There is an update at the end of the answer to
although the attitude of Switzerland in the eyes of outsiders looks like a stubborn old man, with money in his pocket, he still clings to his neutrality. Even China’s accession to the United Nations and the WTO is on a shelf, and millions of people are unwilling. Why? Because if you join, you may not be neutral. Not to mention the EU. You make trouble with such a bad thing. Don’t involve me. I’m neutral. Yes, I am politically neutral and economically neutral. Spend money to eliminate disasters. Don’t drag me into the mess of the European Union. As a small country, Switzerland spends hundreds of millions of Swiss francs every year to maintain the air defense cellar of military facilities that year. Why? We are neutral. We should continue to be neutral.
neutrality is Switzerland’s pride, neutrality is Switzerland’s obsession, and neutrality is the national identity that permeates every MFS bone.
[neutralwiedieschweiz] is as neutral as Switzerland, which is also one of the common sayings in German.
Swiss diplomacy has always been very clever. Neutrality and neutral policy are the trump cards that the foreign ministry will never tire of playing. At the same time, neutrality has also been cleverly shaped into Switzerland’s diplomatic advantage. Seriously, but the WW period mentioned by the title owner, especially the neutrality of WWII Switzerland, has always been a sad joke.
there is a widely circulated satirical slogan among Swiss people in the WWII era: Switzerland has six days to work for Germany every week and pray for the victory of the allies on the seventh day.
although Switzerland has never provided soldiers to directly participate in the war, it has never been a refuge outside the dispute. The relative integrity of Switzerland’s national sovereignty and the miraculous non annexation of its national territory are also breathing opportunities temporarily obtained through various transactions. The Swiss never believed that anyone would really let Switzerland go under the war, so every time there was a slight movement in Europe, the Swiss were sensitive and prepared for tenacious resistance at any time like a rabbit. The answers to
are long and divided into three parts: the first part is the Swiss neutrality and neutrality obligation of popular science, the second part is WWI, and the third part is WWII. Near Christmas, the main language organization ability is a little confused. I hope I can try my best to describe Switzerland’s neutral position in the two world wars.
at the beginning, please allow the respondent to put a map:
are surrounded by Germany, France and Italy. How could Switzerland surrounded by European leaders be completely [neutral]? At that time, he willfully created helvetische Republik, the predecessor of Switzerland. He put a group of kantonen who had nothing in common from faith to language into a country from a loose alliance. It was really not his whim to spread the Republic fire of the French Revolution. Switzerland’s main role is a barrier, a buffer zone like existence. This country full of various conflicts can become today’s Switzerland, mostly thanks to the intrigue between European leaders. Switzerland’s geographical location directly leads to no one willing to let Switzerland belong to any party other than itself. Of course, the stubborn and annoying Swiss are not willing to be other people’s dog legs.
Oh, let’s be neutral.
everyone says so.
if we want to talk about neutrality, we must first define it: what is Swiss neutrality.
“Laneutralitéconsiste,pourunEtat,ànepasparticiperàuneguerremenéepard’autresEtats. Cettenotionrelevantdudroitinternationalpublicn’apastoujoursrecouvertlemêmecontenuconcret.Elleestàdistinguerdelapolitiquedeneutralité,laquellecomprendl’ensembledesmesuresqu’unEtatneutreprenddesonpleingré,entempsdeguerrevoiredéjàentempsdepaix,pourgarantirl’ efficacitéetlacrédibilitédesaneutralité,qu’ellesoittemporaireoupermanente. “(Alois riklin, dictionary history dela Suisse, 2010) the main answer is the basic definition of [neutrality]: not participating in the [war] of other countries. But at the same time, what is [non participation] and what degree of action can be regarded as [non participation] … This is based on the international conventions at that time. At the same time, the question arises: is economic war a war? For example, now that the EU imposes economic sanctions on Russia, assuming that Switzerland joins in, does it violate its neutrality? This assumption is not without reason. Switzerland has indeed done this, so does it violate its neutrality? Now if you go on, will you? How do you stand for the EU if you don’t do it? How to make a statement to the international community? Therefore, Switzerland’s position in europeanffairs has always been ambiguous. Some people say that Switzerland is a black hearted businessman and speculator, and some politicians say that Switzerland’s neutral position is a regulator that can not be ignored in the international community. Switzerland is also constantly debating for its neutral identity. It is worried that its neutral identity will lead to international isolation. If it loses its neutral identity, it will be forced to become a subsidiary of major forces Historically, Switzerland’s neutral position and neutral foreign policy were developed under the premise of [maintaining internal stability and external independence], and Switzerland’s neutrality was also written into the constitution. Then, the five main tasks assigned by the constitution to the federal government are: social and cultural integration, independence, free trade, balance and service work (integration -, Unabh? Ngigkeits -, freihandels -, gleichgewichts und dienstleistungsfunk). Social and cultural integration aims at [internal stability]: a series of policies need to fully regulate beliefs Social status, multilingual areas and other gaps, maintain national integrity, minimize gaps and reduce conflicts of interest. Then the second item is “external and[Ping] specific projects: to find ways to maintain the independence of this small projectile country, in addition to its large amount of arms investment, Switzerland’s most important role is also a check and balance. Switzerland often plays the role of a peacemaker and tries its best to adjust the contradictions between countries. As for free trade, this one is the most criticized place for Switzerland: it’s none of your business to quarrel with each other. As a small country with limited natural resources, Switzerland will maintain and continue its equal trade relations with all participating countries even if it goes to war. The latter two basically confirm Switzerland’s status as a neutral country in the world: check and balance, regulate and provide various services (such as economic assistance, accepting war refugees, etc.) Let’s start with World War I:
anyone with a little political science, international relations and international legal foundation can’t get around the Hague Conventions of 1899-1907. In fact, this is the cornerstone of international humanitarian law. At the same time, it also refers to the basic obligations of neutral countries: they can not participate in the war, can ensure their own national defense, treat all participating countries equally in the arms trade, do not provide soldiers for participating countries, and do not provide their own territory for participating countries. Then let’s see what Switzerland has done [Switzerland maintained Armed Neutrality during World War I] (bewaffnet neutralit? T) but in fact, Switzerland almost threw aside the basic obligations of Hague Conventions during World War I: Switzerland directly participated in the economic war, Even in China, the Swiss Army has endured foreign economic regulation (please refer to soci é t é suissedusurveillance é conomique) and unilaterally conducted secret information exchange with Austria Hungary, which is a direct violation of the obligations of neutral countries (please refer to obersten aff? Re). Of course, Switzerland and Germany and France have contracts of various meanings, That is, once one party attempts to attack the other party through Swiss territory, the Swiss Army will immediately join hands with the attacked party and fight back under the command of the other party. (at first, this was the Swiss response to the French military plan. Soon, Switzerland realized that since France could do it, Germany certainly didn’t pay attention to Switzerland… So they hurried to talk to France again…) This kind of action by Switzerland belongs to defending territory, which is not in violation of the Convention in theory, but Arthur Hoffmann’s role in the peace between Germany and Russia has a negative impact on Switzerland’s neutrality to a great extent. (find Grimm Hoffmann aff? Re) basically, the international side unanimously recognized and thanked Switzerland for its bonsofices during World War I, that is, its regulatory role in diplomacy and Humanitarian Affairs (25 dates, providing intervention for 68000 people). After the establishment of uno former League of nations after World War I, Switzerland was very active as a peacemaker and humanitarian country. It has laid a golden foundation for Switzerland’s international status in the future.
during World War I, the more important problem of young Switzerland was internal problems than external worries. First of all, internally, we are faced with the serious problem of national opinion Division: the French speaking area tends to France, and the German speaking area favors Germany. Switzerland in the modern sense was founded in 1849. When World War I began in 1914, this young country had just existed for 65 years. Then, in addition to the interest gap between city and township States and the belief struggle between Catholic and Protestant States, there is another troublesome difference between language regions. At the same time, Switzerland, a country with limited resources and highly dependent on imports and exports, paid a huge price for maintaining its army during World War I: the annual expenditure of the military was as high as 1 billion Swiss francs. (the annual income of the federal government was between one and two million Swiss francs at that time) Switzerland was facing a series of crises such as inflation, high unemployment, poor military supply and so on. The so-called “spukds” and “spukds” can’t participate in the war because of the subtle location of the “spukds” in the first place. In addition, Switzerland’s failure to participate in military war does not mean that it is not in line with its politics and economy. It is not close to the sea, and its natural resources are very scarce, which has led to Switzerland being forced to cooperate with powerful countries in order to survive.
the respondent here updates a statement: please carefully use the words [indirectly involved in the massacre and persecution of Jews], [German younger brother], [German vassal]. Answer Lord, this answer does have a certain negative guiding effect on Switzerland’s behavior during World War II, but this is the historical fact that all Swiss high school students have to learn: we are a humanitarian country, but we also made mistakes in World War II. The Swiss cannot feel innocent Just because they did not participate in the war. WWII belongs to the black history of all mankind. No country can stand up alone and say that it is the white lotus that comes out of the mud without dyeing. So please treat Switzerland’s behavior during World War II fairly.
answer the Lord calmly, try to say some facts objectively, and then say your personal point of view.
the official reason why Switzerland closed its borders was that it could not accommodate more people. At the Evian conference in 1938, other countries refused to continue to transfer asylum seekers in Switzerland. At that time, Switzerland’s own supply was already very difficult: Switzerland was a mountainous country, with only 23,9% of its agricultural land available and 6,3% of its population living area What does this mean for a country with a total land area of 41000 square kilometers? In addition to his own population of 4 million, he has to raise about 300000 more asylum seekers (data from Volume 17 of UEK public data). But this country not only has no resources to hide and does not depend on the sea, but is surrounded by territories occupied by the axis powers. Even so, most of its territory is only mountains except mountains. The mountains are indeed a natural barrier in Switzerland. The military has always planned to withdraw all the people into the mountains once they fight, but seriously, the resources that Alps and glaciers can provide for people’s survival Want to know what valuable survival resources this mountain can provide to the Swiss people? Just go to Baidu and take photos of the Swiss Alps.
a small country with only mountains and no sea, and its own resources are scarce. In addition to Swiss residents, it also has to feed 300000 refugees of all kinds while maintaining the combat capability of the army, of which 100000 are military personnel who accidentally collide with and infringe upon Switzerland’s territorial sovereignty. WarfareDuring this period, the necessities of life are very urgent, and Switzerland can only keep the basic survival goods in short. The Swiss government rationed supplies in wartime like all European governments. During that time, all the green areas in Switzerland, including football lawn, were full of crops such as potatoes. What does this mean for Swiss citizens? What might have belonged to you was distributed to outsiders. At the same time, do asylum seekers and military personnel in other countries not need food supply and dignified survival? Should refugees be herded together and locked up like livestock? Indeed, Switzerland is a small mountain country. Others think its policies are conservative and selfish. But Switzerland has been doing much better in the humanitarian field than all European countries.
is it politically correct in your eyes to admit refugees despite the lack of materials and expose their citizens to famine? Don’t talk about the government. No rational person can agree with this decision, right? Every position in every food shelter in Switzerland should be equally distributed not only to its own people, but also to asylum seekers in Switzerland and military personnel of various countries. What the Swiss government should do is to ensure that every resident in its territory, whether he is a Swiss citizen or not, can live with human dignity as far as possible when material conditions permit.
in fact, the main reason why Evon Steiger decided to close the border after learning about the existence of KZ was that Switzerland could not afford to screw up relations with the Third Reich. The policy of cooperation and compromise made by the government at that time is indeed right leaning or even anti human and compassionate from the current point of view, but please think about it. Unlike Britain, Switzerland is not an island far away from the mainland. Switzerland is basically surrounded by the territory of the axis powers. At the same time, its most fatal weakness is that it has no resources and is not close to the sea. Its main transportation lifeline is in the hands of the axis powers. The actions of the government of
are indeed morally unacceptable. In fact, even after the border is closed, the French community still takes in 86% of illegal asylum seekers and 96% of Jews who sneak into Switzerland through the Geneva border. Everyone knows German The responsibility of the government is different from that of individuals and non-governmental organizations. Although every country has a certain responsibility to the whole mankind, as a national government, it should first be responsible to its citizens. Individuals and non-governmental organizations can carry out unrequited and unprofitable humanitarian relief activities regardless of the consequences and their own moral beliefs. I’m sorry, but it’s irresponsible for a country to do so beyond its ability. The primary task of the Swiss government is to maintain the group interests of Swiss citizens, which is the reason for the existence of the Swiss federal government.
for this reason, a user who said [Oh, throw others to death for human dignity] congratulations on becoming the first living person I hacked on the social and Q & a platform except for small advertisements and marketing numbers. I’ll delete comments and hacked them all to you for the first time. First of all, the situation of receiving refugees during World War II belongs to [I have four pieces of bread. I need one to ensure that I can eat, so the remaining three pieces need me. Should I give this bread to three people so that they can eat, or to ten people so that they can barely eat, or should I bear hunger and share the four pieces of bread equally with everyone] There is no question of absolute right or wrong. But it’s no use arguing with you. I have been trying to respect and understand the differences and differences with others in basic concepts. I welcome all discussions that can broaden my horizons. We can discuss historical facts and data, but please let me experience the pleasure of authority dog in the face of this illogical and unreasonable [offensive comment].
yes, the Lord is so capricious.
as a mountain country, Switzerland has very limited resources and agriculture. It is different from Britain, France and other countries – its geographical location directly determines that Switzerland does not receive any material assistance from the allies. In other words, Switzerland, which is highly dependent on imports, has to pay for everything, and Germany has not given Switzerland half of the benefits. If Switzerland wants to survive, it first depends on trading. As a country sandwiched between the axis powers of Germany and Italy, Switzerland’s primary goal is not to liberate the world and Europe like the United States, the supreme world peace defender. What it seeks has always been self-protection. During World War II, all Swiss political and military actions followed the highest purpose: [preserving national sovereignty] and behind all this is only [protecting the interests of Swiss citizens]. Please clarify this concept. If Switzerland really wants to be Germany’s little brother running dog, believe me, it can provide Germany with far more resources than we see today.
Switzerland was never a clean role during World War II. But to put it bluntly, Switzerland at that time reflected human selfishness in all aspects: help without endangering your own interests. But it will not be noble enough to ignore its own life and death in order to help others. You can’t say it’s noble and great just because 4 million Swiss and 300000 refugees shared their limited resources and equipment. But similarly, you can’t say he’s an indirect accomplice in the ethnic destruction plan just because it closes the border and rejects 25000 illegal Jewish stowaways. Because the first data in my mind when I saw this sentence is: “the number of Jewish victims who lost their lives in Holocaust is between 5.6 million and 6.3 million.” In the first class of the criminal law class, the LORD was repeatedly warned that every life is priceless, and the value of one life is the same as ten lives and hundreds of lives. The Lord also knew that this comparison is inappropriate in terms of ethics and jurisprudence, which directly diluted the suffering of the victims. I don’t know why I want to put forward these two figures for comparison Maybe I still can’t emotionally recognize what others say about this country. I know that everyone will only look at the facts they want to see in the end, but I think it is my responsibility to show both sides of the coin when China has a one-sided understanding of Switzerland. So I added such a long paragraph.
finally touched on another politically sensitive topic: Switzerland’s treatment of Jewish refugees during World War IIIn fact, the reception is very similar to China’s reception of defectors. Are facing the same problem: accept or not? No, it’s against international humanitarian law. It’s easy to get into trouble at home. As for the answer to this question, everyone has their own standard scale according to their own morality, and the respondent has no intention of provoking any expropriation. He just hopes that if you talk about Switzerland’s Jewish problem in World War II in your reply, please be reasonable and reasonable, and don’t rashly put such a big hat on Switzerland. It can’t afford it.
add the source: – D é declaration des puissancesportant reconnaissance et garantee delaneutralit é perp é tuelledelea suisseetdel’inviolability é desonterritoire (Declaration of neutrality in 1815) – neutrality policy website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (EDA) of the Swiss government? T – Swiss diplomatic database home|dodis chRiklin,Alois:FunktionenderschweizerischenNeutralit? Tin pass é pluriel (1991) extended reading: Schweizer, Paul: geschichteder schweizerischen neutralit? t(1895)