however, once the gate of independent and free thought is opened, it is not easy to confine it as always, which is particularly obvious among the intellectual circles and young people in the Soviet Union. This is also the fundamental reason why the leaders of the Soviet Communist party agreed to the establishment of the fifth Bureau by the KGB.
the fifth Bureau of the KGB and the thought of Soviet society to clamp down on
mention the KGB, the world is no stranger to it. It is known that this is a national security organization of the Soviet Union, the full name of which is the Russian abbreviation of the “National Security Committee” of the Soviet Union“ КГБ” Chinese transliteration of. However, due to the particularity and high confidentiality of this institution, the world still lacks a detailed and accurate understanding of its deep-seated situation for a long time. For example, the relevant situation of the fifth KGB Bureau described in this paper is rarely known.
[why set up the fifth KGB Bureau]
when was the fifth KGB Bureau of the Soviet Union established? Some domestic scholars wrote that it was “1969”, but after consulting many historical documents, the author found that the fifth KGB Bureau was not established in 1969, but in 1967. He once served as deputy editor in chief of the Russian political weekly “new era” and “news” Л. Mlechin pointed out in his monograph “the fate of the declassified KGB chairmen” that Andropov was appointed chairman of the KGB on May 19, 1967 to replace semichasne. A month later, Andropov submitted a report to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, reporting on various anti Soviet activities in the Soviet Union, believing that these activities were aimed at “establishing underground anti Soviet groups and adding fuel to the Nationalist Movement” and “further activating the reactionary activities of believers and sectarians”. He warned in his report: “Due to the influence of ideology that is incompatible with us, there is a tendency of ignoring politics and nihilism among some politically immature Soviet citizens, especially intellectuals and young people. Not only obvious anti Soviet elements, but also those who love political boasting and advocate democracy may use this to instigate these people to engage in politically meaningful activities Harmful activities. ” Therefore, he suggested that institutions focusing on combating ideological subversion should be established at the central and local levels. “The fifth KGB Bureau was established in July 1967. The first director was the former Secretary of the Stavropol Border Region Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, but only more than a year later, Philip Denisovich bobukov, a KGB official in charge of personnel work, replaced him. Bobukov worked in the Bureau for many years and later became the first vice chairman of the KGB.”
Russian historian Asia In his monograph the mystery of the demise of the Soviet Union, It also mentioned the time and course of the establishment of the fifth KGB Bureau: “Sherest, the first Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine and member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, confirmed: ‘on May 18, 1967, I came to Moscow to participate in the meeting of the Political Bureau… Passed a resolution – to remove comrade shimichasne from his post and arrange his work separately. Brezhnev put forward a proposal at that time: appointment Ю.В. Comrade Andropov is chairman of the KGB. Shemichasne returned to Kiev on May 23. ” To be sure, Andropov… Had a very clear action plan from the beginning, because the first thing he did when he took office was to rebuild the infamous five innings of thought. ” “July 17 is regarded as the ‘birth day’ of the fifth Bureau. The KGB issued an order on July 25. On August 4, the Secretary of the Stavropol border region Party committee was appointed А. Kadeshev was the director of the fifth Bureau, who left in December 1968. On May 23, 1969, bobukov was appointed director of the fifth Bureau.
why did the leaders of the Soviet Communist party agree that the KGB set up a fifth Bureau specializing in ideological anti espionage and anti subversion at this time? We should start with the 20th CPC National Congress. In 1956, Khrushchev’s secret report entitled “on personal worship and its consequences” triggered a violent shock not only in the Soviet Union, but also in the whole international community, which was far beyond the prior estimation of the leaders of the Soviet Communist Party. Especially in the Soviet Socialist Republic of Georgia, the hometown of Georgia, mass rallies were held in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Sukhumi and other cities from March 5 to 10, which led to large-scale riots. On 9 March, there was an incident in Tbilisi, which resulted in the killing of dozens of rally participants, the wounding of hundreds and the arrest of a large number of people, many of whom were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 1 to 10 years. The
events brought about a greater shock, which was that a considerable number of Soviet citizens questioned the Soviet Republic and the Soviet socialist system. For example, in a letter to Pravda, Krelov of Moscow wrote: “Look, what kind of party is this? It still claims to be a ‘Communist’ party? It’s not a Communist Party, but a bunch of hypocrites and cowards! Why explain the ‘flesh and blood connection’ between such a party and the people?! if the party is afraid to tell the truth because of fear… If it is hypocritical again, what ‘connection’ can be said!” Tuva State Party committee reported to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union that during the period of studying the resolution of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, “anti Soviet elements began to rise, and hostile covert criticism was rampant”. In early April, an anonymous leaflet containing the contents of framing and slandering members of the presidium of the Central Committee and the staff of the party’s State Party committee was found in the mailbox of the residential building. One leaflet said: “all works of classical writers, starting from Marx, will be burned.” In the early morning of March 26, the monument of honor and the portrait of Stalin in Tuva were cut by some unidentified people. Many party members proposed that the required courses of Marxism should be abolished in Colleges and universities, and even in Leninism. These reactions and shocks made Khrushchev and other leaders of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union worried and worried, so the “de Stalinization” process just started at the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was soon suspended. Some Party organizations were dissolved, some party members were expelled from the party, and many intellectuals were sentenced to imprisonment. Just like the Russian scholar Ah Arbatov’s inside story of Soviet politics”By the end of 1956, everything seemed to have returned to the old track.”
however, once the gate of independent and free thought is opened, it is not easy to confine it as always, which is particularly obvious among the intellectual circles and young people in the Soviet Union. This is also the fundamental reason why the leaders of the Soviet Communist party agreed to the establishment of the fifth Bureau by the KGB. Philip, who has served as director of the fifth Bureau for many years In his memoir, bobkov said: after Andropov became chairman of the KGB in May 1967, at 10 o’clock one night, Andropov held his first meeting with him and proposed to let bobkov be the first deputy director of the newly established ideological anti subversion Bureau, At the same time, it expounds the purpose and motivation of establishing the ideological anti subversion Bureau: “the newly established bureau is not a replica of the secret political department”, “This situation is based on the current situation. Now the enemy is launching a powerful psychological offensive against us. You can’t help but admit that this is a real ideological war, which is to solve the problem of who wins and who loses. We Communists have a firm position and are determined to consolidate the Soviet state, and our enemies on the ideological front are working hard to break it Bad for our country. We must understand their work plans and methods, master the domestic situation and understand people’s emotions, which is very important. We must use all kinds of channels, not only legal organs, social groups or published information, but also our secret agencies. In addition to those superficial articles, there are also secret means, and the role of our organs is very important. ” The main task of the ideological anti subversion bureau is to “make a profound analysis of the political situation and make as accurate a prediction as possible. The newly established bureau should curb the ideological expansion from abroad and form a strong shield”.
[institutional setup and functions of the fifth KGB Bureau]
what is the institutional composition and functions of the fifth KGB bureau? According to Russian Scholars А.С. Smekalin’s research, the fifth bureau is mainly composed of: one, responsible for the anti espionage work of cultural exchange channels, analyzing and studying foreigners, and responsible for the anti espionage work of creative associations, scientific research institutes, cultural and medical and health institutions; The second division is responsible for working with the first General Administration of the KGB to formulate and implement various anti espionage measures against the ideological subversion and sabotage center of imperialist countries, and curb the activities of the people’s labor union, nationalists and chauvinists; The third division is responsible for the anti espionage work of College Students’ communication channels to curb the hostile activities of young college students, college professors and teachers; Four, responsible for the anti espionage work of religious circles, Zionists and religious systems, and for preventing the sabotage activities of overseas religious forces and religious centers; The Fifth Division is responsible for providing practical assistance to the local authorities of the KGB in preventing large-scale mass activities endangering society, investigating the authors of anonymous anti Soviet works and leaflets, and checking the omens and signals of terrorist activities; The Sixth Division is responsible for summarizing and analyzing the information of the enemy in the implementation of ideological subversion and sabotage activities, and coming up with specific measures in the formulation of feasibility plans and intelligence work. Seven departments were established in August 1969, whose function is to “find out and inspect those who attempt to use explosives and explosive devices for anti Soviet purposes”. Any verbal and written threats to national leaders can be regarded as terrorist activities. Intimidation and threats against local leaders are investigated and dealt with by the local authorities of the KGB. In July 1973, eight departments were established to “find out and curb the ideological subversion activities of the Zionist center engaged in sabotage”; Nine departments were established in May 1974, whose function is to “conduct the most important screening, analysis and Research on those suspected of participating in organized anti Soviet activities (except nationalists, believers and believers)”. The office is also responsible for curbing the hostile activities of those who print and disseminate anti Soviet materials, and implementing various espionage measures to detect all kinds of anti Soviet activities carried out by overseas revisionist centers on the territory of the Soviet Union. At the same time, ten departments were established to cooperate with the first General Administration of the KGB to carry out anti espionage activities against ideological subversion and sabotage centers of imperialist countries and overseas anti Soviet organizations (except hostile organizations of Ukrainian and Baltic nationalists). The 11th division was established in June 1977. Its function is to “carry out counter insurgency work to smash all kinds of destructive activities of the enemy and hostile elements during the preparation and conduct of the Moscow Summer Olympic Games”. However, after the closing of the Olympic Games, the office was not revoked. It was instructed to monitor the sports industry, medical and health circles and scientific research institutions. In order to coordinate with the activities of the security organs of socialist countries, the twelfth group (enjoy the rights of the Secretariat) was established. The mission of the 13 offices, which were established in February 1982, is somewhat vague: “identify and curb activities that have evolved into politically hostile organizations that are conducive to the enemy’s ideological subversion and sabotage against the Soviet Union.” In fact, this refers to informal youth sports – punks, novel figure skaters, mystics, etc. springing up in the early 1980s. The establishment of the office was a response of the KGB to the release of young people from the monitoring of the Communist Youth League. The staff of the journalists’ Association of the union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as well as the mass media and social and political organizations, are monitored by the 14th department established in February 1982. The 15th department, established in November 1983, is responsible for carrying out anti espionage work on all subsidiaries and all engineering projects of some important companies.
А.С. Smekalin also pointed out in the article that the initial establishment of the fifth Bureau of the KGB was 201 people and the first vice chairman of the KGB С.К. Tswigon is specifically in charge of the work of the fifth Bureau. In 1982, the staffing of the fifth Bureau increased to 424, and the number of espionage agencies was large, with an average of 200 espionage personnel in each state. Because the Soviet Union had 123 States, it meant that the number of espionage personnel working for the fifth Bureau alone reached 25000. Due to the changes in the Soviet Union and the amendment of the criminal law, the fifth Bureau was abolished and established on August 29, 1989“ З” Bureau.
[working mechanism and mode of the fifth KGB Bureau]
“KD”As can be seen from the composition and function division of the fifth Bureau of the KGB, its division of labor is fine and clear, and its work coverage is very wide. Its main responsibilities and tasks are to “make a profound analysis of the political situation and make as accurate a prediction as possible” and “curb the ideological expansion from abroad and form a strong shield” 。 Therefore, the work objects of the fifth KGB bureau are mainly domestic citizens of the Soviet Union, and focus on intellectuals, young college students, religious figures and other strata and groups.
but this by no means means means that the staff of the fifth bureau can only work in the Soviet Union and can not go abroad like the staff of the KGB intelligence agency and the anti espionage agency. In fact, in order to monitor the objects more effectively, the staff of the fifth bureau must often go abroad, because the monitored objects, such as actors and athletes, often have overseas performances or competition tasks, while college teachers, students and scientific researchers often have activities such as studying abroad, giving lectures, scientific research and participating in academic conferences. Just like ya, who has worked in the fifth inning since 1977 Johnny Kichhin said: “when bobkov was promoted to vice chairman of the KGB, there were many people who came in through the back door. They only looked at places where they had the opportunity to go abroad. Of course, the place responsible for the work of intellectuals in the literary and artistic circles was such a place, because they could go abroad with writers, artists or musicians.” “If you think it’s dangerous in the eyes of your superiors, you’ll be fired. Many staff flatter the leaders and choose the reports they like to hear. If the general thinks a writer is a bad guy, how can I say he’s a good man?” In fact, not only the internal working mechanism of the fifth KGB Bureau, but also the working mechanism of the whole KGB and even the whole Soviet state machinery. The whole state apparatus obeys the will of the party and its leaders, which is an important feature of the totalitarian political system.
in order to carry out its work effectively, the fifth KGB bureau must find and develop a large number of espionage personnel for itself at all levels of society Johnny Kichhin pointed out: “the materials on the inside of the fifth inning disclosed after the KGB reform depict a picture of a large number of KGB spies in writers’ associations, theatres, cinemas and other institutions”, “In this field, some people cooperate with us in the hope of using the National Security Council to convey some very important suggestions on how to improve our lives to national leaders. Others hope to live better or get some material enjoyment. We help them publish books, go abroad, get housing and install telephones.”. In order to effectively suppress the Soviet Union’s “social freedom” and “spekds” spkds “, the Soviet Union’s” social freedom “and” spekds “spkds” were promulgated in July 1967, Violation of this article is punishable by imprisonment ranging from six months to seven years. In September 1966, article 190 was added to the criminal law of the Russian Federation: “those who often spread or print rumors and works that slander the state system and social system of the Soviet Union orally or in writing shall be sentenced to three years’ imprisonment or reform through labor for one year or a fine of 100 rubles”.
according to the above criminal law, a group of representatives of independent and free thought in Soviet society were severely punished. One of the measures of
is deportation. He had suffered eight years in the Soviet labor camp Solzhenitsyn, based on what he saw and heard in the reform through labor camp for many years, created a number of novels reflecting the reform through labor life and the inner world of people in the reform through labor camp. Under the special background of “de Stalinization” after the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, his novel Ivan Denisovich’s Day was lucky to be published in the 11th issue of New World magazine in 1962. After Khrushchev stepped down in 1964, Brezhnev, who succeeded him, made a speech at a meeting of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee on November 10, 1966, It reveals the reason why Ivan Denisovich’s Day was published: “how many times have we argued and talked about Ivan Denisovich, and he supports all these labor camp literature.” At the same time, Brezhnev issued a warning Solzhenitsyn’s signal: “I think it’s time to do something and hold specific departments accountable.” Therefore, the KGB stepped up the tracking and monitoring of Solzhenitsyn, which had been implemented since 1965, and also tracked and monitored his relatives and friends. In November 1970, one month after Solzhenitsyn won the 1970 literature award, the KGB proposed to “deprive Solzhenitsyn of Soviet nationality and deport him”, and then made the same proposal to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union many times. On February 13, 1974, Solzhenitsyn was boarded and deported.
on April 15, 1968, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union approved the decision of the Soviet procuratorate and the National Security Committee on deprivation И.Я. Gaby and А.Т. Malchenko’s proposal for Soviet citizenship and deportation. According to a report of the KGB in 1975, in 1975 alone, “25 people who actively participated in Zionist actions and incited other anti Soviet actors were expelled through immigration channels”.
the second punishment measure is exile. A typical example is Andre, a nuclear physicist who is known as the “father of the Soviet hydrogen bomb” and has won the title of “Soviet Socialist Labor hero” three times Sakharov. Because he was at the forefront of the “dissident” movement, on January 22, 1980, he was arrested by the KGB on his way to work, expelled from Moscow to the city and imprisoned for a long time. Philip, who served as director of the fifth KGB Bureau for many years In his memoir, bobkov also had to admit his crimes against Sakharov: “at that time, it was not only state leaders who acted recklessly and did whatever they wanted, but also the heads of state security organs who made many decisions condemned by the society. I also didn’t want to escape my responsibility. Sakharov courtAnd the relationship between its leaders and the KGB: “whether before or today, the fate of many scientists like Sakharov does not depend on the KGB. This problem is determined by the higher leadership.” However, at the same time, he also admitted: “the KGB has not played a good role in dealing with Sakharov since the 1970s.”
as long as a country or a nation pursues autocratic politics rather than democratic politics, and implements the rule of man rather than illegal governance, the birth and rampant of monsters like the KGB are inevitable. A state machine that should have worked for the security and interests of the whole country and the people has become controlled by a very small number of autocrats and ruling groups The tools to enslave the general public are also inevitable. This freak not only caused deep disaster and endless pain to the Soviet people, but also dispelled their belief and recognition of Soviet Republican socialism day after day and year after year. Throughout the Soviet period, in fact, the people’s doubts and fears about the Communist Party and the real Soviet socialism have never stopped. This is normal and natural, because the exploration and practice of socialist construction are destined to have both success and shortcomings and mistakes. The problem is that the leaders of the Soviet Union did not practice and develop democratic politics by liberating and developing productive forces and developing economy, And then continuously improve and improve the people’s material and spiritual living standards to eliminate all kinds of doubts and fears of the people, and continuously enhance and improve the cohesion and social identity of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Soviet socialism. Instead, the state machinery including the KGB is used to suppress and destroy the people’s yearning and pursuit for basic human rights and free spiritual life. In the long run, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union will perish The disintegration of the Soviet Union is inevitable.