said that “Robespierre” must be unknown to everyone, but if netizens familiar with French history should still know this person. He is a great French revolutionary. There is a very classic saying that you can live well only after I die. This is his epitaph. Then this person said that he was a leader before he was sent to the guillotine, But how did you suddenly die? Now we might as well analyze and uncover the secrets of this problem!
berspier participated in the public security committee, reorganized the revolutionary court, simplified trial procedures, implemented Jacobin dictatorship, punished criminals and revolutionary traitors with revolutionary terrorist policies, which was known as “terrorist rule”. Many innocent people were falsely accused and killed, and thousands of people were sent to the guillotine. Including the king’s relatives and most of the nobles, some people criticized this policy as “killing the nine ethnic groups” and violating humanity.
in early July 1794, he began to stop participating in the work of the public security committee. On July 26, he went to the national assembly and delivered a four hour speech, suggesting that he would liquidate the conspirators and swindlers in the national assembly and the public security committee. On July 27 (hot month 9), St. juster prepared to deliver a speech at the national assembly. Although he criticized the national assembly, he did not ask for arrest and had a spirit of compromise. However, his speech was roughly interrupted at the beginning. The national assembly immediately passed a decree to arrest Robespierre and his supporters, but Robespierre and others were immediately rescued by the commune. The revolutionary commune mobilized armed forces, but did not receive clear instructions for a long time, and began to dissolve after midnight. That night, the National Assembly announced the deprivation of his citizenship. The guild guard went to arrest him. He was shot in the jaw and sent to the guillotine with his followers such as St. juster and kudong the next afternoon. For the hot moon coup.
to understand the hot moon coup that led to Robespierre’s downfall, we should first understand the parliamentary atmosphere and street political activities in the era of the great revolution.
Robespierre was supported in parliamentary debates and speeches by the Paris people’s club, which is very different from the situation of Stalin and Mao.
even when the mountain faction was in power, Robespierre needed to face many eloquent people like him, such as Dandong and de Mulan, who also had their own followers. Of course, he sent both men to the guillotine. But the accusation he gave Dandong made many people feel uneasy, because he mainly accused Dandong of moral impurity rather than actual behavior. Unnecessary charges will fall on you at any time. The proposal for the arrest of Danton was put forward by St. juster, a close partner of Robespierre, in the national assembly (the then revolutionary parliament). Some people believe that this proposal was passed because St. juster hinted that this might be the last cleaning of the parliament.
in addition to the supreme decision-making body of Parliament, Robespierre also faces two executive bodies, the national salvation Committee and the public security committee. He once had a great influence on the two committees, but it must be noted that a strong military organizer and a long-term member like Karno cannot completely obey him. Since the autumn of 1792, he has often been accused of trying to establish a personal dictatorship. In the spring of 1794, when Robespierre became more and more anxious and suspicious (like his mentor Rousseau) and more inclined to execute dissidents in a simple and rough way, he had a fierce quarrel with his close friends St. juster and kudon with the other members of the Committee. On June 12, the national salvation committee refused to hand over nine people who Luo regarded as dissidents to him. Therefore, Luo did not attend the committee meeting for a month and often went to the Jacobin Club to find support.
however, this practice is bound to arouse the suspicion of other parliamentarians, because the clubs in Paris are civil after all, and the revolutionary parliament is the highest authority in France, and the relationship between the two is not always very harmonious. In mid and late June, driven by Luo and his partners (who still have influence on the Parliament and the two committees), terror reached a climax. Many parliamentarians felt it difficult to save their lives and dared not sleep in their beds at night. After fading out of the committee meeting for a month, Luo reappeared at the joint meeting of the two committees. He made a fierce personal attack on members such as Kolo debua and bjo corrugated. This can only lead to the alliance of its opponents.
on July 26, the day before the hot month coup, Luo delivered a speech at the national assembly. Historians described that
did not mention many people’s names in the speech, but the whole threat seemed to be directed at everyone. He praised his integrity and love of virtue in a popular way at that time, and then announced that there was a “conspiracy against public freedom”, involving parliamentarians, members of the public security committee and even members of the national salvation Committee, but he did not specify. These “traitors” must be punished and their “small groups” must be destroyed. Both committees should be purged, because “as long as power is involved with a group of scoundrels, the guardian of freedom will be exiled forever.”
this is a declaration of war; Robespierre’s enemies have realized that their life and death will depend on the success or failure of a quick counterattack, so they are determined to fight. At first, there was a noisy debate, focusing on whether Robespierre’s speech should be printed and how many copies should be printed. The members of Parliament who were attacked once again accused him of authoritarian conspiracy, for which all members of Parliament showed obvious sympathy. That night, Robespierre read out his speech again to the members of the Jacobin Club. The noisy members refused to respond to Bjorn and colo. According to kudong’s proposal, they voted to expel all members who opposed the printing of the speech, so people talked about the new cleansing of the national assembly. Piyo and Kolo were furious. They went straight to the two committees and spent almost the whole night preparing for the inevitable confrontation the next morning. Among the members outside the two committees, talian was also actively preparing for the war. He knew the then president of the national assemblyWho and when will Kolo arrange to speak. On the morning of July 27th, the 9th of the hottest month, when St. juster, who had not been involved in the factional activities of previous weeks, unexpectedly spoke on behalf of Robespierre, the power of emotion was clear at a glance. Biyo denounced Robespierre on behalf of the public security committee and talian on behalf of the participants. Their speeches won cheers; But when Robespierre asked to speak, he was overwhelmed by the call to “bring down the tyrant”. Kolo has refused to speak, and repeated attacks have plunged lawmakers into frenzy. Finally, a proposal was made to arrest Robespierre, which was accepted by the national assembly. There are also proposals to arrest St. juster and kudong, who also supports Robespierre. Relevant instructions are issued immediately. The commander of the Paris National Guard, Enrique, was also ordered to be arrested.
this is a parliamentary riot. Robespierre was almost completely claustrophobic in his residence in St. onore street a few months ago. He overestimated the support of Parliamentarians for him, which was fatal; In his speech on July 26, he attacked many parliamentarians directly or indirectly, so that no one felt that there was complete security. However, the setback in the national assembly is far from the end of Robespierre. The situation on the night of the 26th showed that he could still get the support of the Jacobin Club and its audience in the public auditorium; In addition, the Paris Commune was reorganized after the cleansing of the Ebert faction, where there were also a large number of members appointed by him. Therefore, he still has a chance in Paris. Since the spring of 1791, he has always had a high prestige among the masses, which will give him strength. And the Paris Commune didn’t abandon him at first. On the afternoon of the 28th, the commune ordered all prison guards in the capital to refuse to accept prisoners, and onlio was able to escape. While he tried to assemble his national guard to prepare for the uprising, the arrested congressman was taken to the city hall and placed under the protection of the commune. However, in only 17 of the 48 districts, the National Guard responded to the call of onlio and concentrated in grevu square. The guards in other districts wavered, but when the national assembly took decisive action, they quickly obeyed. According to Barrell’s proposal, prisoners will lose legal protection if they escape. According to the legal provisions originally proposed by St. juster, which is ironic, this means that such fugitives can be executed without trial. The armed forces loyal to the national assembly were under the command of baras, who had emerged from the siege of Toulon. Faced with such a decision, coupled with the inability to get most districts out of hostility and indifference, the commune began to hesitate. At night, the assembled troops gradually dispersed. Therefore, when balas led his troops to the city hall at 2 a.m. on July 29, the city hall was no longer defended. Robespierre attempted suicide, but the bullet only penetrated the jaw; The next afternoon, Robespierre, who was seriously injured, was sent to the guillotine.
the Paris Commune mentioned here is a mass organization in Paris during the French Revolution, and has its own armed force: the National Guard. This is an important force of street politics during the great revolution. It will exert direct pressure on Parliament, and even resort to violence to force Parliament.
but the mass organization alienated Robespierre at the critical moment. One of the important reasons is Luo’s deregulation of prices. In order to solve the problem of soaring prices in Paris at that time, Luo once advocated the promulgation of a price ceiling order, but shortly before the hot month coup, Luo’s supporters in the Paris Commune issued a wage restriction order, which greatly dissatisfied the sleeveless men in Paris. Their enthusiasm for the commune waned. When a group of people in Romania are sent to the guillotine, the crowd will shout: knock down the price ceiling order (because the wage restriction has greatly reduced the significance of the previous price limit measures).
of course, economic measures were not the only reason for Luo’s collapse. The incident came so fast that a lot of work was too late to organize; Previously, the masses had been told that Dandong and EBER were plotting against the law, and they had no reason not to believe that Luo was an outlaw seeking dictatorship this time. In the atmosphere of conspiracy, everyone can become a giant with mud feet.
historians commented that Luo was never a dictator, but his natural paranoia and paranoia about the so-called virtues made it easy for him to regard the normal contradictions as bad intentions, so he often resorted to terrorist measures.
used to think that the hot moon coup marked the ebb tide of the great revolution, but in fact it was not. Members of the public security committee and the national salvation committee are as radical as Luo. They continue many terrorist measures in the past, including non Christianization.
some people say that one of his greatest contributions to the modern revolution is that he created a core organization leading the revolution – the revolutionary party.
this is a proposition worth pondering.
Luo is not the leader of an organized political party, let alone a political party that monopolizes power and force.