are all cold weapons. In some typical combat cases, there are few archers and even cavalry. They are infantry with swords and shields. Why is there even a casualty ratio of tens of thousands to more than a dozen? How did tens of thousands of people die? For example, in the battle of canny, it is known that Roman soldiers were surrounded by Hannibal, but no matter how they were surrounded, they had to cut face to face. Why were the Romans cut to death? Did the Romans themselves have a stampede?

many pictures, carefully enter

and recommend a Book: “the story of the Romans”, written by Japanese female writer yanye Qisheng for 15 years, a total of 15 books.

have only time on hand (Part 2), so take the battle of fasalus between Caesar and Pompeii as an example. This battle basically determined the success and defeat of the Roman civil war at that time.

Ⅰ. Introduction to basic information:

I. the battle site

fasalus plain is located at the southern end of northern Greece. It is as common as the mountain plain commonly seen in sesali. It is surrounded by hills less than 500 meters high. The open plain in the middle is 20 kilometers long from east to west and 17 kilometers long from north to south. Near the northern edge of the plain, there is a small river that can be crossed without a bridge, flowing slowly to the East.

Caesar, who first arrived at the battlefield from the west, built a position in the middle of the plain, while Pompeii, who arrived from the north, also built a camp in the middle of the plain, but he chose a higher place.

II Combat effectiveness comparison

the combat effectiveness of both sides is compared as follows:

There were 45000 heavy infantry in 110 brigades, 2000 of Pompeii’s former subordinates, 7000 cavalry, 54000 in total, and put into the decisive battle. There were 22000 heavy infantry in 80 brigades, 1000 cavalry, 23000 in total, of which 500 infantry stayed in the camp. So far, there was a decisive battle of 47000 infantry vs. 22000 cavalry and 7000 vs. 1000 cavalry on the fasalu plain.

it should be pointed out that Pompeii has an average of 430 people per brigade, while Caesar has an average of 275 people. Pompeii’s army was large in number, but its average quality was not as high as Caesar’s.

III. formation layout

the camps of the two armies are about 7 kilometers apart. If fasalus plain is divided into two parts, Pompeii’s camp is in the East half and Caesar’s camp is in the west half. Therefore, this array that leads the enemy out of the camp, There is a river on the right side of Pompeii and on the left side of Caesar.

formation layout of both sides:

closer to the river is the right wing of Pompeii army, which is composed of mercenaries from chiriqia and Spain. Pompeii believes that their combat effectiveness is superior to that of the whole army, so he arranges them on the right wing without cavalry. In the center of

,

,

and

are two legions from Syria.

the left wing is two legions captured from Caesar on the grounds of sending troops to pattia two years ago. In addition to the above forces, other infantry, including 2000 veterans in Pompeii’s hands, were equally distributed to the left, middle and right parts.

the far left of the heavy infantry regiment is 7000 cavalry, and is commanded by Rabbi enus, a former Caesar’s capable deputy who is very familiar with Caesar’s command habits.

Pompeii served as the commander-in-chief and camped on the low hill behind the left wing of the army.

left wing – the eighth and ninth legions take the main center – the eleventh Legion takes the main right wing – the tenth Legion and the twelfth Legion take the main right – the commander in chief of the cavalry is Caesar, whose position echoes Pompeii from afar and sits behind the right wing. But Caesar did not camp on the highland, but rode on a horse.

IV. tactical ideas

basic tactical ideas of both sides:

pangpei’s tactical ideas: the cavalry regiment stormed the right wing of Caesar when the battle just started. Before the main forces throw stones (i.e. before the main forces join the battle), the right-wing attack must force Caesar into collapse. After that, the cavalry regiment bypassed the enemy’s back and reached the river ahead of the enemy to complete the encirclement of the enemy, in order to end the battle before the main heavy infantry fell into danger. The idea of

,

,

and

is based on the strength advantage of Pompeii cavalry, and may refer to the classic battles such as the battle of Isis, the battle of canny and the battle of Zama. They have one thing in common, that is, the cavalry encircles the enemy from behind before the infantry move, and then completely annihilates the enemy.

Caesar’s Tactical Idea: make the heavy infantry baptized by the battle of Gaul more mobile, that is, when Pompeii’s cavalry circle behind it according to the “textbook” to attack, they can always support the infantry threatening both sides and front of the enemy, attack from three directions and carry out encirclement. At the same time, through special means, eliminate the mobility of the enemy’s cavalry in order to disintegrate the enemy’s core combat effectiveness and win victory.

v. Caesar’s “secret weapon”.

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1, “step by step hybrid”,

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,

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and

removed 400 of the light infantry soldiers from the usual flag guards from their daily tasks. These highly skilled soldiers were added to 1000 cavalry to form a mixed team. They are both young and lightly armed, so they move quickly. They can ride a horse with the cavalry behind them or jump off the horse suddenly. Their combat effectiveness is amazing.

this is Caesar’s continuous acting during repeated array arrangementThis attack combined with the frontal attack of Pompeii’s left wing made Pompeii’s army fall into the dilemma of being attacked on the front, the left and the back.

pangpei’s central and right sides still maintained a non collapsing formation and insisted on fighting. However, they did not expect that Caesar retained some powerful veterans. The younger soldiers and key soldiers who met the enemy three times as many as their own were replaced and rested at this time. Although the number of veterans was small, the fatigue degree was zero. On the contrary, Pompeii’s soldiers were already very tired. Just as they were suffering from parry, the Caesar soldiers who had just rested came on again and attacked Pompeii from both sides and behind.

so far, the left, middle and right armies of Pang Pei army collapsed completely, and no one could maintain a fighting posture.

5. Pursue

the defeated soldiers of Pompeii abandoned their base camp and fled to the riverside highland. Caesar was determined to pursue to the end and attack Pompeii’s base camp.

after entering the enemy camp, Caesar prohibited the soldiers from plundering the items abandoned by the enemy when he fled. Then he made people chase Pompeii who escaped north from the back of the camp and finally failed to catch him.

at the same time, Caesar divided his army into three parts, one part stationed in the computer room base camp and the other part stationed in Pompeii base camp. He personally led the last four legions across the river to pursue the highland where the enemy fled.

Caesar ordered the soldiers to dig trenches between the highland and the river, so that the enemy who fled on the highland could not get close to the river, forcing the enemy deserters to surrender.

IV. results and analysis

— Pompeii side “– 6000 people were killed, 24000 people were captured, and 9 military flags were lost. Together with the battalion flags and squadron flags, there are 180 in total. Pompeii had a total of 11 legions, and only two of the 11 flags were spared.

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and

killed 200 people, of which 30 were the captain of the hundred team and elite veterans.

compared with the above-mentioned battle of Isis, Kanni and Zama, the death toll of the defeated side in the battle of fasalus is very small. Not only was the absolute number small, but it was also the only battle in which the number of prisoners was greater than the number of deaths. Moreover, 24000 people fled. But this does not mean that the victorious side, that is, Caesar’s side, is not capable enough. Caesar considered carrying out a policy of tenderness rather than killing them all out for the following reasons:

1. This was a war with his compatriots and a war that had to be fought out of political needs. He did not have a strong hatred for Pang Peifang;

2. The 24000 soldiers who fled only had a clientes relationship with Pompeii (they took care of each other, but they had a relationship of domination and domination), and the reinforcements from the eastern city states were also there. Later, they fled to their respective countries. Caesar wanted to use these on-site witnesses to spread the results of the battle of fasalus. In addition, If they pursue, these people may continue to stand in Pompeii’s clients’ position after returning home as before;

3. Avoid unnecessary sacrifice and reach the potential of subduing people without war.

OK, after lifting chestnuts, it’s time to answer the main question.

why did the ancient war have a very different proportion of casualties?

analyzing the above battle, I summarized several key points:

1. The cooperation ability between commanders and soldiers

why can Caesar’s “secret weapon” play a role?

trust is the guarantee for Caesar to communicate with the soldiers.

in general, the commander gives similar instructions, and the soldiers will think:

“what, you let my infantry stand in front of the charging cavalry, or 7000 horses, won’t you die?”

but those veterans who have fought with Caesar for ten years will not have these emotions. They will say:

“general, please see our performance today. I believe you will be grateful to us whether you live or die.”

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,

,

this strong military feeling can infinitely strengthen the military potential and stabilize the military heart.

in contrast to Pompeii, when the army was defeated and died, there was no one to guard the base camp and went their own way.

2. The overall quality of the army

it can be seen from the text that the soldiers on Caesar’s side can fight one against three, so that Caesar’s tactics can be brought into full play. Caesar believed that the army lies in the excellence of quality, not the greatness of quantity. When organizing the Legion, Caesar will not fill the vacancy with the original Legion players, but maintain the respective combat style of the Legion and make it more cohesive, so as to operate efficiently in combat.

3. The commander’s strength

Pompeii was not mediocre. He also conquered the eastern city states and eliminated pirates, thus winning the “triumph ceremony”. He even beat Caesar and fled in the siege of Honduras a month ago. It can be said that before the battle, there was no “failure” in his life dictionary. That is because of his blind self-confidence, he covered his eyes and thought that he could easily win through the cavalry encirclement method used in the classic battle in the “textbook” and his large number of soldiers. Caesar was clearly aware of this and came up with a solution to Pompeii’s tactics, disintegrating the mobility and impact of the cavalry and winning the victory.

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and

there is a big difference in the above three points, so the wide difference in the proportion of casualtiesIt’s easy to appear.

so how does it appear?

in any case, as long as the siege war can be realized in the end, the besieged party has no skills and can only be slaughtered by others. The army is defeated like a mountain, people are in panic and the army is unstable. At this time, if there is no strong heart, it will collapse everywhere, and lack of discipline is the most fatal to the army. It is often not when you fight that you die, but when you run away, you are chased to death.

of course, this is based on the following points.

1. There was a huge difference in troops. 2. The soldiers on both sides had a desire to fight. 3. They were not attacking the city Forced battles such as sneak attack (one side has no choice in battlefield and other aspects)…………………………………… to be more specific,

canny battle, the main battle in the Second Punic War (the far right in the figure below), The classic battle

I Introduction to basic information:

I. the battle site

is close to the Adriatic Sea, the right bank of the orfonto River and the relatively narrow land under the hills behind canny village.

II. Combat effectiveness comparison

the combat effectiveness comparison of the two sides is as follows:

40000 Roman citizen infantry, 2400 Roman citizen cavalry, 40000 Allied soldiers, 4800 allied cavalry, 80000 infantry and 7200 cavalry, The ratio is 11:1. There are 20000 infantry under Hannibal, 6000 cavalry under Hannibal, 20000 Gaul infantry mercenaries and 4000 Gaul cavalry mercenaries, with a total of 40000 infantry and 10000 cavalry. The ratio is 4:1. It should be pointed out that the soldiers under Hannibal are battlefield veterans who have experienced heavy tests, have rich experience and strong physique, Not only did the number of cavalry of the Minoan side join the quality of the Roman side, but also the number of cavalry was higher than that of the Roman side. But the standard of Gaul mercenaries is a little worse than that of Rome.

III. both sides of the formation layout are infantry in the middle and cavalry on both wings. But the specific distribution is different.

— the Roman side — a horizontal straight line, and the infantry regiment deployed in the middle is in a vertical rectangle.

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,

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and

are arched, raised in the middle, with Gaul hired infantry in the center as the front row and elite heavy infantry as the solid backing.

IV. tactical ideas

basic tactical ideas of both sides:

Roman tactical ideas: when the cavalry withstands the enemy’s attack and the infantry successfully break through the enemy’s center, put 10000 troops in the camp to win the battle at one go.

Hannibal’s Tactical Idea: through arched array and elite infantry forces, delay the Roman heavy infantry, dissolve its main combat effectiveness, give full play to the advantages of cavalry, and finally surround the enemy and annihilate it in one fell swoop.

Ⅱ. Battle process:

I. preparation for war

during the confrontation two months before the start of the battle, Hannibal made the Roman side taste some sweets and relax its vigilance through frequent small-scale fighting, and then gradually introduced the Roman side to the place they want to fight. The Roman side established its own camps on both sides of the orfonto River, believing that it could make more effective use of the dominant number of troops.

II. The battle began. The

,

and

armies first adopted conventional tactics to engage with the frontal enemy respectively. Hannibal’s left wing to the right wing of Rome, the central light infantry to the central light infantry, Hannibal’s right wing to the left wing of Rome. The first round was between Gaul mercenaries in Hannibal’s bow formation and light infantry in Rome.

III. battle process 1. In the first stage of the battle,

,

and

, Rome gained the upper hand, and then the heavy infantry regiment joined the battle. Hannibal avant-garde composed of Gaul mercenaries, under the fierce attack of all Roman infantry, the raised bow became a concave bow. At this time, the role of bow formation came into play. Although Gaul infantry retreated step by step, they were still resisting.

shortly after the infantry battle began, the cavalry on the left and right wings also joined the battle. Hannibal’s left wing, nearly three times the enemy, took the lead from the beginning, and the Roman Cavalry were forced to the river step by step. However, because most of the Roman right-wing cavalry were composed of the children of the Roman aristocracy, they were still able to fight tenaciously.

and the left wing of the Roman army fought against the right-wing Numidian cavalry of Hannibal. Perhaps because of the same number, both sides fought hard and did not retreat.

2. In the second stage of the battle,

finally, the Gaul soldiers in the central position of Hannibal army completely lost their combat effectiveness, and the Roman infantry took advantage of the victory to pursue the retreating enemy.

suddenly, the retreating Gauls suddenly spread to both sides of the front. Hannibal’s elite heavy infantry appeared in front of the Roman heavy infantry, and 20000 people resisted the attack of 70000 Roman soldiers.

in addition, the 2400 cavalry on the right wing of Rome were cut off by the 6000 cavalry of Hannibal’s side. As a result, they were surrounded by the shore and destroyed. Only a small number of people jumped into the river and escaped from the chase. Emilius, the consul who commanded the Roman Cavalry, lost his mount, but did not give up easily. Instead, he joined the heavy infantry and continued to fight.

at the same time, the 4800 cavalry of the allies of the left wing of Rome were ultimately defeated by the skilled Numidians. Because there was no river to stop them, they fled and got rid of the pursuit of the Numidian cavalry.

3. In the final stage of the battle,

Hannibal’s elite troops resisted the fierce attack of Roman heavy infantry. At the same time, the Gauls and light infantry who seemed to have withdrawn from the front moved to both sides of the Roman Legion, replacing the position of the previous Roman Cavalry.

then Hannibal’s left-wing cavalry, after defeating the right-wing cavalry of the Roman army, also circled behind the Roman infantry.

finally, the Numidian cavalry who drove away the cavalry of the Roman allies returned to the siege.

so far, the encirclement designed by Hannibal has been completed, and 70000 Roman infantry have been surrounded by 50000 soldiers of Hannibal.

” 4. Encirclement and annihilation

the Roman city militia is the core of the Roman alliance. Although surrounded by the enemy, they will never give up and raise their hands to surrender. What Hannibal wants is to annihilate the Roman army. ” Many officials were killed. Almost none of the 80 old councillors who joined the cavalry and the Heavy Infantry Corps survived. Only a few people broke through Hannibal’s encirclement and escaped.

all 10000 soldiers who have been on standby in the camp were captured without receiving the command of the commander in chief.

as many as 70000 people died on the Roman side, and only 5500 people died in the battle of Hannibal, of which about two-thirds were Gauls. Throughout history, the Roman Legion suffered such heavy losses, and the battle of Canny was the first and last time.

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you are enjoying yourself. Suddenly, an arrow flies from the right. The old Wang in front of you is shot in the knee!

I yelled bad in my heart. I just wanted to see who made the Yin move. I felt the wind in my ear and shouted two blows. Xiao Li on your left was cut into three parts. When I looked closely, I found that a large number of enemy troops had arrived on the left.

at this time, I didn’t want to grab the head. After skillfully avoiding several key skills, I finally withdrew to the flag bearer.

” little black, are we surrounded?

” Xiao Hei, talk!

” Xiaohei… You…

seize the gap, turn your head and look, I’ll go, real man, stand and die?

there’s no way. The flagmen have hung up and are still knitting.

you endure the pain, pull down the general flag from Xiao Hei’s hand and shout the name of the captain loudly.

but at this time, the killing sound is everywhere, and the sound is completely covered.

in any case, even if I run away, I can’t let the flag fall into the enemy’s hands!

you shouted in your heart. As soon as you clenched your teeth, you pulled out an arrow on your shoulder and wanted to leave the battlefield temporarily with a military flag.

but you see your commander.

his red cloak looks redder with blood.

his helmet fell into nowhere. His hair was messy and danced in the wind.

he looks at you.

he’s yelling something.

you can even see splashing spittle stars through the sun.

you remember the day we took the oath together.

you remember the elation of the commander when he gave his speech.

you remember being punished that day and eating horse food with your comrades in arms.

…………………

…………………… there’s no time to think so much now!

……. The commander has come to inspire us!

…… since the flag cannot be taken away, fight to the end!

… Fight them!

but when you come back to your senses.

the whole world has rotated 90 degrees.

it’s getting dark.

References: Battle of fasalus, battle of Cannes