in fact, Li sun is the No. 2 person in the party and the No. 1 person with real power. He served as the general secretary until his death. He is the only “strong general secretary” in the history of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In 1956, the long march was driven out of the position of general secretary by Li sun faction because of “land reform over the left” and caused disasters. Although it has always remained in the Political Bureau of the power center, the power was relatively empty before Li sun’s death.

in fact, Li sun is the No. 2 figure in the party and the No. 1 figure with real power. He served as the general secretary until his death. He is the only “strong general secretary” in the history of the Communist Party of Vietnam. In 1956, the long march killed too many people and caused disasters because of “land reform left”, which was driven out of the position of general secretary by Li sun faction. Although it has always remained in the Political Bureau of the power center, the power was relatively empty before Li sun’s death.

: “Phoenix Weekly” Author: Duan Yuhong original title: political reform of the Communist Party of Vietnam: the power of the general secretary is weakening, and the party, government and army form constraints.

because of its special history of founding the Communist Party of Vietnam, there has been no abnormal situation in the party’s political life, such as “paternalism”, lack of inner-party democracy and even arbitrary convening of the Party Congress, A collective leadership system of checks and balances at the highest level has been formed earlier. The composition of its high-level power also has clearer laws and systems to be found. The “Vietnam exception” created by the special history of

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has long been an unwritten practice for the CPV to support the “weak general secretary”.

Wu Yuanfu, director of the Vietnam Law Institute of the school of political science and law of Guangxi University for nationalities, who is proficient in Vietnamese and has long studied Vietnam’s political and legal issues, devoted a lot of energy to the observation of the Eleventh National Congress, “The Vietnamese media publicly reported the ranking of members of the Politburo. Zhang Jinchuang, Feng Guangqing and Nguyen Tan Dung ranked in the top three and Nguyen Phu Trong ranked eighth, but became the general secretary, which shows that the selection of the general secretary is not entirely determined by the votes of the Central Committee.”

Wu Yuanfu believed that the Central Committee’s independent will was strengthened at the Eleventh National Congress and was not completely at the mercy of the Political Bureau. According to his understanding, before the opening of the conference, the Political Bureau nominated Ruan Boqing (secretary of the Da Nang municipal Party committee), Ruan Shanren (Vice Premier) and Ruan Yinyin (Minister of labor and social affairs of the veterans Army) to enter the Political Bureau to replace several retired old members, but the proposal was rejected by the Central Committee.

the top echelons of the Vietnamese Communist Party originally wanted to expand the number of Politburo from 14 to 17, but it was also rejected by the Central Committee, but it still maintained its original size. The role of the

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Party Congress is more practical this time. In the list of candidates nominated by the 10th Central Committee to the general assembly for new members of the Central Committee, ten ministerial candidates were not elected, including Vice Premier and foreign minister fan Jiaqian, Minister of planning and investment Wu Hongfu, Minister of transportation Hu Yiyong, Minister of interior Chen Wenjun and so on, The Party voted against it and the society voted against it. The ministers who have lost their qualification as members of the Central Committee will be re elected at the parliamentary meeting in May this year.

communist countries can easily form an early common feature, that is, due to war reasons, by virtue of seniority, military merit and personnel operation, the general secretary (or the party chairman) can be above the Political Bureau and thus the Central Committee. With the help of cruel cleaning and rectification, they can also be above the whole party, the whole army and the whole country, resulting in the silence of thousands of horses A scene of crazy personal worship. Once there is a “Superman leader” with the integration of politics and religion, the party discipline and articles of association will be completely destroyed, and whether or when the Party Congress will be held depends entirely on his personal will.

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there are many power struggles in the history of the Vietnamese Communist Party, but the manifestations are generally mild. There has been neither a violent purge nor a “Superman leader”, even the “Uncle”. In contrast, the ideology of the Vietcong has never been particularly radical.

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and “VCP exception” are neither VCP relatively mature, its nationalism is stronger than the attribute of Marxism Leninism, nor the mild character of Vietnamese. The most important factor is the complex historical coincidence.

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are remarkable from the formation of the Viet Cong spiritual leader Hu Zhiming in the historical status of the Viet Cong. In the early years, Hu Zhiming worked in the French ships and traveled to Europe, and later joined the Communist Party in France. Then he returned to the country from the Moscow, and the three Communist colonies in Indochina were attacking the Communist Party in front of the Comintern. In 1930, Hu merged them into “Indochina Communist Party” in Hongkong. In name, the older Cambodian Communist Party was actually led by the Vietnamese Communist Party, and the “Indo Chinese Communist Party” was the predecessor of the Vietnam Communist Party.

Ho Chi Minh is an out and out “airborne cadre in Moscow”. He has been active in China and the Soviet Union for a long time, and his local foundation is not deep. After the establishment of the “Indo Chinese Communist Party”, the development was quite not smooth. Hu has not been able to unite all factions, but Hu has been recognized and trusted by Moscow most of the time, and his contacts with the Communist Party of China are not shallow. This is a scarce resource that local cadres do not have. Hu has been loyal to the Moscow line all his life.

in the 1930s, Ho Chi Minh was excluded from the party’s factional struggle and lost his leadership. In the early “Kuomintang communist cooperation” in Vietnam, the opposition accused Ho Chi Minh of betraying pan Peizhu, an old national revolutionary (founder of the Vietnamese Kuomintang), to the French. The “Indo Chinese Communist Party” was split and lax again. Hu lost power in the party and Moscow. When he attended the Seventh National Congress of the Communist International, he actually became an adviser to his former follower Li Hongfeng.

during French colonization and Japanese occupation, the “Indo Chinese Communist Party” did not develop much. The real start was that after Japan’s surrender, the Chinese army entered northern Vietnam to accept Japan’s surrender. There are two “Vietnam leagues” in northern Vietnam, one is the “Vietnam Revolutionary Alliance” headed by the Vietnamese Kuomintang, and the other is the “Vietnam independence alliance” established by the “Indo Chinese Communist Party”. For a long time, the KMT of Vietnam had far more qualifications and strength than the Communist Party of Vietnam. However, it was severely suppressed by France due to many violent urban attacks and large-scale uprisings. The organization suffered heavy losses and retreated to Yunnan, China.

at the end of 1940, “Indo Chinese Communist Party””The uprising in Nanchi failed. Hundreds of cadres, including general secretary Ruan Mingqu and Li Hongfeng, were arrested. Hu Zai was ordered by the Comintern to integrate the organization in 1941 and establish a united front organization called “Vietnam independence alliance” to raise the banner of nationality and democracy. Ho Chi Minh sneaked back to Vietnam to lead the Vietnam League activities that year. This is his first return after 30 years away from his hometown and the beginning of his new political life.

before the second National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1951, Ho Chi Minh was actually only a cadre sent by the Comintern and never served as the party leader. The three general secretaries before the second National Congress were Chen Fu, he Jihui and Ruan Wenqu. However, in the “Legend of Ho Chi Minh” created by the Communist Party of Vietnam later, the first party leader was counted from Ho Chi Minh in 1951. The relevant complex background and the identity of Ho Chi Minh before the second National Congress Status is fuzzed. Ho Chi Minh also got the special title of “Uncle Hu”. At the beginning of the establishment of

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and “Indosinian Communist Party”, there was no perfect leading organization, which was scattered. The first National Congress was held five years later. There was no political bureau. There were only 13 members of the Central Committee, including 9 standing members and 4 alternate members. When Hu led the establishment of the Vietnam League, his capital came from “Moscow”, and the acting general secretary was a powerful figure of the local faction, the Long March (Deng chunqu, regarded as a pro Communist faction).

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before the withdrawal of the Chinese national government, the regime was handed over to the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam dominated by the two Vietnam leagues. At this time, it was a “coalition government”, a democratic constitutional system, all parties in the Congress had seats, and the first cabinet was formed by the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. The “Indo Chinese Communist Party” has little power, but more than 5000 people announced the “dissolution of the Indo Chinese Communist Party” in order to survive and develop, eliminate the fear of the Chinese government and Western countries, which is the result of the compromise that it was able to participate in the formation of a coalition government. It is also a wonderful move. Through this shortcut, it finally gained power.

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and “Indo Chinese Communist Party” took advantage of the organizational advantages and the international favorable opportunities of China’s regime change, successively eliminated all the left, middle and right allies in the Congress and the original United Front through “three rectification” (Party consolidation, army consolidation and rectification of the masses), “land reform”, “socialist transformation” and “anti rightist”, and established an unshakable ruling position in the north.

in 1951, the “Indo Chinese Communist Party” was officially renamed “Vietnam labor party”, and the Political Bureau was established after the second National Congress was held. After the reunification of Vietnam in 1976, the name of the country was changed to “Socialist Republic of Vietnam”, and the Communist Party of Vietnam restored the name of “Communist Party of Vietnam”. The “four carriages” of the

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are: Ho Chi Minh (Chairman of the CPC Central Committee and President of the state), the Long March (general secretary, then the first Secretary of the CPC Central Committee), Li sun (first Secretary of the Southern Bureau) and fan Wentong (Premier). At the beginning of the second National Congress, the party chairman and the general secretary stood side by side, and the “Chang Li Fan” was formed around the high-level power structure centered on Hu. This layout reflects the characteristics of the comprehensive balance of “intimacy and estrangement between North and South and inside and outside”.

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Long March is the most powerful local northern faction, which is regarded as a radical pro China faction, but it is not very close to “Uncle Hu”; “Uncle Hu” is a “foreign cadre”, but there is a “Moscow” great legal system. His external resources cannot be owned by others, especially the Communist Party of Vietnam; Li sun is the most powerful member of the local southern faction. He is regarded as more pro Soviet and can help “Uncle Hu” balance the long march; Fan Wentong is the assistant of “Uncle Hu”. He has a close relationship, easygoing, neutral and practical ability (his opponent jokingly calls him “Vietnam”, a businessist).

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without the support of the Soviet Union, the revolution of the Communist Party of China cannot succeed. Without the success of the Communist Party of China and the support of the two parties of the Soviet Union and China, the revolution of the Communist Party of Vietnam cannot succeed. If the Communist Party of Vietnam fails, the revolution of Cambodia and Laos will not succeed. At least before the 1980s, it was the consensus of the high level of the Communist Party of Vietnam and the strategy they often taught the fraternal parties of Cambodia and Laos.

therefore, from the second National Congress to Ho Chi Minh’s death, Ho Chi Minh is the supreme leader of the Communist Party of Vietnam. The Communist Party of Vietnam takes “Ho Chi Minh legend” as the call for publicity and Party building, and obtains international support through Hu Neng; However, Ho Chi Minh is only the highest “spiritual leader”. The real power and affairs of the party, government and army are handled by the Long March, Li sun and Fan Wen. The specific affairs of the army are handled by Wu Yuanjia and others. After Ho Chi Minh’s death in 1969, the post of Party chairman was suspended for a long time (officially cancelled in 1985). Chang Li Fan formed a three person governance team to lead Vietnam for a long time.