reads “the rise of universities”, which tells that the medieval emperors gave students privileges: and by 1158, the student class in Italy had become so important that the Emperor Frederick Barbarosa officially granted them rights and privileges, although it did not specify which city or university to grant students Even so, the University likes to set a precise date for commemoration. The University of Paris chose 1200, the year it received its first royal charter. At that time, there was a conflict between citizens and students. Some students were killed. King Philip Augustus then signed a formal charter, punished the president of Notre Dame (PR é v? T), and recognized the right of students and their servants not to be tried by secular courts, This has also resulted in the special status of students before the court – although they are exempt from the sanctions of secular laws, they are not completely separated from the customs and practices of the secular world. Why should students be given privileges to protect them from secular laws? Although they are religious students, isn’t it a crime to kill and fight?

interesting questions.

seems like a small problem, but it involves a lot of things. I don’t know very thoroughly, so I can only describe it as much as possible.

granted privileges to “scholars”, which was not very new even in the middle ages. In fact, as early as the Roman Empire and period, the emperor granted tax exemption and exemption from military service and other active civil obligations to famous scholars, as well as partial immunity, and provided them with the guarantee of survival. Later, it almost became custom-made. But at this time, scholars are still relatively scattered and are not regarded as a substantive group or stratum.




and “Middle Ages” have always been regarded as the time of the rise of universities. The specific time is about the 12th-13th century, which rises with the rise of European cities. The earliest cities were actually places where craftsmen gathered. Many of these craftsmen came to the cities in order to resist the oppression of traditional Lords. Therefore, cities are born to seek autonomy. Autonomous groups in cities are guilds of various industries. What’s interesting here is that universities can also be regarded as a guild, a guild of “scholars” and an autonomous organization of students and teachers.

when universities came into being, in addition to education, the more important work was actually academic research. The three earliest universities in Europe, Bologna, saleno and the University of Paris, are all “gathered” because of their expertise in a certain field. Bologna is law, saleno is medicine, and the University of Paris was theology at first. Many people know that the knowledge system in medieval Europe is divided into two levels. The low level is the seven abilities of the so-called “free art”: grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, music and Astronomy; After completing this level, you can study theology, medicine and Law (PHILOSOPHY, as a secular knowledge, is not included in this system under the rule of Theology). These three universities, because of the special attainments and inheritance of some of their members in a certain direction, have become the yearning place for people pursuing this academic in Europe, so as to gather the most dynamic and innovative people in relevant fields and become the center of academic activities, thus establishing “Universitas” (the word itself has the nature of guild).

interestingly, the various forces in Europe were themselves complex at that time. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Christianity was nominally the spiritual leader of Europe, so the land was the territory of God, and its religious power was very huge. In terms of secular imperial power, the Holy Roman Empire, France and Britain, as an endless iron triangle, although nominally subject to the leadership of the Pope, they had some unspeakable conflicts with the church secretly. With the rise of cities, secular lords provide protection for emerging cities for their own interests, but they don’t want to see too much urban autonomy. Of course, the Holy See doesn’t want to see it. Within the city, there are conflicts and constant group fights between various guilds in order to compete for interests. Emerging universities and the gathering of professional scholars make students and teachers begin to be regarded as a new group and a new class. Under such conditions, it is obvious that they can’t take advantage in terms of number, power and financial resources, especially in the conflict with cities and other guilds. Early universities did not have fixed lecture sites. Students came from all over Europe. Teachers took students everywhere to study and carried out various “advanced” research. These over active people were regarded as unstable factors by cities and other guilds, and would occupy their living resources. Therefore, they would put pressure on the school in various ways to charge high rent Disturbing the teaching order, the conflict intensified, and all kinds of vicious fights occurred from time to time. After the conflict, in view of the initial exploration of autonomy and law in medieval cities, they often asked City judges for arbitration, while early city judges tended to favor citizens rather than students (preference issues and guild bribery), and students and teachers began to realize the need to strive for more autonomy.

yes, autonomy. The autonomy of the city comes from the benefits it brings to the secular lords and is sheltered by the secular lords. The theological, legal, medical (and later philosophical) knowledge and professionals provided by the university are also very important to the monarchy and the Holy See. However, if the university can not guarantee basic teaching, how can it provide better academic achievements and professionals? In 1158, Frederick red bearded, the Holy Roman emperor who had just conquered Italy, visited his new territory, so the teachers and students of the University of Bologna seized the opportunity to make a request to Frederick II. Frederick II promulgated the complete Residence Act on the grounds that “the study of knowledge contributes to the understanding of God” (which must be mediated by the Holy See). The content of this bill is very clear and focuses on two aspects: the first is the right of residence of the University. The bill stipulates that university teachers and students enjoy the right of residence in their city, and the city must provide the university with houses suitable for teaching and life. At the same time, urban residents shall notHurt the university members living here (many of them are foreigners). In terms of rent, the rent for the University shall be jointly determined by two university members and two citizens once a year and shall not be changed during the period; Secondly, the university enjoys a certain degree of judicial autonomy. For business cases related to university members, university members can choose to be tried by university teachers or church courts instead of former city judges.

is different from the University of Bologna in the south of the Alps. The University of Paris in the north of the Alps won autonomy later. The predecessor of the University of Paris was first known for its theology. There were many monks in monasteries and monasteries among its teachers, and most of its students were treated as monks by citizens. In 1198, the Holy See granted judicial autonomy to the priests in Paris, but not members of the clergy University were excluded (the Holy See also had no power to grant them secular privileges). Therefore, the University turned to Philip II to seek power, and finally obtained the right of residence in 1200. At the same time, Philip II handed over the judicial power over the University of Paris to the church court.

in addition to striving for the autonomy of cities, universities should also strive for the autonomy of secular kingship and the Holy See. In terms of secular kingship, medieval European universities spent 150 years fighting for the power of tax exemption and military service exemption; For the Holy See, it took them 100 years to win the power to grant “Teacher License” independently. With the gradual expansion of the university system, the internal of the University also began to divide. Teachers jointly formed a college, all teaching staff (including service staff) formed a facultas, while students of the same nationality also formed a natio, and they fought for privileges relative to other classes within the University. The struggles of




are not easy, but with the development of universities and the improvement of their knowledge system, more and more professionals are trained and play a more and more important role in society. Naturally, all forces pay more and more attention to universities and try to win over them, Even the cities that seemed to be at odds with them at first realized the importance of universities to urban development, so universities can dance among various forces and obtain their own development space. After the mid-14th century, various autonomy privileges of medieval European universities have basically become customized, and universities with different characteristics in different places are often granted some special rights (identity privileges of teachers and doctors, etc.).

however, the university is unable to confront the secular imperial power and the Holy See, which has been proved by several disastrous defeats. Therefore, on many issues, medieval universities traded some academic freedom (knowledge system and tone) for these privileges, but in any case, they still left valuable wealth for future generations.