Section I after the Soviet Union officially declared war on Japan and the Potsdam Proclamation was published, the supreme war guidance conference of Japan met on July 27, 1945 to discuss the mediation between the Potsdam Proclamation and the Soviet Union.
All kinds of reasons, such as the announcement of the chief of staff of mizutan and mizutan, advocate that mizutan reject the overall rule of the South war.
Foreign Minister Dongxiang and others believed that the Soviet government did not sign the Potsdam Proclamation, so the Soviet Union still maintained legal neutrality towards Japan, and the Allies eased their demands for unconditional surrender in the past.
Therefore, we should first look at the attitude of the Soviet Union, and then finally decide on Japan’s attitude.
On July 28, Prime Minister Suzuki succumbed to the strong demand of the head of the military headquarters and stated at a press conference that “the Potsdam Proclamation is just a” repetition of the old tune “of the Cairo Declaration” and that “the government believes that it has no important value and can only ignore it.
” Japan publicly rejected the Potsdam Proclamation, and the Allies had only one last war against Japanese fascism.
In order to seize the initiative of occupying Japan, the Truman government of the United States was anxious to force Japan to surrender alone in order to obtain a favorable strategic position against the Soviet Union after the war, so it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, before the Soviet Union sent troops on August 6, 1945.
On the 9th, the second atomic bomb was dropped in Nagasaki.
At 17:00 on August 8, Molotov, member of the people’s Committee for foreign affairs of the Soviet Union, summoned the Japanese ambassador to the Soviet Union Sato Shangwu, handed him a Soviet declaration of war against Japan, announced his participation in the Potsdam Proclamation, and announced to his face that the Soviet Union was in a state of war with Japan from August 9.
The Soviet Union’s declaration of war against Japan is not only the fulfillment of the international obligation promised at the Yalta conference to participate in the anti fascist war against Japan two or three months after Germany’s surrender, but also the general outbreak of the deepening contradiction between the Soviet Union and Japan and the long-term military confrontation between the two sides.
Since Japan launched the Russo Japanese war in the early 20th century, Japan has been brewing a war plan to attack Soviet Russia while implementing an aggressive policy against North Korea and China.
In 1928, Japan attempted to occupy Siberia in order to eliminate the possible revolutionary influence of the first socialist country in the Asia Pacific region.
Shortly after Japan occupied Northeast China, the Soviet government, out of the need to safeguard its own interests, proposed to the Japanese ambassador the signing of a non aggression treaty in Geneva on March 16, 1932 by the Soviet people’s Foreign Affairs Commissioner tyvinov, but was rejected.
On April 13, 1941, after a long delay of 10 years, Japan signed a neutral and friendly agreement with the Soviet Union, which was valid for five years, and issued a statement: mutual respect for the territorial integrity and mutual inviolability of the so-called “Mongolian People’s Republic” and the pseudo “Manchukuo”.
In August 1932, the Japanese general staff formulated the war plan against the Soviet Union in 1933, trying to use the newly occupied Northeast China as a springboard to invade the Soviet Union northward, plot to seize the whole Far East and connect it with northeast China and Inner Mongolia, so as to serve as a strategic base for hegemony in Asia and the world, and establish a favorable situation for the war against the Soviet Union.
Only because the Northeast Anti Japanese coalition army led by the Communist Party of China bravely resisted, “the Kanto army was forced to attack, so that the original purpose – to prepare for the strategic intention of the Soviet Union has not made progress”.
In July 1938 and from May to August 1939, the Kwantung Army was severely beaten by the Soviet Red Army in the zhanggufeng and Nomenkan events.
The Kwantung Army has always resented this.
On June 25, 1941, the third day after Germany attacked the Soviet Union, the Soviet ambassador asked Japanese Foreign Minister yoyo Matsuoka whether Japan would abide by the treaty signed with the Soviet Union and remain neutral.
Matsuoka did not make a positive response, but said: “the Convention is the basis of Japan’s foreign policy.
If the current war and the neutrality agreement conflict with this basis.
The neutrality agreement is invalid.
” Japan did not recruit itself and implemented the Soviet Japanese neutral and friendly agreement in no sincerity.
The General Staff Headquarters of the Japanese army not only attempted to seize the Far East Territory of the Soviet Union, but also attempted to destroy all the armed forces of the Soviet Union.
It planned to take Omsk as the dividing line between fascist Germany and militarist Japan to carve up the Soviet Union.
This was the case with the plan codenamed “guanteyan”.
With the failure of the fascist German army on the Soviet German battlefield, Japan’s plan to use the favorable situation on the Soviet German battlefield to invade the Soviet Union also came to naught.
However, Japan “still believes that attacking the Soviet Union is one of the basic purposes of its policy, and has not given up its aggressive ambition or its preparation for attack”.
Accordingly, the Soviet government announced the abolition of the Soviet Japanese neutrality agreement on April 5, 1945.
The Soviet Union declared war on Japan, which greatly surprised Japan.
According to Japan’s original judgment, the Soviet army needs to rest after the war against Germany.
The war against Japan may take place in the spring of 1946, as early as early September 1945.
The main offensive direction of the Soviet army may be carried out from the coastal area of the Far East of the Soviet Union to Northeast China.
Based on this judgment, the Kwantung Army focused its defense on the east of Northeast China.
At 0:00 on August 9, the Soviet army launched a war against Japan, and Japan officially signed a letter of surrender on September 2, which lasted 24 days.
Section II Japan formulated a plan of operation against the Soviet Union.
On July 5, 1945, the Japanese base camp determined that the operational policy of the Kanto army against the Soviet Union was to use the vast area of Manchuria to smash the enemy’s attack.
As a last resort, we should also guard the important places to the east of the Changchun Dalian line and to the south of the Changchun Tumen line, and adhere to long-term operations, so as to facilitate the implementation of the Great East Asian war.
Guiding points: try to make use of the terrain and fortifications in the mountains in the east of North Korea, the mountains in the west of the Mudanjiang River Basin, the great and small Hinggan Mountains and the areas along the Siping Qiqihar line, and strive to crush the enemy.
In order to block the enemy’s attack, it is expected to start with a force.
After that, the vast area and terrain of Manchuria were used to block the enemy’s attack in order to last for a long time, and guerrilla warfare was widely started at the same time.
The main force of the Kwantung Army timely concentrated in the mountains to the east of the long line and the south of the long map line to lure and annihilate the attacking enemy.
When we have to, we should also guard the important places around Tonghua and Linjiang in order to adhere to it for a long time.
The Kwantung Army governs the first and third front armies of Japan, with 24 divisions and 12 brigades, with more than 700000 people.
In addition, there are 8 divisions and 12 brigades of the puppet Manchukuo and puppet Mongolian army, with more than 200000 people.
The total strength of the Japanese puppet army is nearly 1 million, equipped with 150 combat aircraft, about 500 training aircraft, 160 tanks and 5000 artillery.
The deployment of the Kwantung Army is as follows: the first front army serves as the eastern front defense, and the main force is concentrated in Mudanjiang and YanjiAttack.
In the first stage of the campaign, the 16th group army, in coordination with the Pacific Fleet, served as the defense of the West Bank of the Tatar Strait and the Kamchatka Peninsula, and then carried out landing operations on South Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands.
The depth of the campaign is 500 kilometers.
The front army formed an echelon.
Reserve a division and a brigade.
The headquarters is located in Boli, and the war advances to skoye.
Pacific Fleet: take active action in Japanese waters with submarines and aviation troops to cut off the connection between the Kwantung Army and the Japanese garrison.
Support the coastal flank defense of ground forces.
Coordinate with the army in landing operations at ports on the east coast of North Korea, South Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands.
The headquarters is located in Vladivostok.
Each air force group army is subordinate to each front army.
According to the enemy situation, terrain and tasks at that time, the commander of the front army gave the aviation troops different specific tasks and coordination methods.
Its main tasks are: to carry out uninterrupted aerial reconnaissance.
Seizing and maintaining air supremacy.
Support the combat operations of major assault groups on the ground.
The naval aviation force supports the naval operations of the fleet, destroys the maritime traffic of the Japanese army, and supports the landing forces in land operations.
In the third section, the Soviet army launched an attack in parallel with the sea and air.
On the night of August 8, 1945, the three front armies of the Soviet army, the Pacific Fleet and the Heilongjiang fleet occupied the starting area of the attack.
At 0:00 on the 9th, all advance detachment crossed the border.
At dawn, the main force launched an attack successively.
The aviation troops attacked the Japanese troops in Harbin, Changchun, Jilin and Shenyang in two batches.
The Pacific Fleet took active action in the sea of Japan.
On the western front, the advance detachments of the rear Baikal front army crossed the border in all directions at the same time without artillery preparation in the dark of night.
At 4:30, the main force of the front army began to attack, and there was basically no Japanese resistance.
The sixth group army of tanks formed two routes in two directions separated by more than 70 kilometers to spread the formation and advance rapidly.
It advanced 150 kilometers on the first day of the campaign.
On the afternoon of the 10th, it advanced more than 100 kilometers and the main force reached Daxinganling.
Due to the smooth progress, the commander of the front army asked the tank group army to complete the current task in advance and go out to the front line of northern Shandong and Tuquan before sunset on August 12.
The sixth tank group army then changed its deployment during the March.
The fifth tank army boarded Daxinganling that night and occupied heidaba, Taiwan and Japan.
On August 12, the tank group army all crossed the Daxinganling, and its advance detachment captured northern Shandong on August 11 and Tuquan on August 12.
The 36th group army of the left wing conquered the barricade area of Manchuria on the 11th.
The tank troops were tenaciously resisted by the Japanese army in the barricade area of Hailar, and the main force was circuitous.
The mechanized cluster of right-wing cavalry marched in two ways, one to occupy Duolun on the 14th, and the other to occupy Zhangbei on the 15th.
On the eastern front, the advance detachment of the first front army of the Far East sneaked across the Wusuli River at 1:00 on the 9th, taking advantage of the night and rainstorm, attacking the fortified area of the Japanese border.
At 8:30, the main force launched an attack, and there was no artillery preparation except in some directions.
The 25th group army on the left and the 35th group army on the right were tenaciously resisted by the Japanese army in Dongning and Hutou, respectively.
They were unable to attack repeatedly and their progress was blocked.
The main force was forced to detour, leaving a force, and sent heavy artillery and bombing airmen to continue the attack.
After the fifth group army eliminated the Japanese firepower point with the advance detachment, the main force moved forward quickly, captured Suifenhe on the second day of the campaign, and entered the urban area of Mudanjiang on the 14th.
In coordination with the first group army, the fifth group army launched an alley battle with the Japanese army.
In order to improve the attack speed and avoid deadlock, the commander of the front army was determined to detour from the south of Mudanjiang city to Jilin with the main force.
On the northern line, the second front army of the Far East launched an attack at 1:00 on the 9th, and the independent Fifth Army forcibly crossed the Wusuli River.
14 Zhan Baoqing.
The 15th group army, under the coordination of the Heilongjiang fleet, forcibly crossed Heilongjiang and occupied the Fujin fortified area on the 14th, opening up the road to Jiamusi.
The second group army first served as the defense along the hailanpao on the North Bank of Heilongjiang and turned to the attack on the 11th.
Due to the lack of river crossing equipment, it only scored batches and went into battle, making slow progress.
On the 14th, it surrounded the area built by Sun Wu and Aihui.
After six days of fighting in the first stage of the campaign, the Baikal front army crossed the great Khingan mountains, advanced 450 to 500 kilometers, and went out to the Northeast Plain.
The first front army of the Far East advanced 150 to 200 kilometers and went out to Mudanjiang plain.
The second front army of the Far East advanced 50 to 100 kilometers and went out to the approach of Jiamusi.
The Pacific Fleet, together with the Marines, occupied the ports of xiongji and Luojin in North Korea, cutting off the retreat of the Japanese army from the sea.
The deployment of the Kwantung Army was split, disrupted and lost its unified command.
Only some troops continued to resist tenaciously in Mudanjiang City and Hailar, Sunwu, Hutou and other areas.
Section IV the Japanese army was forced to surrender.
On August 15, 1945, the Japanese government announced its surrender, but the Kanto army did not stop resisting.
The Soviet army continued to attack.
Later, Baikal front army successively captured Zalantun, Taonan, Tongliao, Chifeng, Zhangbei and other places on the 16th and 17th.
Due to the muddy road, the tank group army can only move along the railway subgrade, with an average forward speed of 40-50 kilometers every day and night.
The main force follows up behind the advance detachment, and some troops continue to siege the Hailar fortification area.
The first and fifth group armies of the first front army of the Far East captured Mudanjiang City on the 17th, capturing more than 40000 Japanese troops.
On the same day, the right-wing 35th group army of the front army entered Boli and the left-wing 25th group army entered Tumen and advanced towards North Korea.
Some troops are still in Hutou and Dongning fortified areas, and the defenders fought fiercely on the same day.
After capturing Jiamusi on the 17th, the 15th group army of the second far east front army pursued the retreating Japanese army along the Songhua River.
With the support of aviation and artillery, the second group army launched a fierce attack on the fortified area of Sun Wu.
On August 17, the Kwantung Army ordered to stop resistance and the Japanese army began to surrender.
In view of the fact that the regiments are still far from the battle target, vasilevsky ordered all front armies to send rapid detachment on the 18th to quickly occupy important cities and transportation hubs.
Since the 18th, the Soviet army has carried out airborne landing in 13 important cities, controlled important targets in airports and urban areas, and accepted the surrender of the Japanese army.
On the 20th and 21st, the rapid detachment of the Soviet army moving from east to West met in Harbin, Changchun and Shenyang respectively.
The Japanese troops stationed in Hutou and Dongning fortified areas did not stop resistance until August 26.
At the same time, from August 11 to 25, the 16th group army of the Soviet army, with the coordination of some troops of the Pacific Fleet, carried out the offensive battle of South Sakhalin Island.
From August 18 to September 1, the second front army of the Far EastUnder the coordination of the first division of the 16th group army and the formation of the Pacific Fleet, the first division carried out the landing campaign of the Kuril Islands.
Earlier, the battle of South Sakhalin Island had begun.
On August 10, the military committee of the second far east front army assigned the following tasks to the 16th group army: the 56th infantry army equipped with reinforced weapons was ordered to attack gutun, qitun, shangfuxiang and inner road with the support of aviation at 10:00 on August 11, breaking through the defense of the 88th Infantry Division in gutun and occupying shangfuxiang Fuxiang, neilu and other cities.
Subsequently, the army was ordered not to stay in the inner road and Fuxiang area, but to continue to attack south along the East and west sides of the island and eliminate all Japanese troops on nansakhalin island.
After five days of tenacious fighting, the 56th infantry army crossed the front line of the Japanese army and broke through the main defense zone of gutun fortification area on August 16.
After the capture of gutun area, the whole defense system built by the Japanese army on the border was defeated.
Several remaining resistance fulcrums have been besieged by the Soviet army and then destroyed.
The basic strength of the 56th Soviet infantry army continued to attack south.
At the same time, the troops of the second front army of the Far East, in coordination with the Pacific Fleet, also carried out several landing campaigns in order to prevent the Japanese army from increasing troops from Japan to Sakhalin Island, so as to quickly encircle and annihilate the Japanese army on the island and liberate the whole territory of South Sakhalin Island.
On August 16, the landing forces captured the huixuqu (soblevo) seaport and its urban area on the West Bank of the island.
On August 20, another landing force captured Zhengang harbor and its urban area.
This force continued to attack in the southeast direction and occupied redoga and the important seaport and naval base Dabo on August 25.
On August 21, the 56th infantry army attacking Fengyuan captured the port, Fuxiang, neilu and other cities.
In order to defeat and eliminate the Japanese troops on South Sakhalin Island more quickly, the Soviet airborne troops landed at the airports in Luohe, Fengyuan and other places on August 24.
On August 25, the main force of the 16th group army came to join the airborne troops.
After fierce fighting, the 16th group army broke through the strong border fortification line of the Japanese army in gutun area, advanced 360 kilometers to the hinterland of Sakhalin Island, smashed the 88th infantry division with the cooperation of ships of the Pacific Fleet, and forced 18000 officers and soldiers of the fifth front army to surrender.
The smooth attack of the Soviet Army on Northeast China and Sakhalin Island created a favorable situation for the implementation of the Japanese landing campaign to eliminate the Kuril Islands.
The Japanese army built extremely strong Fortifications on the Kuril Islands and blocked all the exits of the Soviet Navy from the Okhotsk Sea to the Pacific Ocean.
The battle began on the morning of August 18.
The first infantry regiment and the second infantry regiment of the Soviet landing regiment are formed to support the landing on the island.
The landing took place in an unexpected thick fog.
After discovering the landing soldiers, the Japanese army tried to drive them into the sea with counter impact, but failed.
The personnel and technical equipment of the Japanese army suffered great losses, broke up into many small groups and fled to the hinterland of the island.
In the evening of August 23, 12000 Japanese officers and soldiers on the island surrendered to the Soviet army.
By September 1, the Soviet army had eliminated the Japanese army on all the islands of the Kuril Islands, and 47000 Japanese officers and soldiers had surrendered.
In the Far East campaign, the Soviet Army wiped out all of the Kwantung Army, the puppet Manchukuo army and the puppet Mongolian army, half of the 17th and fifth front armies, a total of 10 armies, a group army level cluster and a district fleet.
The Japanese army lost about 700000 officers and soldiers, of which more than 83000 were killed and more than 609000 were captured.
Among the prisoners were 148 officers at the rank of general of the army and navy.
More than 32000 Soviet casualties.
Those disarmed and captured by the Soviet Army included 23 infantry divisions, 10 infantry brigades, 1 motorized Death Squadron, 2 tank brigades, 2 aviation brigades, 1 infantry division and 1 cavalry division of the Japanese army, as well as many regiments and units of other arms and special forces.
The Soviet army seized a large amount of booty.
The Baikal front army and the Far East first front army alone seized 1565 artillery, 2139 mortars and 600 tanks, 861 aircraft, 9508 light machine guns, 2480 heavy machine guns, 2129 cars, about 18000 horses, 679 warehouses and many other combat technical equipment and military materials.
The Far East Second Front Army and the red flag Heilongjiang fleet captured all the ships of the Japanese Songhuajiang army.
When the Soviet army launched the Far East campaign, it not only had high morale and strong troops, but also had all-round advantages in politics, economy, military and diplomacy.
It concentrated on the use of the latest technological achievements and combat experience in the Soviet German war, and took advantage of a series of mistakes in the Japanese army’s combat guidance, thus accelerating the rapid victory of the war against Japan.
In contrast, when the Soviet Union launched the Far East campaign, Japan faced a total collapse in politics, economy, military and diplomacy.
First of all, the Japanese base camp is between “local decisive battle” and adhering to “Manchuria”.
In May 1945, the Japanese base camp clearly pointed out: the Soviet army attacked “Manchuria”, the northern front is the auxiliary assault direction, and the East and west sides will adopt centripetal assault.
The main force of the decisive battle is located in the front of the west, and the East is the secondary direction of the decisive battle.
This shows that the Japanese army’s judgment of the Soviet attack attempt is basically correct.
Based on this judgment, a Western defense system with Daxinganling as a barrier should be established.
However, the Kanto army only deployed more than three divisions in the front of the west, and the fortifications were weak, but the main force was deployed in the areas east of Harbin, Changchun and Shenyang.
As the war situation became increasingly unfavorable to Japan, the Japanese army base camp made a decision with the goal of “safeguarding the national system and defending the imperial territory” in June.
In fact, this decision is to implement total contraction in strategy, abandon “Manchuria” and defend North Korea and Japan.
Accordingly, the Kwantung Army had to deploy its main forces in the eastern and southern regions in order to prevent the Soviet army from going south to Korea and cover the decisive battle at home.
Unwilling to give up and unable to stick to the Western defense, they had to shrink their troops to the front lines of Tonghua and Linjiang to establish a defense system.
However, due to the lack of troops, they were defeated in the face of the powerful offensive of the Soviet army.
Secondly, the Japanese army was forced to change from a long-term offensive strategy to a defensive strategy, the military system could not turn around, and the defense preparation was insufficient.
In addition, the wrong timing of the Soviet attack also led to the collapse of the Japanese army.
Finally, the reason for the defeat of the Kwantung Army was the lack of unity in operational thinking and unstable command.