Abstract: according to his own interests, he had different views from the Japanese invaders from the beginning. He believed that Japan’s real enemy was the Soviet Union. Japan should be prepared to attack the Soviet Union from the East and the West with Germany, and should pull over as a partner against the Soviet Union and the Communist Party. Japan had consumed a large number of troops on the Chinese battlefield, which could not but affect the task of fighting against the Soviet Union.

according to the archives of the German Ministry of foreign affairs, in late October 1937, Hitler secretly ordered German ambassador to Japan Dixon to inquire Japanese Foreign Minister Hirota about the conditions for peace between China and Japan that Japan hoped for. At that time, Shanghai had not all fallen, and the Japanese army suffered heavy casualties in Shanghai. Guangtian put forward four conditions: (1) China recognized the “Manchukuo”; (2) Specialization of North China; (3) China and Japan jointly defend against communism; (4) Economic support between China and Japan.

on October 30, German ambassador to China todman was ordered to visit Chen Jie, Vice Minister of foreign affairs of the Kuomintang government, advised the Chinese government to make peace with Japan, and said that Germany was willing to mediate. He also threatened: “the meeting of the nine nations convention will not produce results conducive to China, and it is a big mistake for China to sign a non aggression treaty with the Soviet Union. I hope the Chinese government can change this policy.”

on November 3, that is, two days before the Japanese army landed in Jinshanwei, when Dixon met with Guangtian again, Guangtian added three conditions for the autonomy of Inner Mongolia, the establishment of a demilitarized zone in North China and the pro Japanese faction as the chief executive of North China because the Japanese army had an advantage in Shanghai. Todman was ordered to meet these conditions with Chiang Kai Shek. Jiang thanked Germany for acting as mediator and asked taodman what he thought about it. These conditions can serve as the basis for Sino Japanese negotiations. Chiang Kai Shek said a sincere word to todman: “if you accept these conditions from Japan, the Chinese government will have no foothold, and the rise of the Communist Party in power is also disadvantageous to Japan.” After a pause, Chiang Kai Shek added: “at present, the nine countries of the Convention are meeting in Belgium, which is expected to find a peaceful way. For the time being, it is difficult to formally recognize Japan’s request.” Todman was very dissatisfied with Jiang’s reply. At the same time, Hitler also threatened Chiang with his words of opposition through German adviser Fugen hosson, saying: “if the war is delayed, China’s economy will collapse and the Communist Party will replace it with the regime of the Kuomintang.” The above situations of

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show that Chiang Kai Shek can acquiesce in giving up the territory of Northeast China and the sovereignty of North China, as long as it is not published in the form of an open treaty. Germany is keen to mediate the war between China and Japan. It is not to help China at all, but to pay for its ally Japan and oppress China to surrender.

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the meeting of the nine nations convention held from November 3 to November 5 only adopted an empty resolution: condemning Japan’s policy of trying to change China’s current situation by force. Japan turned a blind eye to this and continued to attack Nanjing after occupying Shanghai. On November 28, todman proposed to make another effort for peace between China and Japan in Shanghai. On December 1, German Foreign Minister Niu Wright advised Chinese ambassador to Germany Cheng Tianfang: “China can’t turn defeat into victory, and time is not good for China.”

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are very obvious. At this time, Germany stepped up the steps of mediation in order to cooperate with Japan’s policy of quick decision and help Japan pull out its mud feet in order to fight against the Soviet Union together. Under the situation of both Japanese military forced surrender and German diplomatic inducement, Chiang Kai Shek wavered very much. He advocated “sticking to Nanjing” not for strategic needs, but waiting for todman to come to Nanjing to make another effort to mediate the Sino Japanese war.

on December 2, todman arrived in Nanjing from Shanghai accompanied by Vice Foreign Minister Xu mo. In order to shirk the responsibility of betraying the country and surrendering, Chiang Kai Shek convened a meeting of senior Kuomintang generals and asked Xu Mo to attend as a nonvoting delegate to report the Japanese conditions conveyed by todman yesterday. At that time, the senior generals attending the meeting imitated Chiang’s intention and agreed to take the conditions proposed by Japan as the basis for peace talks. After the meeting, Jiang met todman and put forward three points to him: first, take the Japanese proposal as the basis of the peace talks; 2、 Maintain the integrity of the territorial sovereignty of North China; 3、 No agreement between China and the third party should be involved in the peace talks. Chiang Kai Shek suspected that “the Japanese don’t mean what they say” and hoped that Germany would act as a notary for both sides in the peace talks. Todman said that Germany can only act behind the scenes and is inconvenient to participate in the negotiations openly. He particularly stressed the need to oppose communism. Chiang Kai Shek asked Germany to convey to the Japanese government that when China and Japan hold peace talks, the Japanese government must keep absolutely confidential the conditions proposed. Because the Japanese army sent soldiers to rely on force and did not wait for the maturity of German mediation, they continued to send troops to Nanjing. Jiang left Nanjing in a hurry on December 5 and Nanjing fell on December 13. The second mediation of Germany came to a standstill.

on December 6, Chiang held the Supreme National Defense Conference in Hankou, and then asked Xu Mo to report todman’s mediation at the meeting. The German Foreign Ministry also telegraphed the opinions of the KMT government to Ambassador Dixon to Japan and asked him to convey them to Japanese Foreign Minister Hirota. Hirota claimed that the opinions of the military headquarters must be consulted before making an answer, but it is estimated that after Japan succeeds in Nanjing, it will be difficult to negotiate according to the conditions put forward a month ago. Dixon advised: “if Chiang Kai Shek accepts the conditions beyond the limits he can admit, his government will fall, and if Chiang Kai Shek’s government falls, the war between China and Japan will last, which is unfavorable to Japan.”

then Hirota answered Dixon that Japan changed the conditions as follows: first, China and Japan cooperate to prevent communism; 2、 The specialization of North China and the expansion of the scope of specialization to the demilitarized zone near Inner Mongolia and Shanghai; 3、 The establishment of the economic cooperation agreement between China and Japan; 4、 China compensates Japan for war expenses. Hirota attached a statement that the procedures for peace talks between China and Japan are as follows: Chiang Kai Shek first expressed his firm anti Communist attitude, then sent representatives to the place designated by the Japanese government, and the German head of state suggested direct negotiations between China and Japan, which Japan said was acceptable; After the establishment of the peace treaty, Japan’s military operations must stop. Dixon believes that these conditions are difficult for China to accept. Hirota insisted: “these conditions have been decided by the cabinet and approved by the emperor. In addition, there is no other plan.”

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