the Mongolian army launched a large-scale western expedition in the 13th century. With less troops and long logistics supply, it defeated all enemies and occupied more than half of Eurasia, which is a miracle in world history.

in fact, in several Western expeditions, the number of Mongolian troops was usually small. With the servants of other nationalities, the total number was no more than 200000, often much less than the other party’s army. However, the small number of Mongolian troops are often invincible and invincible. Is there any secret?

of course, we don’t rule out that the Mongols have always had good luck with them. However, in addition to good luck, there are still reasons why they are victorious. Just like a song: “no one can succeed casually.”

next, we try to analyze the reason why the Mongolian army is invincible.

(I) Mongols’ strong spirit of Conquest

Mongols’ combat effectiveness first comes from their strong sense of conquest. Mongols may be one of the nations with the most sense of conquest and martial spirit in the world, which is a little similar to Westerners.

one day, having nothing to do, he asked the ministers a question: “what is the greatest happiness of a man?” Bo’ershu (the first general under his command) said: “taking the gray eagle that has been taken off in winter and is now covered with feathers again, riding a good fattened horse, wearing good clothes, and going out to hunt gray headed birds in early spring is the greatest happiness I understand.”

borhu said, “it is the greatest happiness of a man to release the eagle and see it catch the crane with its claws in the air. It is the greatest happiness of life to release the eagle when hunting.”

Genghis Khan laughed, Said to the ministers: “Suppressing the rebels, defeating the enemy, uprooting them, and seizing everything they have; making their married women cry and cry, riding on their horses with smooth backs, using their beautiful empress’s belly as pajamas and cushions, watching their rosy cheeks, kissing and sucking their nipple sweet lips are the greatest happiness of men. ”

the words of Genghis Khan

speak the thoughts of the Mongols. Generally speaking, nomads often have a strong sense of conquest.

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the living conditions of nomadic people are much worse than those of agricultural people. You may have traveled in Inner Mongolia and seen the boundless grassland there. You may think it is the most beautiful paradise in the world.

but this is only the most beautiful scenery you see at the best time. You don’t see their cruel life. In fact, in any way, the geographical conditions of the Mongolian Plateau are bad.

gabini, an envoy of the Pope, recorded in detail the harsh natural conditions of Mongolia in his book the envoy to Mongolia.

he said in his book: “In some parts of the country, there are many mountains. In other parts, it is flat. However, in fact, all its land is said to be composed of gravel, and the soil is not much. It is almost desert. In some areas, there are some small forests, but in other areas, there are no trees at all. The fertile land is less than one percent, and it can’t be irrigated unless it is irrigated with running water There are many rivers and streams, but there are few rivers. ”

shows that although Mongolia has a vast territory, it is basically a desert and has little water source.

just because there are few good places, the competition for good pastures is inevitable. When grazing, whoever owns the fattest grassland can live a better life. The good grassland given by God has no owner. Whoever has great strength and power will own this grassland. Water and grass are the basis for their survival. Under the leadership of the leader, those nomadic tribes often fight cruelly among tribes for better living conditions.

the endless Gobi desert

the climate of nomadic areas is also cruel, and disastrous heavy snow often appears in winter. Gabini said: “The weather there is surprisingly abnormal. In midsummer, it is hot in other places, but there are fierce lightning, people are often killed, and it often snows heavily. This place also has cold and biting winds, which make it very difficult for people to get on their horses. When we are mediating our ears – this is the name of the tent camp of the emperor and leaders — in front of us, we had to lie on the ground because of the force of the wind, and we could hardly see anything because of the flying sand.

it never rains in winter, but it often rains in summer. Although the rain is so small that sometimes there is no wetting of dust and grass roots. There is also often heavy hail. When the emperor was elected and was ready to hold the climax ceremony, we were in our ears when there was such a big hail. We clearly understood that as a result of the melting of the hail, more than 160 people were drowned in our ears, and many tents and properties were washed away. ”

gabini said that the climate of Mongolia is basically consistent with the extreme weather of global greenhouse effect. In such extreme weather conditions, their cattle and sheep often freeze to death in groups, and the latter starve and die of thirst due to drought.

all the property and sources of livelihood of nomadic people are their cattle, sheep and horses. In ancient times, for nomadic peopleAs far as the nation is concerned, without livestock to rely on, it will lose its source of livelihood. At this time, in order to survive, captivity became another way for them to survive.

we say that nomads are not inherently aggressive, but are forced out by that geographical environment.

“Compared with all the enemies, the Mongols are in a backward position in material terms, and large-scale capture and plunder has always been the reason and driving force to encourage them to maintain their strong combat effectiveness. The desire for wealth and the stimulation of killing make the Mongols almost never stop waging war with foreign countries. The policy of letting soldiers kill at will can make the blood of killing people psychologically Courage stimulates soldiers’ belligerence and primitive courage, making Mongolian soldiers extremely brave and savage soldiers. ” French historian Rene? Gruse explained the Mongols’ motivation to conquer the world in grassland empire.

Mongols

therefore, “Men” on the grassland do nothing but make arrows. They sometimes take care of sex animals, but they are mainly engaged in hunting and practicing archery. They (both adults and children) They are all excellent shooters. When their children were just two or two years old, they began to ride and ride horses and run on them. At the same time, adults gave them bows suitable for their bodies and taught them to shoot arrows. They are all very agile and brave. ” Gabini said so in the envoy to Mongolia.

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have become the norms of the people. If they can, they will conquer the world.

gabini said in the book of envoys to Mongolia that Genghis Khan once issued an order that as long as they (Mongols) had not been slaughtered, they would subdue the whole world to them. They would never make peace with any nation unless those people surrendered to them first.

on the seal of GUI you, the grandson of Genghis Khan, the third great Khan of Mongolia, such words are engraved: “the God of heaven, the king of GUI you on earth, the power of God, the emperor seal of all mankind”. All these situations show that conquering the world is their life ideal. It is not difficult to understand why they would take Mongolia as the center and launch a war of Conquest to all the places around them in a short time.

(II) Mongolian extreme sense of obedience

the strong combat effectiveness of the Mongolian army comes from their iron discipline and extreme sense of obedience. The sense of obedience is an important reason for the formation of strong combat effectiveness. In combat, only when everyone completely obeys the command of the commander can a strong combat effectiveness be formed.

there are two most powerful armies in the world, one is the German army and the other is the Japanese army. In the Second World War, one of these two countries fought all over Europe and the other all over Asia. In addition to their advanced weapons and tactics, their absolute obedience to the leadership is an important reason for the strong combat effectiveness of their army.

Japanese in World War II, the officer said that the resistance was to the end, and no Japanese surrendered; The officer said that he would surrender unconditionally. The soldiers who had just fought to the death immediately laid down their weapons. No one is their opponent in such an army.

the Mongolian army is equipped with

. In Japan, there is a legendary figure, who is a hero “Onoda” who has been fighting for 30 years.

in 1942, Onoda, who was only 20 years old, was recruited into the army. In November 1944, he and his comrades in arms were sent to Luban Island, a small island in the Philippines, to engage in guerrilla warfare. The main task is very simple, resist the attack of the US Army and destroy the airport and seaport. The action strategy is extremely simple: live without backup.

in 1945, Japan surrendered unconditionally. However, because they were in the jungle and had no news, they didn’t know about the Japanese surrender at all, and they continued to fight.

the locals found Japanese soldiers hiding in the jungle, so the local government threw publicity materials into the jungle and told them that the war was over. However, Onoda thought it was a plot of the US Army, so they decided to continue the war. Finally, others died one after another, leaving Onoda alone to resist.

on February 20, 1974, Onoda met Japanese Explorer KIO Suzuki in the mountains (one of the purposes of his exploration was to find Onoda). Onoda slowly approached Suzuki from behind and prepared to attack him, but he found that Suzuki was a Japanese, so they talked. Suzuki told him that the war was over and asked him to go out of the jungle and go home. However, Onoda said that if I want to retreat, I must have the order of my captain, otherwise I won’t talk. Suzuki promised that he would come again with the order of his captain.

on March 9, 1974, Onoda found a note from Suzuki saying that his commander, major Yoshimi Taniguchi, had arrived and attached a complete evacuation order. Two days later, Onoda crossed the whole mountain and came to the designated place. In the face of the chief officer, he accepted the command of major Yoshimi Taniguchi with the most standard salute. At the command of the major, the skinny old man, Lieutenant hiroro Onoda, surrendered on the spot. At that time, Philippine President Marcos pardoned him for his crimes and let him return home.

thirty years later, Onoda finally returned to Japan. Wherever he went, he was warmly welcomed by the “hero” of the whole country. He became Japan’s “spiritual hero”. Soon, his autobiography became a best-selling book entitled “never surrender, my thirty year war”.

the Mongols’ sense of obedience to leadership is a model all over the world, even more than the Japanese.

” these Tatars are more obedient to their masters than any other nation in the world (whether he believes in religion or not); they have great respect for their masters and never lie to their masters.

” no matter what order he gave them, no matter when and where, no matter whether the order was for them to fight, die or live, they absolutely obeyed without a word of objection. Even if he wanted their unmarried daughter or sister, they dedicated her to him without a word of complaint. ”

can you find out that there are other nationalities with more obedience consciousness than the Mongols? Although some of us say that this is blind obedience consciousness, this is slave consciousness. However, the army needs such a sense. Without such an extreme sense of obedience, it is impossible to win the war.

of course, their extreme sense of obedience also depends on strict discipline. The strict military discipline of Mongols is rare in the world. “

When they are fighting, if one, two, three, or even more of the ten escape, all the ten will be sentenced to death. If a team of ten escapes, all the others under the centurion, even if they do not escape, will be executed. In a word, unless they all retreat, all those who escape will be executed. Similarly, if one or two or more of the ten men advance bravely and fight bravely, while the rest do not follow, they will all be executed; If one or more of the ten men are captured by the enemy and their partners do not save them, they will all be executed. ”

this is a typical policy of collusion and company. If one person runs away, all his comrades in arms will be executed. As a result, even if you want to run away, others won’t agree. Finally, we should die together and live together. On the battlefield, the Mongolian army has become an army that will never retreat. Although this policy is not very humane, the effect is quite good.

(III) the Mongolian special social life

first of all, the Mongolian’s ability to bear hardships is extremely strong.

because the Mongols grew up in the severe cold and difficult environment, they all have an extremely tough and hardworking character, and almost never pay attention to the treatment of material conditions. It is common to climb ice and lie on snow. Long distance trekking is a habit since childhood. The lack of attention to material conditions makes the logistics burden of the Mongolian army very light. Therefore, Mongolian soldiers have the will and ability to fight continuously that soldiers of other nationalities do not have, which is never comparable to those noble cavalry in the West.

we can find examples in the Korean War.

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during the war to resist US aggression and aid Korea, the volunteers faced a powerful US Army (the Americans had just defeated Germany and Japan, and their combat effectiveness can be imagined). However, such a powerful US Army was defeated by the poorly armed volunteers. Why?

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among them, the most important is the spirit of hard work of volunteers. The soldiers of the volunteer army are all farmers from poor backgrounds. They can still move freely in the low temperature of minus 30 or 40 degrees in North Korea. A handful of fried noodles and soybeans are their own supplies. They can attack at any time and anywhere. It is not surprising that those old soldiers in the United States can’t move a step without logistical support. It is not surprising that the volunteer army has won.

followed by Mongols, who were born soldiers.

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after the unification of Mongolian tribes, they almost took the foreign war as the basis for national survival, basically stopped grazing and other production activities, and Mongolia moved towards a complete militarization road. In order to train the best army, Mongolian children aged three or four were put into special military training departments for military learning. They were strictly trained in horse riding and archery. The cavalry troops composed of these children trained from childhood have amazing fighting quality and skills. They can accurately shoot the enemy on horseback, whether charging or retreating quickly. In this training mode, all ordinary soldiers are like marksmen like flying generals. No other nation can achieve this, and such soldiers are unmatched by others.

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are soldiers who have been trained according to the standards of soldiers since childhood. Isn’t it obvious who wins and loses when fighting with soldiers who are halfway out?

we can use China’s Olympic sports to illustrate this problem.

Chinese athletes have been trained according to the official competition standards almost since childhood, and have been trained until adulthood. After more than ten years of training, what level can they not practice? Moreover, these athletes don’t have to do anything except sports training. In other words, their life is sports training, so the strength of the trained players can be imagined.

in contrast to foreign sports athletes, many of them are amateurs, and sports training is a hobby outside the formal profession. Of course, such half pull athletes can’t compare with our professional athletes.

Mongolian soldiers are like our Olympic athletes, while soldiers of other nationalities are halfway monks. Professional soldiers have little suspense about the outcome of the war for soldiers who become monks on the way. The third is the special social organization form of the Mongols.

Mongols have established social organizations suitable for the war. In Mongolia, there is no special army except the pro army of Khan. Each Mongol is both ordinary people and soldiers. In peacetime, they graze. When fighting, they bring their own weapons and follow the leader。 It can be said that they are typical “all the people are soldiers”. Everyone has a dual identity. When launching a war, the whole people can mobilize and participate in combat operations regardless of men, women, old and young. For example, the long-term siege of huarazimi is the participation of the whole people, grazing under the city and maintaining the continuous attack power of the army until the city is conquered.

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to sum up, it is almost an inevitable result that the Mongolian army is invincible in Asia and Europe.

(IV) advanced tactics of the Mongols

in the 13th century, the Mongolian combat concept should be the most advanced in the world.

1. Do a good job of investigation before the war

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when fighting, the Mongolian army pays the most attention to doing a good job of early reconnaissance and not fighting unprepared wars. Before fighting, they try to collect information about the enemy’s roads, rivers, fortifications, political and economic conditions, and use it in the war.

when the Mongolian army marches, it is necessary to send a forward in front of the main army, and there should be sentry horses in front of the forward. As long as it is a small part of more than hundreds of people, it is necessary to send Sentry horses around for reconnaissance. Reconnaissance is divided into two types. One is armed sentry, which is usually carried out when there are enemy forces around. Sentry rides up to the high and look far, or plunders the enemy and approaches the enemy’s camp sentry to obtain intelligence. The other is the sentinel detection of marching in peacetime, which is mainly to find residents. Once residents or passengers are found, they should be captured and asked about the surrounding terrain, force distribution, fortress, military base, where to supply, etc. The distribution of such sentinels during marching can sometimes be as far as 200 kilometers in front of the army. Once information is found, it shall be reported to the commander of the unified army according to the importance of the information. Therefore, the Mongolian army has almost never been ambushed.

therefore, in combat, the Mongolian army is more familiar with the environment around the battlefield than the local army, and can use the local environment to help combat.

for example, in the battle of Hungary, when Batu’s army fought with Hungarian Archbishop yuguolin, the Mongols pretended to escape and then led the enemy into the swamp. The light Mongolian cavalry passed smoothly from the grass, and the heavy Hungarian cavalry fell into the mud. As a result, the Hungarian cavalry struggling in the swamp was like a fish in the mud.

when the Mongolian soldiers attacked Baghdad, the Baghdad soldiers went out of the city to meet, the Mongolian soldiers withdrew, introduced the enemy into the grassland in low-lying areas, and then led the Tigris River to low-lying areas. The Arab cavalry became soldiers in the water and were basically drowned.

it can be said that the reconnaissance work of the Mongolian army is the best, and it can effectively use the local terrain to give a heavy blow to the enemy.

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this method of using terrain and landform to deal with the enemy has achieved good results. It has played a good effect of using less to win more and using the weak to win the strong. He can minimize losses and destroy the enemy.

we can use China’s first victory in the war of resistance against Japan to illustrate this matter.

at the beginning of the war of resistance against Japan, compared with the Japanese army, the Chinese army was not at the same level, and the Chinese army never defeated the enemy.

however, later, the poorly equipped Eighth Route Army surrounded and annihilated the powerful Japanese army in the Pingxingguan campaign, won the first victory of the Chinese army since the Anti Japanese War, and broke the myth that the Japanese army was invincible. The Pingxingguan campaign was a clever ambush.

at that time, the Japanese invading army attacked Shanxi. The division commander and political commissar of the 115th division of the Eighth Route Army decided to set up an ambush at Pingxingguan to attack the Japanese army invading Shanxi. Before the war, Lin Biao, commander of the 115th division, surveyed the terrain of Pingxingguan for many times and prepared to concentrate his forces for an ambush.

on September 25, the enemy banyuan division of the Japanese army entered the ambush circle. The Eighth Route Army launched a fierce attack on the Japanese army in the valley with Yuri terrain. The fierce battle lasted day and night. Finally, the 21st brigade of the Japanese banyuan division was devastated.

was a great victory in Pingxingguan, annihilating more than 1000 enemy people, destroying 100 enemy cars and 200 carts, and seizing more than 1000 rifles, more than 20 heavy and heavy machine guns, 53 war horses and a large number of other spoils. This was China’s first great victory since the beginning of the war of resistance against Japan. It shattered the myth of “the imperial army is invincible”, inspired the hearts of the whole country and inspired the enthusiasm of the people of the whole country for the war of resistance against Japan.

if the 115th division of the Eighth Route Army fought hard with the Japanese army, it would certainly not be an opponent. However, we won a legendary victory by relying on our geographical advantages.

it can be said that in the western expedition war, the Mongolian army basically fought skillfully with the enemy without hard struggle, so it can win more with less every time.

2. The “retreat encirclement” strategy of winning every battle.

Mongols rarely fight hard with the enemy in battle, that is, they rarely confront the enemy head-on. A head-on encounter will often cause greater casualties on one’s own side, and there is little chance of victory. Taking advantage of the high mobility of the cavalry, they adopted the tactics of luring the enemy to attack, then retreating and encircling the enemy in retreat. This tactic often won victory. The Mongolian escape encirclement tactics are divided into two aspects: strategy and tactics.

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in terms of strategy, the Mongols put special emphasis on the mobility of the army, which is characterized by long-distance encirclement, detour and joint attack. They can often maneuver on a large scale for hundreds of miles, making it difficult for the enemy to predict and prevent their attacks.

if the enemy is really strong, they will retreat for a few days, run hundreds of miles, drag the enemy away, and then seize the warplanes, destroy the most critical enemy, and then follow the enemyThe enemy will be defeated. The classic battle of

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is the first Kamal River war that swept Russia.

in 1222, on the chincha prairie in southern Russia, zhe he Bu Tai defeated the chincha people, who asked for help from the Russian princes. The Russian princes summoned an army of 80000 people to attack beizhe and xubu Taiwan.

at that time, there were only 25000 troops in the other troops. In the face of 80000 Russian troops, those with few troops did not fight with them directly, but retreated. When the Russian coalition forces saw that those who did not retreat with Taiwan quickly, they pursued them closely. Don’t retreat for 12 days and hundreds of kilometers. After 12 days of chasing, the Russian army was quite tired, and the distance between the legions gradually widened. On May 31, 1222, Zhebei and subutai seized the fighter plane by the Kamal River and defeated an army separated from the large army. Other legions retreated without fighting. The Mongolian army pursued the victory and finally eliminated all the Russian coalition forces.

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, the maneuver tactics of retreating and encircling for a long time and in a large space, often drag down the enemy, then seize the fighters, eliminate the vulnerable parts, shake the enemy’s military heart, and then we can take advantage of the situation to defeat the enemy. This tactic can often achieve the miraculous effect of winning more with less.

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in terms of tactics, the Mongolian army is also good at using retreat and encirclement tactics. The tactics of

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are: first, retreat and ambush. They set up an ambush in front of them, then fought with the enemy, pretended to escape without the enemy, led the enemy into the encirclement and caught them all.

this has had an effect in the battle between zhe BIE and Subu Tai against the Georgians.

when you are ready to attack the Russian grassland, you have to pass through Georgia. Georgia is a mountainous country, the local residents are also very strong, and the combat effectiveness of their army is very strong. It’s hard to beat them with a frontal attack. So this don’t and speed don’t take the retreat tactics. Don’t lead 5000 people to ambush in a secret place and lead the troops to attack the Georgians. As soon as the battle was fought, the Georgians pretended to be defeated and led the Mongolian soldiers back. As soon as the Georgians saw that the Mongols were defeated, they were very happy and immediately caught up with them. The Georgians are chasing after the happy ones. Don’t suddenly come out and surround them. The unsuspecting Georgians were wiped out by more than 30000 people at once, and basically the whole army was wiped out.

in the decisive battle with the European heavy cavalry, the Mongolian retreat and encirclement tactics received more miraculous effects.

Western cavalry forces are powerful heavy Armored Cavalry. Soldiers wear thick lock armour, which can effectively resist the killing of knives, guns, bows and arrows. Cavalry use long guns and swords, which have great lethality. They formed a dense square array, and the soldiers of foot, riding, bow and arrow and shotgun fought together. This mode of operation has strong lethality and protection, and almost no one on the front can resist their attack.

the cavalry of the Mongolian army cannot defeat the heavy Armored Cavalry of Europe one-on-one at any time. The lethality of the spear and sword of the heavy Armored Cavalry of Europe is much greater than that of the saber, spear or mace in the hands of the Mongolian cavalry, and the horse of the European cavalry is much taller than that of the Mongolian horse.

facing the characteristics of European cavalry, the Mongols gave full play to their special tactics. They paid attention to the mobility and tactical flexibility of troops.

after the two armies fight, the cavalry of the Mongolian army will quickly retreat, and the heavy cavalry of the Western army will form a dense formation to attack the Mongolian soldiers. However, the retreating Mongols took advantage of the weak mobility of the European heavy cavalry and quickly attacked the European heavy cavalry from the flank and behind to cut and kill the enemy at close range. When fighting against Europeans, the Mongols won the most important battle by this method.

relying on the high mobility of the troops, the Mongolian army eliminated a large number of heavily armored but clumsy European troops. When the Mongolian army used mobile warfare, there were only a small number of casualties. Modern European military history experts believe that the proportion of casualties between European troops and Mongolian troops in the war may be the most disparity in the era of cold weapons. The relatively highly mobile Mongolian army of the European army can not only win the war, but also escape. As a result, very few Europeans have fled from the battlefield. They are basically one pot, so that for a long time, Europeans have always believed that the number of Mongolian troops is extremely large.

facts have proved that as long as the Mongols adopt the highly mobile retreat and encirclement tactics they are good at, they will be invincible. If you deviate from this tactic, you will often fail. The only defeat in the western expedition was the timid fight with the Egyptians. In that battle, I was too timid to fight with the Egyptians. As a result, the whole army was destroyed.

the short Mongolian army can’t take advantage when fighting with the enemy. The correct tactics are an important guarantee for their victory.

3. Attacking

with puppet troops is an important treatment method in traditional Chinese medicine, which often receives good results. In war, “attacking the enemy with the enemy” is equally effective. In the Mongolian army, there is a special group, namely “signing the army”. The so-called signing of troops means that the Mongols use local residents and prisoners as cannon fodder to attack the enemy. The Mongols took their captives to attack another country, and these captives were placed in the front line. If they don’t do well, the Mongols will kill them. If they played well, the Mongols promised to grant them high officials and high salaries.

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, these “signing” cannon fodder, are often used in siege. These captives paved the way for the Mongols to win with their own flesh and blood, which is why there were so few casualties in the war.

(VI) Mongolian sophisticated combat equipment

“K”DSPs “

as the saying goes,” a man is better than a guy ” , this shows that advanced equipment has twice the effect of doing things with half the effort. In the war, whether the weapons are advanced or not is also an important factor determining the victory or defeat of the war. In the Second World War, the Japanese wanted to fight a decisive battle at home, but the two atomic bombs of the Americans suddenly defeated the determination of Japanese resistance. So where are the weapons and equipment of the invincible Mongolian army?

1. Riding equipment – Mongolian horse

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Mongolian horse should be the worst horse from the perspective of modern people. Mongolian horses are short and slow, and their ability to overcome obstacles is far less than that of tall horses in Europe. However, Mongolian horses are the most tolerant horses in the world and have the lowest requirements for environment and food. Mongolian horses can find food at any time, whether in the alpine deserts of Asia or in the European plains. It can be said that Mongolian harness has the strongest adaptability. Mongolian horses can run continuously for a long distance, and can survive in the wild regardless of cold and heat. At the same time, Mongolian horses can be competent for riding and pulling heavy loads at any time, which is also the reason why Chinese traditional good horses are finally replaced by Mongolian horses.

an authority said: “even today, it is common to catch a Mongolian horse with a lasso in the pastoral area, put on a saddle, and ride more than 100 miles without feeding.” The special advantages of Mongolian horses made the Mongolian army have the speed and mobility unmatched by any army at that time. It enabled the Mongolian army to march on horseback for several days and nights with little rest and food. They introduced the “Blitzkrieg” into the world of the 13th century. When they fought on the Hungarian Plain, they walked 270 miles in three days.

at the same time, their stirrup is also the key factor for their victory. A military historian said that Mongolia people can conquer the world, and the short stirrup is indispensable. The Mongols used short stirrups, which can make the Mongols stand up on the horse’s back, so that they can cut and kill the enemy flexibly on the horse’s back; The European and Arab cavalry used long stirrups, which were just places for their feet, and the cavalry could only sit on the back of the horse. In this way, their flexibility is greatly reduced, and their combat effectiveness is not comparable to that of the Mongolian army.

2. Weapons and equipment

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the main weapon of Mongolian soldiers is bow. Each soldier has two or three bows and a huge arrow bag filled with arrows; Some soldiers also had axes, knives and spears.

giant riprap

it is worth mentioning the Mongolian bows and arrows. Their bows and arrows are relatively large and need a force of about 80kg to pull them apart (there is a scene in TV “Marco Polo” that he has always been unable to pull the Mongolian hard bow). They have a long range, It is almost the most important killing weapon of Mongolian cavalry. This kind of bow is more lethal than the long bow of the British. Its armor piercing arrow can kill the enemy within 600 feet. Their arrow is very sharp. Both sides of the arrow are very sharp, like a sword with blades on both sides. Such a strong bow and such a sharp arrow can basically shoot through the enemy’s armor. Some of them also have spears. The spear had a hook on its iron neck, and they used it to pull the enemy off the saddle.

in addition, Mongolian cavalry are often equipped with other weapons according to their personal preferences, such as rope sets for horse harnesses and net sets for net horses, which is unimaginable and impossible to prevent in the view of the regular European army.

their protective armor is also in place.

Mongolian cavalry have helmets and armor, their legs are also covered with armor, and their horses are armored horses. Their armor is made of leather and has two or three times the thickness.

leather armor is light, tough, free and flexible, and easy to maintain combat effectiveness for a long time; The European cavalry is often iron armor, heavy and deadly, and it is so cold in the cold season that the soldiers are inconvenient to move. As a result, the heavy European cavalry has to become a living target to be beaten.

3. New weapons – giant riprap machines and oil cannons

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the Mongolian army is invincible. Another important reason is that they have the necessary killing skills. This must kill skill is the powerful riprap machine and firearm.

riprap machine is a weapon that can throw stones by using the lever principle. It can throw stones ranging from 30 kg to 100 kg at a distance of nearly 300 meters.

this heavy weapon can play a great role in attacking the city. It can smash the buildings, people and horses on the city wall.

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Mongols used riprap machines on a large scale as weapons to attack the city in the war, and specially established a “Artillery Force”, which was used intensively during the siege. Its role was equivalent to that of modern artillery and played an important role in the siege battle. Moreover, the riprap machine they made was powerful and had a long range. It was the most advanced heavy weapon at that time.

according to raszt’s “historical collection”, the Mongolian riprap machine can throw stones at a distance of 2500 steps. Although this is a bit exaggerated, the great power of the riprap machine can not be underestimated. The riprap machine played a great role in the attack on the capital of the mulayi state, Fort Mendes. It shattered the fighting spirit of the mulayi people and prompted them to surrender.

in 1273, when the yuan army attacked Xiangyang, it used a huge riprap machine, which can launch 150 kg stone bombs. According to the description of the history of the Yuan Dynasty, this kind of gun “vibrates heaven and earth when the machine is launched, destroys everything, and enters the ground seven feet”. If the reputation is exaggerated, it is more powerful than modern armor piercing bullets.

in front of the Mongolian powerful riprap machine, the solid city lost its resistance.

in addition to riprap machines, the Mongolian army is also largeThe scale uses firearms such as rockets and tinderboxes.

in the era of cold weapons, the emergence of firearms was a deadly weapon. When the Mongolian army attacked the city, they threw fuel composed of oil and sulfur into the castle. When these flasks are thrown on the houses inside the castle, they can immediately burn down the houses, causing great panic to the enemy. This kind of flasks can also burn the enemy. In the alley war, they used oil tins on a large scale. Oil tins are the rudiments of modern flame throwers. This weapon can burn the enemy’s hiding place and turn the enemy’s place into a sea of fire. In 1241, in the decisive battle with the poles, the Mongols burned the Polish German coalition with rockets.

they also use rockets when they are far away. Rockets can burn enemy camps from a distance. In the decisive battle with Hungary, the Hungarians built a camp with wooden chariots to defend against the attack of the Mongols. However, the smart Mongols did not attack them, but fired rockets into the Hungarian wooden camp. As a result, the Hungarian camp became a sea of fire. 80000 strong Hungarian troops were burned to the ground, and the Mongols defeated this powerful opponent.

it can be said that gunpowder weapons played a key role in the two wars of Mongols in Europe. Just like when the Americans dropped two atomic bombs in Japan, the Japanese surrendered obediently. It can be seen that advanced weapons are sometimes the key to victory or defeat!

the Mongols learned firearms from the Chinese. In the era of fighting with knives and spears, this kind of firearms is no less than today’s nuclear weapons. With such high-tech weapons, it is not surprising that they dominate Europe and Asia.

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