Sculpture in the Italian Renaissance sculpture art in the early Renaissance Florence was in politics in the early 15th century.

It is in a leading position in economy, culture and art.

The development of Florence Art is closely related to the local tycoon Cosimo Medici (1389-1468).

Until the end of the 15th century, his family maintained the tradition of sheltering art.

During this period, Florence carried out a series of grand architectural projects, which provided a broad space for sculptors to display their talents.

Since the 15th century, Italian collectors and artists have been keen to collect art works from ancient Greece and Rome.

This collection atmosphere promoted the combination of Renaissance humanism and classical culture and art.

Due to the rapid economic development in Italy in the 15th century, wealthy businessmen, bankers and various types of trade unions often had a lot of wealth.

In order to alleviate the dissatisfaction of the poor and friction with the church, they often accumulated huge funds to build some public facilities and churches, and the decoration of these buildings is becoming more and more exquisite.

For example, the door decoration of the second and third copper doors of Florence cathedral was invested and built by the wool fabric trade union.

They hired artists for design competitions, and a jury was composed of 34 famous artists at that time.

In this competition, the sculptor lerenzo Ghiberti (1381-1455) defeated the famous sculptor brunelleski and six other sculptors, and became famous.

Giberti was born as a jewelry craftsman.

He not only mastered the bronze making skills and painting skills, but also liked classical academic research.

In 1400, he traveled to Rome to study the remains of classical sculpture.

He is good at finely depicting the details of relief, so that the surface of relief is smooth.

And with his painting skills, he created a painting illusion of space in relief, skillfully combined the two art forms of painting and sculpture, and achieved extraordinary artistic effects.

His successful expression of the sense of space depth far exceeds that of his peers.

Florence Baptistery has three bronze relief doors.

The first one was completed by Andre Pisano.

From 1403, Giberti spent 21 years to complete the production of relief door decoration of the second door of Florence Baptistery.

The second door is divided into 28 frames, each of which is an independent story based on the Bible.

From 1425, it took another 27 years for Giberti to complete the relief on the third bronze door of the Baptistery, which was called “the gate of heaven” by Michelangelo.

It is assembled at the main entrance to the east of the Baptistery.

“The gate of heaven” is a representative work of Giberti in the mature period of art.

The treatment of the relief on this copper door is very similar to that of contemporary paintings.

Its linear perspective sense of space and narrative plot content are “painting”.

In his autobiography, Giberti talked about his collection of marble statues, bronze statues and ancient coins in ancient Greece and Rome.

From gilberti’s reliefs, we can see that these ancient sculptures have a very obvious impact on him.

Especially character modeling.

Such as the shape of soldiers.

The facial silhouettes of some figures are very similar to those on the ancient Roman gem relief.

On the third copper door, Giberti deleted the four leaf frame and left a bottom line at the bottom of the relief, creating 10 story reliefs from the Old Testament in 10 square pictures of the same size.

Each relief contains one or more stories.

Each relief has a unified background.

The close-up figures are the largest, almost protruding on the relief background in the form of round sculptures.

The deeper the relief figures are, the smaller the relief figures are.

The distant figures and scenery are almost integrated into the eight backgrounds, from close to far, with a strong sense of depth of field.

Moreover, through gold plating, the whole relief is permeated with the feeling of golden air and mist.

Beside each relief, statues of the prophet and the heads of other figures were also added, including the head of kiberti.

The door frame is decorated with flowers, branches, leaves and fruits.

Giberti’s bronze door relief uses the emerging perspective and anatomical knowledge at that time.

The relationship between the characters and the scenery on the relief is cleverly arranged, and the composition is exquisite and delicate, with a strong Lyric meaning.

The two bronze gates basically include the creative achievements of Giberti’s life.

In his later years, Giberti wrote the book “Tan Yi Lu”, which describes his creative experience and the artistic situation at that time.

This book is also an important work of art history in the Renaissance.

Jacob Deia Quercia (1374-1438) was a Siena sculptor.

He also participated in the competition for the relief design of the copper door of the Baptistery in Florence.

He was also a first-class sculptor at that time.

Compared with Giberti, his relief is more innovative.

Being expelled from the garden of Eden is one of the reliefs of the gate of Peter’s Church in Bologna.

It is quelcha’s surviving work.

The figure in this relief has a strong body structure, elastic muscles and a sense of strength.

It seems that it is possible to break through the floating frame and come down at any time.

In quelcha’s reliefs, the slender Gothic modeling program has basically disappeared, replaced by the form of monument.

Quelcha’s creation pioneered the magnificent style of the Renaissance.

However, his artistic style did not leave a direct influence in Florence at that time.

It was not until the end of the 15th century that he was rediscovered by Michelangelo.

Paradise lost in Michelangelo’s Sistine zenith painting is obviously influenced by quelcha’s relief style.

Nannidi Banco (1380-1421) was a Florentine sculptor.

He studied classical art in ancient Greece and Rome.

His “four apostles” is a group of round sculptures of the same size.

The importance of this work lies in its excellent solution to how the statue is combined with architecture and murals.

So as to form an artistic complex with monument style and scale.

Gothic style sculpture tends to be independent from architecture, and Italian sculptors are also pursuing the value of sculpture independent from the status line of architectural accessories.

The four apostles were placed in niches.

The dim light in this place gives people the illusion of space, and it seems that the internal space of the niche is very wide, not just a concave part of the wall.

The statues are arranged in niches, but they are unique to the building wallsIndependence.

In shaping the sculpture image, Nanni consciously borrowed from the artistic tradition of Greece and Rome.

When depicting the spiritual state of the apostles, he focused on rendering the self-restraint ability of the heroes, and hid their religious passion behind rationality.

One of the four apostles was pointing to the opposite apostle, and the opposite apostle was listening attentively.

The apostles beside him stared ahead and thought, as if they were tasting every word of the speaker.

The artistic conception of this group image follows the artistic law of diversity and unity.

Donatello (1386-1466) was the greatest sculptor in Italy in the first half of the 15th century.

His creation completely got rid of the Gothic style and combined the classical spirit with realistic expression.

Donatello solved the problem of how to realistically express the human body in motion early in his creative career.

In 1413, Donatello made the statue of St.

Mark for the Church of orr St.

Michel in Florence, which is considered to be the symbol of the end of medieval art for more than 1000 years and the opening work of a new era of Renaissance art.

In his sculpture, with the movement of the body, the clothes of the characters seem to “move”.

The pleats of clothes change correspondingly around the swing of the key parts of the figure’s body, which makes the viewer feel that the figure’s body is indeed a living human body covered by clothes.

The dynamic limbs and smooth pleats of St.

Mark created by him give people a feeling that they are ready to come out, and it seems that they are about to come down from the muddy niche.

Compared with medieval statues, this statue is a truly independent round sculpture.

Even if it is removed from the framework of the building, it will definitely not damage its artistic value.

Most of the sculptors and decorators of the 15th century worked as sculptors.

At the age of 17, Donatello worked as an assistant in Giberti’s workshop.

Under the influence of Giberti, in 1425, he decorated the holy water vessel in Siena Baptistery.

The story is taken from the New Testament.

The relief picture is full of intense drama, and the relationship between foreground and background is clear.

There is a rich sense of space in the limited composition.

At the age of 20.

He took part in the construction of Florence cathedral as a mason.

However, Donatello’s early works have not completely separated from the Gothic tradition, and his early masterpiece David also has the elements of affectation and affectation.

In 1432, Donatello and Brunelleschi went to Rome to study ancient sculptures carefully and explore the mysteries of the structure, proportion and perspective of the human body.

Great changes have taken place in his art since his trip to Rome.

His second statue of David (1440-1442, bronze) was ordered for the Medici family.

This work is also the earliest nude sculpture in the Renaissance.

It shows the story of David, the hero of Biblical legend, who wisely and bravely killed Goliath, a giant who came to challenge.

The David created by Donatello has no idealized appearance, but shows him as an ordinary young shepherd.

The shepherd holds a round stone in his left hand.

He once hit the enemy’s brain with it and holds the enemy’s sword in his right hand.

The enemy’s head was cut off with it.

These details suggest that the fierce battle has just happened, which makes people marvel at the courage and strength of this leisurely looking teenager.

David’s body is slender and his weight is placed on his upright right foot.

With his left foot stepping on the head of the enemy, his body lines are smooth without too many detailed depictions, which are more general, while the head of the giant under his feet is depicted in great detail.

The comparison between the two makes this sculpture more picturesque.

Ten years after 1443, he and his brother applied to batua to make decorative sculptures for the Church of San Danio.

For the main altar of the church, he carved bronze statues of the virgin and son, six saints and 20 bronze reliefs, which show that Donatello’s skill has reached the level of perfection.

In front of the square in batua, Donatello carved his masterpiece the horse riding statue of gatamelata.

Gatamelata is the commander of mercenaries in Venice.

Donatello was commissioned by the Republic of Venice to make a memorial statue for him in pattia in 1445.

The work was completed in 1453 and placed in front of the main gate of St.

Anthony’s Church in batuci.

The monument statue is up to 4 meters high.

It is the first large bronze horse riding statue after ancient Rome, which imitates the statue of Marco Aurelio in form.

However, compared with the statue of Marco Aurelio, Donatello’s treatment of the characters is more lively.

He portrays gatamerata in military uniform and sword, with reins in both hands.

He doesn’t wear a helmet, looks serious and courageous, and is full of heroism.

The accuracy of the anatomy of the characters and horses is almost impeccable.

Based on the study of classical examples, Donatello intends to make the war horse more tall and majestic, and make the proportion of knights in the composition smaller.

Because gatamelata controls such a tall war horse, his image of perseverance and courage is more impressive.

In the second half of the 15th century, Italy formed several cultural centers in addition to Florence.

In 1453, the Turks occupied Constantinople, where many Greek scholars fled to Italy.

They brought the cultural and artistic knowledge of ancient Greece that Italians were eager to understand.

Renaissance artists tried to make themselves knowledgeable and cultured.

They like to associate with their classmates, and their social status has been improved compared with the past.

People have gradually got rid of the prejudice of treating artists as craftsmen since ancient times.

Florentine Art in the second half of the 15th century followed the creative principles of humanism and Classicism and made new achievements.

The mausoleum of Leonardo Bruni is a remarkable marble monument.

The tomb was carved by Bernardo rossellino (1409-1464).

It is believed that his monument is a perfect combination of humanistic spirit and traditional forms of classical sculpture.

Leonardo Bruni was the Prime Minister of the Republic of Florence before his death.

He was a famous humanist and wrote the history of Florence.

In order to pay tribute to him, at Bruni’s funeral, people imitated the customs of ancient Rome and put on his expensive crown.

In rossellino’s works, Bruni lies on the coffin platform in a robe, his history of Florence is placed on his chest, and the two ends of the coffin platform are supported by two “Roman Eagles”.

At the top of the mausoleum are two winged statues of little angels holding a relief shield decorated with the pattern of an eagleState.

Colleoni was dressed in armor, clutching the Marshal’s Scepter in his hand, standing on the horse orange with his feet, holding his head high, twisting his body, and had a forward momentum.

His face was grim and his eyebrows were frowned.

It shows a kind of arrogant and cruel power.

The left front leg of the horse under the crotch leaves the ground and jumps to the space in front of it with vigorous steps.

The horse’s head twists, strengthening the strength of the rider’s body twisting.

This horse riding figure of Verrocchio is comparable to Donatello’s horse riding figure of gatamelata.

From the mid-15th century, Florence lost its position as the economic and cultural center of Italy.

Replaced by Rome, the center of papal rule.

In order to re-establish his dominant position in the Christian world, the Pope did not hesitate to spend a lot of money to rebuild Rome, and attracted a large number of artists to work in Rome.

Michelangelo (1475-1564) was the greatest sculptor in Italy in the heyday of the Renaissance.

At the age of 13, he entered the workshop of the famous painter girandayo to learn painting skills, and soon entered the famous “Medici garden” to receive art training and learn carving under the guidance of sculptor bertol.

There he came into contact with a large number of ancient art treasures collected by the Medici family.

More importantly, he had frequent contact with humanist scholars and poets in and out of the Medici family, such as Angelo poriziano, which had a great impact on his growth.

Here he created the first two marble relief works, the virgin and the son by the ladder and the battle of Cantor.

Although these two works are not mature in technology, they have reflected Michelangelo’s unique physical feeling and extraordinary temperament.

He poured his tragic passion into his sculpture.

At that time, most of the Greek carvings seen by Italian sculptors were carvings of the Hellenistic period.

Apollo in the overlooking tower was discovered in Rome in 1490.

Although it is only a replica, its exquisite skills still deeply attracted Michelangelo and his contemporary sculptors.

In the Hellenistic period, the pursuit of sculpture, strong appeal and dramatic effect deeply influenced Michelangelo.

In 1496, Michelangelo came to Rome.

In less than five years, he created famous sculptures, including Bacus and mourning Christ.

At this time, his sculpture creation began to enter a mature period.

“Mourning Christ” (now in St.

Peter’s Cathedral, Italy) is 174CM high.

It’s a marble statue.

It was made in 1498-1501.

This sculpture shows the virgin mourning the suffering Christ.

The virgin is quiet, elegant and kind.

She looks at her son who is resting on her lap with suppressed sad eyes.

The composition of this sculpture is in the shape of Jinyu tower, and the effect is simple and stable.

Michelangelo engraved his name “by Michelangelo of Florence” on the shoulder strap of the virgin.

From 1501 to 1504, Michelangelo created the statue of David for his hometown Florence.

This work has become a symbol of the hero of the Renaissance and a summary of the artistic style of the Renaissance.

The raw material of David is a 6-meter-high Galala boulder that has been idle for 80 years.

Many sculptors wanted to carve it into a Colossus, but later gave up.

Michelangelo bravely shouldered this important task.

It took less than two years to finish this masterpiece.

Before Michelangelo, Donatello and Verrocchio had created sculptures on the same theme.

They all expressed David as a young man and chose the moment when David took a rest after defeating the giant.

Michelangelo’s conception and design of this theme is different from his predecessors.

He portrayed David as a muscular, well proportioned young hero.

It mainly shows that before the fierce battle, he turned his eyes to the distance of the horizon to search for the enemy.

Although the muscles of his body and face are still, there is an internal sense of tension and strength.

David is one of the most outstanding male nude statues in the history of Western sculpture.

This sculpture also made Michelangelo the greatest sculptor at the age of 29.

While creating David, Michelangelo also created the virgin and son for rodor dum church and completed the sculpture of St.

Mark for Florence cathedral.

After the death of Pope Juno II, the Protestant emperor Leo x asked Michelangelo to design a mausoleum for Juno II.

The project took more than ten years.

“Moses”, “bound slave” and “Dying Slave” are three outstanding sculptures created by Michelangelo for this mausoleum.

His masterpiece Moses is 2.

55 meters high and is the most important statue in the whole mausoleum.

In the Bible.

Moses was the leader and national hero of the Jews.

He led 600000 Jews to seek freedom and set up their own country in order to get rid of the cruel rule of the Egyptian Pharaoh.

He also formulated Ten Commandments for the Jews, which were engraved on the “Dharma tablet” made of stone.

This is the “Ten Commandments of Moses”.

Michelangelo portrayed the legendary ancient hero as full of wisdom, unshakable willpower and high prestige.

A heroic image of great physique.

Michelangelo captured the moment when Moses saw that the Jews he taught violated his commandments and still followed the Egyptian habit of worshipping gold.

He was about to jump up from his seat and drop the commandment plate in his hand to the ground.

The image of Moses is very powerful.

He is an old man with a strong physique.

He has two horns of different heights on his head – this is the symbol of “divine light”.

His beard is low to his waist, his broad robe covers his strong body, his thick arms are exposed, his joints are thick, and his blood vessels soar.

His blue skinned hands tightly stroked his long beard, It was as if his blood was flowing rapidly in his body.

The foresight, reward and punishment of the old man, because his angry face looks terrible, but his face contains uncontrollable enthusiasm and resolute willpower.

It makes people deeply feel his superhuman temperament and infinite power.

The bound slave and the rebellious slave (now stored in the Louvre Museum in Paris) are carved in pairs, both of which are marble statues.

The bound slave is 229cm high.

It shows that the tortured young slaves are dying and fall into a deep sleep.

This sculpture has smooth lines, beautiful image and exquisite knife technique.

The slave of resistance is 215cm high.

The bound young slave’s hands were tied back, and his eyes were filled with tearsAnger, lips closed, desperately twist the body, try to drum up the muscles on the chest and arms, and try to break the rope on the body.

In order to show the brave character of slaves full of rebellious spirit, Michelangelo adopted rough carving techniques and applied them properly.

In the Medici Chapel, there is a collective Mausoleum of four members of the Medici family, with a Jinyu tower shaped tombstone in the middle.

Michelangelo made two statues of the dead and four allegorical statues for the tombs of Lorenzo and Julian Medici.

Below the statue of Lorenzo are “morning” and “evening”, below the statue of Julian are “day” and “night”.

They are combined into a pyramid.

Each statue has independent meaning and can be combined into a complete statue group.

Michelangelo is a real sculptor.

He always went to the marble yard to choose materials in person, and his heart was always churning with all kinds of great images.

He felt that they all seemed to sleep in the huge rock, waiting for him to liberate them from the rock.

He created a series of great sculpture art images, and the art he created was regarded as an unattainable peak by later generations.

Stylist sculpture in the 1920s, stylist sculpture was produced and popular in Italy, and this style lasted until the end of the 16th century.

The sculptors in the heyday of the Renaissance represented by Michelangelo are confident that they have solved all the problems encountered by their predecessors in the performance of nature, and their works have exceeded the level of the most outstanding sculptures in ancient Greece and Rome.

As a result, the idea of a new generation of artists trying to surpass their predecessors seems to be difficult to realize.

Michelangelo likes to express the complicated nude in his later works.

Some young artists try their best to imitate his techniques, but they don’t understand Michelangelo’s spirit, so they often inappropriately apply what they imitate to their own works.

In order to surpass their predecessors, the artists at this time also tried their best to put forward some wonderful ideas to make their works extraordinary.

People call the artistic tendency of this period stylism.

The difference between the stylist sculpture and the sculpture in the heyday of the Renaissance is that it breaks the habit of viewing the sculpture only from a limited perspective, and strives to make the sculpture appear simple and clear at a glance.

Instead, it pursues to enable the audience to view the sculpture from all angles.

Therefore, the outer contour of the sculpture must be smooth from various angles.

In addition, stylist sculpture, like stylist painting, likes to exaggerate the shape of the human body, such as lengthening the body and neck.

Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571) is the most important representative of stylist sculpture.

Cherini, a gold and silver jeweler.

Influenced by Michelangelo, he began to make large-scale sculptures.

He worked for the king of France and designed and made some extremely exquisite craft sculptures for him, such as the famous Golden salt box (1543, now stored in the Museum of art history in Vienna).

In this sculpture, Cellini symbolizes the sea with a man.

He holds a trident and controls a delicate boat with enough salt.

Below are four seahorses.

While shaping the earth as a woman, she is elegant and charming.

Beside her, there is a richly decorated temple for pepper.

He also created bronze reliefs of arc windows to decorate Diana of Fontainebleau (1543-1544).

The sculpture is clearly influenced by the tomb statue of Michelangelo leaning for the Medici Chapel.

Cellini’s sculpture had a certain impact on the formation of Fontainebleau art school style in France.

In 1545, Cellini returned to Italy to create sculptures, of which the 320 cm high bronze sculpture Perseus and medusa is his masterpiece.

This sculpture portrays a naked figure, Perseus, whose heart is full of joy of victory and whose posture is natural and heroic.

His left hand held up the head of the demon Medusa cut off by him, his right hand held a knife, his left leg bent, and his weight fell on his strong right leg.

At his feet was Medusa’s body.

Perseus’s muscles were clear and strong, and his anger remained on his handsome face.

In his later years, Cellini was ignored by the court.

He devoted himself to writing autobiography, which became an important document in the history of art.

Jean de brogne, a Frenchman who settled in Italy from his youth, is considered one of the most important sculptors in Italy after Michelangelo.

He used the name giovannida Bologna (1529-1608) in Italy.

Bologna was a student of Michelangelo.

He created a number of ornate fountain sculptures and garden decorative sculptures for the Medici family and the Catholic Church.

His sculpture represents the transition from Michelangelo sculpture to Baroque style.

Bologna’s robbed sapin women is based on Roman Mythology: the Romans took some women as their wives from the residents of sapin, their neighbor.

The sculpture shows three characters, the elderly, young people and women, and the constitutive relationship between them is quite complex.

Three human bodies rotate and twist around an invisible axis.

Showing a rising sense of movement.

The composition of this group sculpture was influenced by the Hellenistic sculpture laocon (the group sculpture laocon was unearthed in the early 16th century).

This sculpture breaks the limitation that the previous sculpture is attached to architecture and can only be viewed from a fixed point of view.

It enables the viewer to view from any angle.

With the change of point of view, the outer contour of the sculpture is also changing.

This sculpture is considered to be a masterpiece of multi view sculpture for the first time since the Hellenistic era.

The bronze sculpture of mercury (1564, now stored in the National Museum of Florence, Italy) is also one of Bologna’s representative works.

Mercury, also known as Hermes, was the messenger of the Olympian gods and Zeus.

This sculpture portrays mercury as a naked boy running forward.

He only touches the ground with the tip of one toe – the so-called ground is a breath from a mask representing the south wind.

The whole sculpture has been carefully balanced, making mercury almost fly through the air, light and beautiful.

This sculpture shows a posture that is not suitable for sculpture, but Bologna completed this wonderful sculpture after bold imagination and careful design, and achieved extremely unique effects.

Bologna’s main works include astronomy, Venus fountain and so on.

Venus sprayThe factor is the outstanding works of bronze carving art achievements in the German Renaissance.

French Renaissance sculpture French sculpture art basically belongs to religious art between the 11th and 14th centuries.

After the 14th century, under the influence of Italian, Netherland and German art, French Renaissance art developed slowly.

From the end of the 15th century to the middle of the 16th century, France invaded Italy one after another and occupied a large area of northern Italy for a long time.

The war objectively promoted the cultural exchange between Italy and France and spread the artistic achievements of the Italian Renaissance to France.

However, the French Renaissance art did not fully accept the achievements of the Italian Renaissance, but prospered on the basis of its own Gothic art tradition, so it has more naturalistic color.

In the 16th century, court art played a great role in the development of French art.

This is mainly because Francis I (1515-1547) had a great passion for Italian culture.

He advocated art and tried to attract artists from Italy and Europe to work for him at the French court.

Medieval French sculpture is usually attached to architecture.

French sculpture in the 15th and 16th centuries is still not separated from the scope of architectural decoration.

They are attached to buildings and strive to integrate with the lines of buildings.

During this period, due to the strengthening of kingship, secular architecture achieved great development.

Architectural sculpture has also changed from mainly serving religious buildings to decorating secular buildings.

In these decorative sculptures, French sculptors showed their pursuit of lofty ideal beauty.

The most famous sculptor in France in the 15th century was Colombe (ca.

1430-1512).

He learned from his father in his early years and worked in Mulan and tour after becoming famous.

His representative works include: Marble relief “St.

George’s war on the dragon” (7508-1509), the medal of Louis XII entering tours (1502-1503, bronze) and the mausoleum sculpture of Francis and his wife (1502-1503, marble).

The characteristic of his works is the perfect unity of strong sense of strength and elegant style.

Crombie’s early art still has the shadow of medieval art, but his later works have clearly reflected the influence of classical art in the Italian Renaissance.

He basically completed the transition from medieval art to classical art.

In the 16th century, with the active support and sponsorship of Francis I, the French court became the communication center of the cultural and artistic achievements of the Italian Renaissance.

In the Fontainebleau emperor castle, artists from all over the world gathered together to form a very influential school, which is called “Fontainebleau school”.

Sculptors of this school are devoted to the mythological themes of Greece and Rome.

Their elegant and dignified statue columns such as goddess columns and Hermes columns are very different from the lion headed and sheep shaped monsters popular in French Gothic sculpture.

The artistic activities of this school were prosperous for a time, but their works had a certain impact on the French art world.

However, the really important artists of French sculpture in the 16th century were Michelle Colombe, Jean gujung and Germain Piron.

They developed French Renaissance sculpture on the basis of inheriting their national traditions.

Michelle Colomber (1430-1512) created a new situation of French sculpture in the 16th century.

From his work “the statue of the mausoleum of Francis II husband and wife” (now the cathedral in southern Tibet), we can see the influence of his predecessors slyther and Fontainebleau school.

On the mausoleum lies a statue of the late couple with solemn expressions.

There are four statues of good women at the four corners of the recumbent statue.

For the treatment of the four female statues, Colomber borrowed the techniques of ancient Italian architecture and tombstone relief.

They were fully realistic in their clothes, faces and costumes at that time.

It can be seen from the carving of these figures that a new concept of human body shape has been formed at that time, and this work also reflects the exquisite carving skills of Colombo.

Although his works do not have the boldness and grandeur of Italian sculpture, they clearly reflect the unique style of French sculpture.

Goujon (ca.

1510-1564 or 1568?) He is the most outstanding sculptor in France in the 16th century and an outstanding architectural designer at the same time.

He was born in Paris and worked in Lyon.

In Paris, he worked with the famous architect El LESCO to build the Louvre and decorate the famous building.

His works are exquisite and elegant, full of classical charm, rich in decoration, and exudes the brilliance of humanism.

The female pillars he made for the Louvre reflect his pursuit of classical beauty.

The female figure he created is extremely perfect, and the accuracy is impeccable.

The clothing patterns on the goddess are like clouds and flowing water, looming the beautiful and elegant body of the goddess.

French sculptors perfectly solved the problem of clothing performance.

The clothes on the characters’ bodies not only did not hinder them from praising the beauty of the human body.

It also helps to enrich their performance of human beauty.

In the 1640s, Gu Rong designed and built the “water god fountain” (also known as “chastity fountain”), which is a veranda composed of seven linked arcades.

The goddess of mountain forest and water (1547-549) is one of the five decorative reliefs in the veranda, which is now completely preserved in the Louvre Museum.

This relief is based on Greek mythology.

Gu Rong created the images of five beautiful mountain, forest and water goddess.

Their clothes are as transparent as gauze and holding water cans.

Their posture is charming, natural and elegant, which is very poetic.

Gu Rong carefully conceived the composition of this sculpture.

The dynamics of the five goddesses are five continuous changes of a movement, which together form a unified melody.

They have relative independence and combine to become a rhythmic work.

The style of this work is elegant and fresh, which is completely different from the glitz and dedication of the dry Fontainebleau school.

Fontainebleau sculptors once made a group of white nude women to decorate the room for the Duchess of etab, but the feeling of these women naked is a pure sensory and sensual stimulation, and their soft bodies are uncomfortable because of their overly artificial posture.

Germain Piron (C.

1535-1590) was an outstanding sculptor after guron.

He was born into a stonemason family.

As a teacher of Pell balda, he was influenced by primatico in the early stage, so his works have the color of stylism.

At the age of 26, he became famous for creating the sculpture of Henry II’s Sacred Heart monument.

Two years later, he began to write King HenryThe mausoleum of Katrina de Medici (1563-1570) is the most famous sculpture.

The tomb was designed by LESCO and carved by Piron.

Above the mausoleum is the bronze kneeling statue of the king and his wife.

In the middle is a marble sculpture of the naked figure of the king and his wife lying down.

These two nude figures have not been idealized, but have truly shaped two skinny bodies.

They stretch out their limbs and lean back.

This sculpture shows the eternal, solemn and pious theme.

The bronze relief under the cross (1580-1585) is his late work.

This work is more cumbersome, loses the early sense of tranquility, and has a strong tragedy.

Piron’s works also include eight marble portraits for the mausoleum of Francis I, the marble group carvings “three Muses”, the bronze portrait “the bust of bishop de morvier”, the carvings of the tomb of the dead wife of the seal minister pilag, and so on.

While working at the Royal Mint in 1572, he also produced many medal portraits.