, Minister of health and welfare (later Prime Minister), was present at the time. He wrote in his diary that “everyone seems to be thinking about” Sanli Palace’s words, and “His Majesty’s worried face has never been so pale”.

despite such worries, it is clear that the emperor decided not to abdicate at about this time. He told the Deputy Minister of the Chamberlain, Daoxiong Muxia, that he doubted that anyone was qualified to take his place. His three brothers, Takamatsu palace, were once openly “war fighters”. Chifu palace was weak and ill, and Sanli palace was too young and inexperienced (Sanli palace is 31 years old, 11 years older than Yuren when he was Regent in 1921). The emperor told Muxia that he regretted that his uncle didn’t pay much attention to his words in the face of the press.

Prominent figures in the political and ideological fields began to speak in support of the abdication of the emperor. The newly appointed president of Imperial University of Tokyo, a liberal and Christian Educator, namhara fan, made a goodwill evaluation of the emperor system on the whole, but advocated that Hirohito should abdicate for moral reasons. Sasaki Huyi, a conservative constitutional scholar who assisted Jinwei in drafting the amendment to the Meiji Constitution, also said Approve the abdication of the emperor on moral grounds. Tian bianyuan, a strict conservative philosopher, made an in-depth interpretation of the Buddhist concept of “confession”, hoping that the emperor would retire and become a symbol of poverty and nothingness. He also urged the use of Royal Property for the relief of the poor.

Emperor Hirohito (data picture)

this article is excerpted from “embracing defeat – Japan after World War II”, [US] John W. Doyle, translated by Hu Bo, life, reading and Xinzhi Sanlian bookstore, published

in 1945, Institutions to try Japanese leaders for war crimes are slowly taking shape, and prosecutions and arrests are coming in waves at unpredictable times. On September 11, the arrest of the first batch of war criminal suspects was announced, followed by an ominous calm until the second batch of arrest warrants were issued on November 19. In the first week of December, many senior military officials and bureaucrats were added to the ranks of “class a” war criminal suspects, including former Prime Minister Kamiyama and the closest interior minister Yukichi Mutu. On December 6, Joseph Keenan, the chief prosecutor appointed by President Truman, led 40 subordinates to Tokyo. Two days later, MacArthur set up the international prosecutor’s Office (IPS) for the impending trial. According to the Japanese calendar, this day marks the fourth anniversary of the Pearl Harbor attack. On January 19, 1946, the supreme commander of the Allied forces (SCAP) announced the formal establishment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East. As for which defendants will be brought to court for trial first, it was not announced until March 11. The trial began on 3 May. Until now, the Supreme Command and the international prosecutor’s office are still theoretically possible to prosecute Emperor Hirohito for war crimes.

in the court circle, the idea that the emperor is a war criminal is naturally unimaginable, but the idea that the emperor should bear certain responsibility for the war and defeat has been seriously considered. The Emperor himself had such consideration before the Supreme Command made clear its position that it was firmly opposed to any policy other than the use of Hirohito. On August 29, the day before the victor set foot on the land of the kingdom of God, the emperor talked about abdication to Yukichi Muto, believing that it could be used as a way to exempt his loyal ministers and army and Navy generals from war responsibility. It is not advisable for the emperor to inform the emperor. In mid September, with the knowledge of the emperor, the emperor’s inner uncle dongjiuyou palace led the cabinet to secretly discuss his abdication. Although some cabinet members argued that the emperor had no constitutional responsibility for the war, other ministers stressed that the emperor had a moral responsibility for the defeat of the country, the war dead and the war survivors.

in the first week of October, the Prime Minister of dongjiuyou palace privately met with his nephew Yuren and advised him to abdicate. Dongjiuyou Palace said it was willing to give up its royal status. His proposal was allegedly rejected on the grounds that “the time has not come”. A few weeks later, Yuren told his junior minister in a flat tone that in case of abdication, he hoped to find a talented researcher to assist him in his marine biology research (this is the field of knowledge chosen by the emperor a few years ago to establish his image as a real “modern man”).

on January 4, public opinion on war crimes heated up, and a large-scale “thorough” inventory of the incumbents who incited militarism and extreme nationalism began. The emperor asked Yukichi mutoya’s successor to investigate whether the Supreme Command wanted him to abdicate. Fujita opposed this. Yuren has always been enthusiastic about studying the precedents of successive emperors. In late January, he asked scholars to teach him about the abdication of emperor Yuduo. Emperor Yuduo reigned from 887 to 897 and abdicated at the age of 31. Yu Ren also regarded the British royal family as a reference model of modern Royal etiquette and asked officials to briefly report on the practice of the abdication of the British king.

the topic of emperor abdication soon leaked to the media. In late October 1945, the Duke of Jinwei openly mentioned the possibility of the emperor’s abdication, and then issued an amendment statement under the pressure of the cabinet, causing a commotion. The Duke of Jinwei said with unusual bluntness that the emperor had a great personal responsibility for failing to avoid the war with the United States and ending the war as soon as possible. On February 27 of the following year, this topic jumped into the public’s view again. According to the Yomiuri Shimbun, former Prime Minister dongjiuyou palace told an associated press reporter that the top level is seriously discussing the abdication of the emperor. If Yuren chooses to abdicate, he will get the support of the royal family. A few days later, dongjiuyougong directly informed the Japanese press that he personally urged his nephew Hirohito to consider three “appropriate times” for abdication. Although the first opportunity “when the surrender document is signed” has been missed, the other two appropriate opportunities have not yet come. According to dongjiuyou palace, Yuren should consider abdication when the constitution is amended or when the occupation period ends and the peace treaty is concluded. The press even speculated that the most likely is the Regent of the emperor’s brother Takamatsu palace until the crown prince becomes an adult.

the sensational report of Yomiuri Shimbun is consistent with the views put forward at the emergency meeting of the Privy Council of the province. At the meeting, the emperor’s 31 year old younger brother Sanli palace indirectly urged the emperor to be responsible for the defeat. Sanli palace urged the government and the royal family to get rid of “old-fashioned thinking” and “take bold action now”. Lu Tian, Minister of health and welfare (later Prime Minister), was present at the time. He wrote in his diary that “everyone seems to be thinking about” Sanli Palace’s words, and “His Majesty’s worried face has never been so pale”.

despite such worries, it is clear that the emperor decided not to abdicate at about this time. He told the Deputy Minister of the Chamberlain, Daoxiong Muxia, that he doubted that anyone was qualified to take his place. His three brothers, Takamatsu palace, were once openly “war fighters”. Chifu palace was weak and ill, and Sanli palace was too young and inexperienced (Sanli palace is 31 years old)A strong rule of the Communist line “.

before the war crimes trial officially began, the supreme command, the international prosecutor’s Office (IPS) and Japanese bureaucrats operated behind the scenes to not only prevent Hirohito from being prosecuted, but also distort the testimony of the defendants to ensure that no one would be involved in the emperor. The former Navy General and Prime Minister Koizumi mineI, following the proposal of Philus, obviously warned Hideki Tojo not to blame the emperor in any way. However, this kind of cooperation between Japan and the United States, which decides the nature of trial, is far more than that. Senior officials of the Japanese court and government cooperated with the supreme command to complete the list of war suspects. Finally, they arrested 100 famous people suspected of “class a” war criminals (only 28 of whom were prosecuted), and imprisoned them in the nest duck detention center during the public sentence, allowing them to take an independent oath to protect their monarch from any war responsibility. On December 31, 1947, this closely maintained Japan US cooperative operation was confirmed by Hideki Tojo’s court testimony. Dongtiao temporarily deviated from the established agreement line of the emperor’s innocence and mentioned the emperor’s final decision-making power. The US led “prosecution authority” immediately made arrangements to secretly guide Dongtiao to withdraw his testimony.

,

,

,

these efforts to separate the emperor from any war responsibility exceeded the emperor’s own expectations, resulting in the loss of the opportunity to use him to clarify the historical records.

successfully pardoned the emperor’s war responsibility without limit. Yuren not only appears as innocent and gets rid of any formal act that can be prosecuted as war criminals, but also has been made into an almost holy figure, and even has no moral responsibility for the war. For more thoughtful insiders, such pragmatism is even more distressing. For example, in a long report to President Truman in early 1946, George Atcheson, the representative of the US State Department in Tokyo, bluntly stated his proposition: “the emperor is a war criminal” and “if Japan wants to achieve real democracy, it must abolish the emperor system”. Nevertheless, Acheson also believes that in the current situation, only by maintaining the Mikado system and exempting Hirohito from his war responsibility can we avoid social chaos and give full play to democracy. He boldly suggested that the abdication of the emperor might be a good policy in the future, but it would be better to postpone it until the date of constitutional amendment.

shortly after that, Acheson died in a plane crash and failed to witness the subsequent emperor’s abdication. Although the Japanese government officially announced in September 1946 that the emperor had no intention to abdicate, the possibility of his abdication reappeared twice thereafter. In 1948, when the Tokyo trial was approaching the judgment, the issue of the emperor’s moral responsibility was raised again.

the Americans are going to suppress the emperor’s abdication as usual. In July 1948, although Philus had retired and left Japan more than a year ago, he quickly wrote a personal letter to terazaki, expressing his vigilance that “American news frequently talked about his Majesty’s abdication”.

Yukichi wooden, the emperor’s confidant, once told him to be ready all the time. When he left the emperor and went to prison in December 1945, Kimo stressed that the honor of the royal family required Hirohito to bear the responsibility of losing the war, but the appropriate time to fulfill his responsibility was only when the occupying forces withdrew, the peace treaty was concluded and Japan restored sovereignty. In October 1951, while still serving his sentence, Yukichi wooden recorded in his diary that he had written to the emperor to reiterate the above views. He advised that abdication was an act of “obeying the truth”. It will comfort war survivors, including the families of war criminals sentenced, and “make a significant contribution to national unity centered on the royal family”. If the emperor fails to seize this opportunity, “the end result will be that only the royal family will not bear responsibility, which will lead to inexplicable emotions and may plant permanent roots,” Kimo wrote.

KIMOTO’s views on the emperor’s war responsibility, like most Japanese, are the real thoughts in his heart. The emperor should bear the responsibility for “losing the war”. He should clear up history and apologize to his subjects who suffered, died or lost their loved ones in the war launched in his name. In this way, he will remove the blood stained on the throne of the emperor during the most terrible period in Japanese history.

however, fortunes have changed. This time, there is no hard core figure like MacArthur to support it. In November, the news was sent back to Kimo. The emperor was seriously considering abdication and was encouraged by people around him again. As a result, nothing happened. In his speech to welcome the long-awaited return of sovereignty, the emperor expressed his intention to remain in office and made no mention of his personal war responsibility, although the original text contained the expression “I deeply apologize to the people for the responsibility of losing the war”. Why were the words of thanks finally deleted? Because it is said that the emperor was persuaded by a clever question from an adviser: “why should your majesty apologize in such a strong tone now?”

say