Plekhanov raised the banner of Marxism for the first time in Russia, founded “Mars” and “dawn” magazines, and became the founder of the Russian proletarian revolutionary party in 1903. But he believed that the socialist revolution in Russia, where capitalism was underdeveloped, would inevitably lead to disaster.


about Plekhanov’s death — a revision of a period of Soviet history described in Mr. Gong Xiangrui’s autobiography

Mr. Gong Xiangrui (1911-1996), a famous political and jurist, was ill fated all his life, like most Chinese intellectuals educated in the west at his time. The title of the Autobiography of the blind man is to add hope and faith to his autobiography of the blind man, and “after the publication of the Autobiography of the blind man, it will add hope and faith to his autobiography of the blind man.” 2011 coincided with the 100th anniversary of Mr. Zhang’s birth. The book was finally published by Peking University Press, where Mr. Zhang worked before his death. It can be said to be a grand event in the academic circles.

however, there is a part in the book related to the history of the Soviet Union, specifically the death of Plekhanov, which needs to be corrected. In China in the late 1960s, the “work propaganda team” stationed in Colleges and universities to lead the “revolutionary” movement against intellectuals. Mr. Gong recalled that once, “a worker called me over and asked me what was the main problem in history? I said my main problem was anti Soviet. It was the dictatorship of Marxism I knew and heard abroad in the 1930s, killing Marxist theorists such as Buharin and Plekhanov.” (page 268 of the book)

Buharin (born in 1888), who was praised as “the most valuable and largest theorist of the party” by Lenin in his later years in his letter to the Congress, was indeed executed on March 15, 1938 during the Stalin period. However, Plekhanov (born in 1856), the founder of Russian Marxism, died on May 30, 1918 due to years of pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with myocardial infarction. At that time, less than a year after the victory of the October Revolution, Stalin was not in power. The anti rebellion movement in Stalin’s period began at the end of 1934 and the beginning of 1935. The large-scale “cleansing” and suppression took place from 1936 to 1938. Plekhanov’s death has been nearly 20 years since the tragedy.

Plekhanov’s ideological and political experience in his life is quite tortuous. He raised the banner of Marxism for the first time in Russia. Later, he founded Mars and dawn together with Lenin and became the founder of the proletarian revolutionary party in Russia established in 1903. But before long, Plekhanov joined the ranks of the Mensheviks; In the first World War, like most leaders of the second international, he adopted a protectionist position; He believes that the socialist revolution in Russia, where capitalism is underdeveloped, will inevitably lead to disaster. Therefore, he clearly opposed the Bolshevik party to launch the proletarian revolution after the bourgeois revolution in February 1917. In fact, when the October Revolution took place, Plekhanov was seriously ill. Although the Bolshevik party carried out a resolute ideological and political struggle with him and his supporters because of his counter revolutionary attitude, on the other hand, it did not give up its concern for his daily life. While Lenin was nervously leading the revolutionary work, He has also repeatedly entrusted staff to send food and cold clothes to Plekhanov; In February 1918, Plekhanov was transferred to a sanatorium in Jericho, Finland for treatment due to his aggravation. The Soviet government also negotiated with the German minister to obtain the consent of the Finnish authorities for the Russian side to send personnel to take care of Plekhanov. After Plekhanov’s death on May 30, 1918, on June 4, the all Russian Central Executive Committee, the representatives of the Moscow workers’ and peasants’ Red Army, the Soviet Union and the Moscow trade union held a joint meeting. The topic of the meeting was to listen to Lenin’s report on mobilizing the masses to fight against famine on behalf of the government. At the beginning of the meeting, First, Trotsky announced the news of Plekhanov’s death on behalf of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), and asked the participants to stand up and observe silence for the dead. Trotsky clearly pointed out at the meeting: “the Plekhanov commemorated now is not the Plekhanov we fought against, but Plekhanov from whom we want to learn the preliminary knowledge of revolutionary Marxism. He left countless sharp arrows and many weapons that can defeat the working class.” On June 5, 1918, Pravda published the full text of Trotsky’s speech and the obituary of Plekhanov’s death in the name of the editorial department. Plekhanov’s funeral was held on June 9. Because the funeral was manipulated by the anti October Revolution forces such as Menshevik and the right-wing social revolutionary party, the Bolshevik party organized a memorial service for thousands of people in Petrograd City, where Plekhanov first engaged in revolutionary activities. The meeting was presided over by Lunacharski, Zinoviev Kalinin, leonzanov and many other important leaders of the party and government attended the memorial service and delivered speeches at the meeting.

it should also be pointed out that although Plekhanov held a clear and firm opposition to the October Revolution, the Bolshevik party and its leader Lenin always believed that Plekhanov was an outstanding Marxist philosopher. Lenin said that “all his philosophical works” should be listed as a required reading Communist textbook “. In August 1918, Lenin suggested publishing Plekhanov’s popular philosophy works; From 1923 to 1927, the Soviet Union published 24 volumes of the complete works of Plekhanov. Even during Stalin’s time, the Plekhanov memorial was first established in 1928, and then the eight volume remains of Plekhanov were published from 1934 to 1940.

although today’s young people have heard of various tragedies in the Stalin era, most of them do not know so much about the many personnel involved. When Mr. Gong Xiangrui began to write his autobiography, he was 82 years old. It was not surprising that there were some mistakes in the book. The author does thisThe purpose of the essay is only to prevent this autobiography from further misleading readers, especially young readers, due to this defect.