talking about the history of ancient and modern China and foreign countries, there have been many great emperors in China and foreign countries. Every emperor has made great contributions to his country and people. But in the west, ancient Greece had an emperor, the great, who was called the greatest king in human history. Why judge him like this? What contribution has he made to his motherland? Now follow Xiaobian’s footsteps to understand it.
in 356 BC, Alexander the great was born in Pala, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedonia (at this time, the kingdom of Macedonia was only a country on the Greek peninsula). This year is the sixth year of Qin Xiaogong, that is, the sixth year of the reform. Alexander the Great’s teacher was the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle. In 340 BC, his father Philip II attacked the Byzantine city-state. At the age of 16, Alexander the great became the acting ruler of the kingdom of Macedonia and suppressed the rebellion in the north of the kingdom of Macedonia that year. At that time, Duke Qin Xiaogong worshipped Shang Yang and made it for Daliang. In 338 BC, because of the defeat of his father Philip II in the battle against the Byzantine city states, the city states of Athens and Thebes in the Greek city states formed an alliance against Macedonia. The two sides launched a battle to determine the fate of Greece – the battle of Catalonia. Led by Philip, the Allied forces of sesali, Epirus, etoria, North phokis and rocris fought a decisive battle with the Allied forces of Athens and Thebes. Alexander the Great’s surprise attack on the gap between the Allied forces of Athens and Thebes became the key for the kingdom of Macedonia to win the battle. This war established the ruling position of the kingdom of Macedonia in Greece. When Qin Xiaogong died, Shang Yang died in the war, and King Huiwen of Qin ascended the throne.
in 336 BC, Philip II was assassinated by his guard paulsanias while attending his daughter’s wedding. Alexander the great. That year was the second year after King Huiwen of Qin ascended the throne, and the emperor of Zhou congratulated Qin. If the king of Qin was crowned at the age of 21, both King Huiwen of Qin and Alexander the great were 20 years old and belonged to their peers. Only Alexander the great participated in World War I two years ago and is now in power, while King Huiwen of Qin has not been in power.
in 335 BC, Alexander the great was once again recognized as a legitimate ruler by the Greek city-state. In that year, he defeated Thrace, tribaly, Elia and so on, and consolidated the ruling position of the kingdom of Macedonia in Greece. “Spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “spekds”, “. Due to the debt left by his father Philip II, the Treasury was empty, and Alexander the Great’s army had only 30 days of supply. At that time, King Wei Xiang of the state of Wei became king.
the battle of Granicus was the first battle of Alexander the great to conquer Persia. Alexander the Great’s strength was 45000. The opponent is the three governors of Persia, with a military strength of 20000 Persian cavalry and 20000 Greek mercenaries, totaling 40000. Despite being outnumbered, Alexander the great still won. Three Persian governors were killed in the war.
in the autumn of 333 BC, Alexander the great fought the second battle to conquer Persia: the battle of Isis. Alexander the Great’s Macedonian Legion is about 40000. The opponent is Darius III of the Persian Empire, with a force of about 120000-130000. The two sides fought a decisive battle in izus (today north of iskendron, Turkey). Both sides were equally matched in the battle. Alexander the great attracted the main force of the Persian legion with the central heavy armor infantry square; The right side of the Persian army against the right side of the army; In the course of the war, Alexander the great led his troops to the Persian Emperor Darius III after successfully attracting the left military force of the Persian army to the square of the heavy armor infantry Legion in the center.
although the Macedonian army was suddenly killed, Darius III’s guards still fought bravely against the enemy. But the horse of Darius III’s carriage was frightened and pulled Darius III into the battlefield. Because Darius was afraid of being captured alive by the Macedonians, he had to take off his robe and ride away on his horse.
the escape of Darius became the key factor for the defeat of the Persian Legion. Darius III fled, and his guards fled, leading to the collapse of the Persian Legion. According to the statistics of historians, the Macedonian Legion lost 1200 people in this battle, while the Persian Legion lost at least 20000 people – most of them were trampled to death when the army collapsed. At that time, King Huiwen of Qin thought that the rhinoceros head Gongsun Yan was made by Daliang. After
won the battle, Alexander the great did not chase Darius III, but pushed southward along the Mediterranean Sea, finally entered Egypt and established the city of Alexandria. Here, Alexander the great is known as the Pharaoh – the son of the sun god Amun. This is 332 BC. In 331 BC, Alexander the great fought the third battle against Persia: the battle of gaucamilla. Having won two wars against the Persian Empire, Alexander the great had more money to recruit more soldiers. But compared with the legions of the Persian Empire, the number of Macedonian legions of Alexander the great is too small.
the Macedonian regiment has 40000 infantry and 7000 cavalry, a total of 47000. The number of Persian legions was originally said to be one million, but most later historians believe that the actual number is 200000 infantry and 45000 cavalry, a total of 245000. Darius III made peace with Alexander the great three times before the war, and even proposed to cedeThe conditions for peace in half of the Persian territory. But Alexander the great refused. After learning that Alexander the great refused to make peace, Darius III cried sadly, “Alexander, what unforgivable crime have I committed against you? Did I kill any of your relatives, so my atrocities deserve such punishment?”
on the morning of September 30 of that year, the Macedonian Legion and the Persian Legion began a decisive battle. A battle of 47000 against 245000 began. The Persian Legion set up a huge battle array with a length of 8 kilometers. But until then, Alexander the great had not figured out how to win.
Darius’s strategy is: the Central Army Corps faces the Macedonian Central Corps, encircles the left and right sides of Macedonia on both sides, and rushes into the Macedonian camp to rescue his mother and children. Alexander the Great’s strategy was to strengthen the defense of the left and right and the rear, fight to the death in the front, and find the weakness of the Persian regiment to break through. In this battle, the Macedonian army fought very hard. There were Persians in front, on the left and right sides. Finally, the Persians rushed into the Macedonian camp.
when the morale of the Macedonian regiment was very low, the sacrificial Aristander jumped on a horse and shouted along the Macedonian front: “look at the hovering eagle, this is a sign of Macedonian victory!”. It was this sentence that boosted the morale of the Macedonian army and recaptured the Macedonian camp. The difference between
and the fierce battle on the left and right sides is that the Macedonian regiment in front has not fought with the Persian regiment. This is why later historians are confused: Why did Darius not order Persian soldiers to attack directly ahead. The soldiers of the Persian regiment continued to rush to the right side of the Macedonian regiment, resulting in a gap between the left side and the center of the Persian legion, making Darius III’s defense force weak. Alexander the great seized the opportunity, led the Macedonian regiment in front to attack the weakness with a wedge, and went straight to the forbidden guard of Darius III. Soon the battle between Alexander the great and Darius III began again. Kill both sides. Alexander and Darius III were about thirty meters away from each other. Each tried to kill the other with javelin, but both failed.
but the God of luck was on Alexander the Great’s side. Alexander the Great’s Javelin killed Darius III’s coachman. The Persian soldiers on the left saw someone in the emperor’s carriage was killed by javelin due to the dust rolling on the battlefield. They mistakenly thought Darius III had been killed, so they howled. The Persian Legion on on the left somehow broke up, and then the Persian central Legion began to break up. Darius III watched the Legion collapse and wanted to commit suicide, but his subordinates stopped him and had to flee.
when the left and central legions collapsed, the Persian regiment on the right almost won the victory over the right defense line of Macedonia. General paminio of the Macedonian right line had to ask Alexander the great for reinforcements. Alexander the great had to give up the pursuit of Darius III and return to the right side. As a result, they hurried to reinforce the Macedonian regiment on the right and met with a Persian regiment returning after sneaking into the Macedonian barracks: one hurried back and the other hurried to support, so the two sides fought the fiercest battle in the battle. Finally, the Persian Legion fled.
when Alexander the great reached the right line of defense, the Persian Legion on on the right had learned that the left and central Legion had retreated and began to retreat. In this battle, the Macedonian Legion killed 500 people and injured countless people. At least 40000 Persian legions died in battle – again, most died while fleeing. After winning the battle of gaucamilla, Alexander the great defeated the Persian Empire and entered Babylon, the center of the Persian Empire.
Alexander the great continued to march into the eastern provinces of Persia and his Persian conquest, mainly Bactria and Sogdiana. Persian officers, afraid that Darius III would surrender to Alexander the great, assassinated him. After that, Alexander the great did not encounter any large-scale battles.
after conquering the whole Persian Empire in 326 BC, Alexander the great did not stop conquering, but went south to fight India and launched his last battle with Indian king poras: the battle of the haidaspace river. Alexander the Great decided to cross the haidaspace River and conquer India. King poras of India decided to gather his troops and defeat Alexander the great by the river. Facing polas’s tight defense on the opposite bank of the river, Alexander the great confused polas by constantly mobilizing troops and horses and saying that he was not in a hurry to cross the river. When Alexander the great felt like crossing the river, he led an army to cross the river himself, and the rest of the main force was handed over to klateras, who ordered klateras to lead the army to cross the river only when he saw polas leading his troops attacking him.
after crossing the river, Alexander the great immediately fought with the army of polas’s son. Polas’s son died in the war. When polas heard the news, at the same time, the Macedonian Legion on on the other side began to cross the river. Polas hesitated for a moment and finally felt that he was leading 4000 cavalry, 300 chariots, 200 elephants and 30000 infantry to fight a decisive battle with Alexander the great.
Alexander the great first used bows and arrows to disrupt the formation of Indian infantry and cavalry, and then led the cavalry to disrupt the subordinates of Indian cavalry and infantry, while other Macedonian forces disturbed India by shooting Indian elephantsLegion dominated. Under the strategy of Alexander the great, the subordinates of polas were destroyed, the Indian regiment was in chaos, and elephants trampled everywhere regardless of their friends and enemies. At last, klatras, who crossed the river, led another part of the Macedonian Legion to replace the Legion led by Alexander the great and hunt down the Indian Legion.
in the whole battle, the Macedonian Legion killed 80 infantry and 230 cavalry, a total of 310; The Indian Legion killed 20000 infantry and 3000 cavalry, as well as the two sons of polas and various commanding officers, totaling more than 26000 people. After winning the battle of Hades pace, Alexander the great had to return to Persia because the Greeks were tired of fighting.
in June 323 BC, Alexander the great died of illness at the age of 33. That year was the second year that King Wen Huiwen of the state of Qin became king. Alexander the great and King Huiwen of Qin were born in the same year and ascended the throne at the same age (Alexander the great ascended the throne at the age of 20 and King Huiwen of Qin ascended the throne at the age of 19). In just 13 years, Alexander the great has established a huge empire, and King Huiwen of Qin has just become king. If Alexander the great lived longer, we would have a chance to see the duel between the heavy armor regiment of the kingdom of Macedonia and the imperial army of the Qin Dynasty!