a political storm blew up in Romania in December 1989. A few days later, Ceausescu and his wife Elena fell at the gunpoint of their own people. We are journalists of Xinhua news agency in Romania. We witnessed the political storm and the death of Ceausescu.

met with Ceausescu and his wife

in June 1971. The two authors of this article are successively the chief reporter of Xinhua news agency in Romania.

Nicolas Ceausescu is a former Romanian party and government leader. He has visited China many times and is familiar to the Chinese people. In December 1989, a political storm blew up in Romania. A few days later, Ceausescu and his wife Elena fell at the gunpoint of their own people. We are journalists of Xinhua news agency in Romania. We witnessed the political storm and the death of Ceausescu.

mountain rain is coming.

Ceausescu implemented individual autocracy, suppressed democracy, ignored people’s life and caused social discontent in the later period of his reign.

at the 12th CPC National Congress in 1979, Constantine pavolescu, one of the founders of the CPC and former member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, made an impromptu speech and criticized Ceausescu for getting rid of the party’s leadership and being above the party. He opposed Ceausescu’s re-election as general secretary of the party. At that time, the incident was called “a political bomb” by the western media.

on November 15, 1987, workers in Brasov, an important industrial town in central Romania, held a large-scale demonstration against Ceausescu. The demonstrators were mainly workers from the famous “red flag” truck factory in the country.

in March 1989, six former senior Romanian party and government cadres jointly published an open letter to Ceausescu through foreign radio stations, accusing him of causing the collapse of the national economy, trampling on human rights and discrediting socialism. The six former leaders are: former first Secretary of the CPC Central Committee (from April 1954 to October 1955), former Deputy Prime Minister Georgi Apostol, former member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Alexandru berledyanu, former foreign minister korneru mannescu, one of the founders of the CPC Central Committee and former member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Constantine pavolescu, Silvio brukan, former editor in chief of the Romanian Communist Party newspaper spark, and Mircea leqiannu, former political counsellor of the Romanian Embassy in the United States.

this letter is well known in Romania due to the spread of Western radio stations such as Radio Free Europe. Luo ordinary people praised the letter and thought it had spoken their hearts. Many people said that in the face of Ceausescu’s dictatorship, even veteran cadres could not stand it and stood up to speak.

the broad masses are very dissatisfied with Ceausescu, but due to the close control of the authorities, people can not vent, so they made up many political jokes to satirize and ridicule Ceausescu. At that time, there were many political jokes in Romania, which spread widely. Here are two jokes:

once, many people lined up in front of a butcher’s shop to buy meat. Early in the morning, people came to line up. It was very hard. Whether they could buy it or not was unknown. A man scolded and said, “the market supply is so bad, it’s all ziosescu’s fault. Now I’ll kill him!” Then he left. After a while, the man returned and continued to line up. The others asked him if he had killed Qi. He said nothing. Everyone called him a coward and empty the gun. The man couldn’t stand it anymore, so he shouted, “the line there is longer than here!”

in Bucharest, many people applying to go abroad are lining up to get their passports. One of them looked back and saw that the man behind him was not others, but Ceausescu. Ceausescu saw his surprise and said, “since everyone is going abroad, I’ll go too.” The man immediately aligned with osescu and said, “if you go, why do we need to go abroad!”

“December storm

the political storm in December 1989 blew up from timishwara in western Romania. It is only 40 kilometers away from the western border of Romania and Hungary. In addition to Romanians, there are also Hungarians, Germans and Serbs. Here, people can turn on the TV and see the TV programs of Hungary and Yugoslavia.

in October 1989, Hungary’s political situation changed dramatically, the ruling Socialist Workers’ party was transformed into a socialist party, and Hungary began to implement a multi-party system. Ethnic Hungarians in Romania are very sensitive to the political coup in Hungary. In December 1989, Hungarian television repeatedly broadcast the remarks of Romanian Hungarian priest tekesh Laslo criticizing Ceausescu. In this regard, Ceausescu was very angry. On the evening of December 15, several Romanian police planned to force the Hungarian priest Laslo to move away from the city, which was strongly opposed by more than 200 Hungarians (Romania is a multi-ethnic country, with Romanians accounting for 89% of the country’s population; Hungarians are the most populous minority, with Hungarians accounting for 6% – 7% of the country’s population). In the afternoon of the next day (December 16), tens of thousands of people took part in the parade in the city, most of them ethnic Romanians. Their demands have changed from opposition to the relocation of Hungarian priests to opposition to the dictatorship of Ceausescu. On the evening of the 16th, Ceausescu held a Party Central Committee meeting in Bucharest overnight to discuss countermeasures. On the 17th, under the instruction of Ceausescu, the Romanian military and police fired guns in the city, arrested some rioters and calmed the riots. On the 18th, Ceausescu visited Iran as originally planned. On the afternoon of the 20th, Ceausescu ended his visit to Iraq and returned to Bucharest.

on the evening of December 20, the domineering and overconfident Ceausescu decided to hold a mass meeting in Bucharest on the 21st to support his crackdown in timishwara. It never occurred to him that the rally just gave him indignationThe peaceful masses provided a good opportunity to make trouble in the streets. At noon on the 21st, tens of thousands of Bucharest citizens attended the mass meeting in the square of the Republic palace in the center of Bucharest. At 12:15, Ceausescu stepped onto the rostrum on the balcony of the central building of the Communist Party of Romania and began to speak. But before long, the crowd began to coax, and the venue was in chaos. Before Ceausescu finished speaking, he retreated into the room. The people who attended the meeting soon gathered into several teams and began a demonstration in the streets of Bucharest. They shouted slogans against the dictatorship of Ceausescu. In downtown Bucharest, military and police confronted demonstrators. The demonstration of “spekds” in Bucharest, Romania, broke out at the 22nd hour of the “spekds” in Bucharest on the morning of the 19th. Romanian riot police can no longer stop the impact of the parade. The masses immediately gathered in the central building of the Party of saqqi and stormed the central building of the Party of saqqi. Some people broke the windows of the first floor and threw Qi’s works and portraits out. Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu didn’t see the big thing well, so they ordered to send a helicopter and escape from the top platform of the building. At 1210 hours, the helicopter took off and flew to the northern suburb of Bucharest, the capital.

on December 22, a new political party, the Romanian National Salvation Front, was established. It was composed of some Romanian leaders after the spontaneous action of the masses. It was also the planning and organizer of a series of major actions in Romania at that time. Iliescu, the main leader of the National Salvation Front of

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, was originally the Secretary of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania. Because he disagreed with Ceausescu, he was dismissed by Ceausescu in 1971. After Ceausescu’s death, he was elected president of Romania (1990-1997).

the political storm in Romania in December 1989, its momentum and wind speed were beyond everyone’s expectation. It finally brought earth shaking changes to the country, and the Romanian Communist Party lost its ruling position.

accidents on the way

where does the helicopter fly? Ceausescu couldn’t make up his mind. He decided to go to the presidential villa – snagoff villa, dozens of kilometers north of Bucharest. At 12:30, the helicopter arrived at the presidential villa. After Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu got off the plane, they hurried into the villa and put some things into two big blue bags. They also put some bread in a bag. The

helicopter took off again with Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu and their two bodyguards. After the plane took off, Captain Vasili briefed the air force command. He tried to turn the helicopter around and fly to a Romanian air force base not far from the capital, but under the threat of ziosescu’s bodyguards, he had to fly to the northwest. Vasili secretly reported his position to the base and raised it as high as possible to make the radar easy to track. Finally, he said, “the ground radar has caught us. In a few minutes, air defense weapons may break us to pieces.” Ceausescu was greatly surprised and asked to land on the ground immediately. The helicopter landed on a highway 52 kilometers northwest of Bucharest.

now there are only four people left in Ceausescu’s Party: Ceausescu and his wife, as well as Guard commander nayagoye and bodyguard Malian. At this time, Marion stopped a passing Romanian made Dacia car. Malian took a gun and said to the owner, “get out of the car and give me the car key!” The owner was a doctor. He was surprised to see that it was Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu, but he had to drive by himself. After getting on the bus, Ceausescu sat next to the owner, and his wife sat in the back row. The car was narrow, and there was no room for three people in the back row. After Mrs. Ceausescu and the captain of the guard got on the car, the bodyguard Marion didn’t get on the car, so he stayed at the side of the road. Ceausescu ordered the car to be driven to tergovishtai, the capital of denbovica County, the hometown of Mrs. Elena. At 2 p.m., the car broke down. The captain of the guard hijacked another car and told the owner to move on. Due to repeated obstruction by local demonstrators along the way, the car drove to tergovishtai County police station. At 1815 hours they entered the police station through the back door. At this time, the chief of the county police station was talking to two representatives of the Romanian National Salvation Front, a political party established in the political upheaval. When they saw Ceausescu and his wife, they immediately searched the couple and informed the local barracks leader. The commander of the local barracks, major Maresh, reported the situation to the top leader of the Romanian Ministry of defense. The Ministry of national defense ordered that Qi and his wife be transferred to the barracks and strictly guarded. They must not be rescued by Qi’s confidants. Ceausescu and his wife were immediately sent to the barracks. This barracks is an air defense base in charge of the air defense tasks of Bucharest, Brasov and tergovishtai in central Romania.

secret execution

after Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu were put into the barracks of the air defense base, the Romanian security forces close to President Ceausescu began shooting at the barracks after hearing the news, trying to rescue the fleeing couple. In order to prevent Ceausescu from being rescued, the Romanian Army mobilized tanks, anti tank guns, armored vehicles and mountain combat troops to the barracks. At that time, there were 1200 troops stationed in the barracks.

Ceausescu and his wife were locked up in the barracks for three days and nights and never left the gate of the barracks. There were several times when I went out of the building and into the yard. I went to the toilet under the supervision of a specially assigned person. On two occasions, the Qi couple were locked up in armored vehicles to prevent the “security forces” from being rescued after attacking the barracks and to ensure their personal safety.

on December 24, the leaders of the Romanian National Salvation Front met in Bucharest and decided to establish a special military court to try and execute Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu.

December 25 is Christmas. At 1 p.m., the special military court established by the Romanian National Salvation Front began to align osescu in the barracksThe couple were tried. The jury consists of seven people. Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu completely denied the legitimacy of the military court and refused to answer the questions raised by the judge during the trial. The defense lawyer asked Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu if they wanted to appeal. If the defendant appeals, the Romanian Supreme Court will hear it, and even if the appeal is rejected, it will take one week; If the defendant does not appeal, the judgment is the final judgment, and the execution shall be carried out immediately. Ceausescu ignored it. The defence lawyer appointed by the National Salvation Front also asked Mrs. Ceausescu whether she had been and is suffering from psychosis. If Elena says yes, the court can’t judge her. The military court must take her to the hospital for examination. This kind of inspection can last for months. But Elena said no. The special military court sentenced Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu to death for the following charges: Massacre (more than 60000 martyrs); Crime of undermining political power; Crime of destroying public property; Crime of damaging the national economy; Having more than $1 billion in foreign banks and attempting to flee abroad (afterwards, the crime of depositing in foreign banks proved to be groundless).

after the trial, Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu were bound and escorted outdoors one after another. There was no execution ground in the barracks, and the open space in front of the toilet became a place for execution. It’s about 30 meters from the building to the execution ground. There are two windows in the toilet. Ceausescu was taken under the wall between the two windows and stood facing the soldiers with guns. When the soldiers escorting them left, Ceausescu shouted, “long live free and independent Romania!” Then Elena sang the Internationale. At this time, the soldier with the gun fired before the commander of the firing squad arrived. Ceausescu fell on his knees after being shot and hit the back of his head against the wall of the toilet. He died with his eyes open. Mrs. Ceausescu was shot in the head, her skull blossomed and her brain overflowed.

after the execution of Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu, their bodies were verified by forensic medicine. Then the soldiers wrapped the body in blankets. That night, the members of the jury returned to Bucharest by helicopter and took the bodies of Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu to Bucharest. The helicopter stopped at the stadium of the star club, the sports club of the Romanian armed forces. The participants in the trial carried the two bodies off the helicopter and hurried to dinner. When they returned, the helicopter had flown away, but the package containing the bodies of the ceausescus on the ground had disappeared. People were surprised. It was dark and they couldn’t see their fingers. Where was the body of the ceausescus?

in the early morning of the next day (December 26), the officials escorting the body found the two large packages behind a large mound in the playground. It turned out that on the evening of the 25th, handball players went to the playground. They saw two long packages there. They felt very ugly, so they put them behind the big mound. How did they know that the package contained the bodies of Mr. and Mrs. Ceausescu.

four days later, that is, in the afternoon and evening of December 30, the refrigerated truck with two coffins arrived at gencha cemetery in the southwest suburb of Bucharest under the escort of the military convoy. At this time, it was dark and snowflakes fell from the sky. The motorcade drove through the city to gencha cemetery.

in gencha cemetery, soldiers put two coffins in two dug graves more than 20 or 30 meters away. There were no religious ceremonies or onlookers at the time of burial. The cross of the tomb was put up the next day. Ceausescu’s Cross reads: “Colonel PopA Dann 1920-1989”, and Elena’s Cross reads: “Colonel ernescu Vasili 1921-1989”. The reason why the Romanian authorities did so was to hide people’s eyes and ears and not expand the situation. Others say that this is to prevent someone from digging a tomb and destroying a corpse.

as the political storm subsided, the Romanian authorities felt that it was meaningless to cheat on Ceausescu’s grave again, so they sent someone to write the names of Ceausescu and his wife on the tombstone. In early 1996, workers of a large enterprise in Bucharest erected iron railings around the tomb of Ceausescu.

from revolutionaries to autocrats

Ceausescu was born in a poor peasant family in 1918. He worked as a shoemaker and railway worker in his youth. When he was young, he actively participated in the struggle against the bourgeois rule and fascist forces in his country. In 1936, at the age of 18, he joined the Romanian Communist Party, which was then underground. He has been arrested many times since 1934 and has been detained in doftana prison, known as the “Bastille of Romania”, for five years. In August 1944, the Romanian Communist Party held an armed uprising with patriots in the Romanian army and members of the royal family, including the then Romanian king, to overthrow the pro fascist German government and wage war against the German army. After that, the Soviet army entered and liberated Romania.

before March 1965, Ceausescu was a member of the Political Bureau and Secretary of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania. In March 1965, the supreme leader of Romania, George U. Dezhi, died of illness, and the 47 year old Ceausescu was appointed the first Secretary of the CPC Central Committee. After Qi came to power, he worked carefully and adhered to collective leadership. In 1968, the Soviet Union sent troops to invade Czechoslovakia. In this regard, the Romanian Communist Party and government headed by Ceausescu adopted a firm opposition attitude. Romania itself is also seriously threatened. Ceausescu did not compromise, strengthened military preparations, and established a large-scale militia – “patriotic guard” throughout the country. Ceausescu’s stand of adhering to independence and opposing foreign interference has been supported by the whole country and praised and supported internationally.

since the 1970s, Ceausescu has gradually become proud of his achievements. In 1971, iliescu, then Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Romania, put forward the opposite opinion to Ceausescu on ideological issues. As a result, he was demoted to the local level and unfairly treated. In 1974, Romania implemented the presidential system, and Ceausescu, as president, had the right to directly promulgate lawsThe factory will “live and die by itself”.

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nuclear power plants: the chernaward nuclear power plant built on the Bank of the Danube is the first nuclear power plant in Romania. It is planned to install five units with a power generation capacity of 700000 kW each, and the equipment is imported from Canada. After the first unit was imported from Canada, Ceausescu arbitrarily decided that the rest of the units should be manufactured by itself, and the cost of each unit should not exceed 10 billion Lei, that is, half of the price quoted by the United States, Canada, Japan and other developed countries. Enterprises have to make their own factories. However, Romania’s domestic industry does not yet have the level of producing nuclear power equipment, so the production date has to be greatly postponed. The first unit of the nuclear power plant was put into operation in 1996, the seventh year after Ceausescu’s death.

small rolling mill: Ceausescu made the decision to make the annual industrial output value of each of the 40 counties in the country reach 10 billion Lei. People in the Roman economic circles believed that this did not take into account the natural and human resources of each county, and forcibly leveled the industrial output value of all localities. Although a large-scale chemical complex has been built in mehdintz County in the southwest of Romania, the industrial output value is still not up. The county leaders decided to build a rolling mill with an annual production of 250000 tons according to Qi’s instructions, which was started in 1979 and completed in 1987. In 1988, only 17630 tons of small steel were rolled. Ceausescu was very happy to learn that and ordered to build another production line for rolling 200000 tons of steel. In the second year, the new production line was put into use. In 1989, the factory produced only 48626 tons of steel, that is, 10.8% of the actual production capacity. The wrong economic policies of

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have led to the continuous decline of people’s living standards. In the 1980s, the shortage of non-staple food supply in luonong was unprecedented in the country since the end of World War II. The daily supply of fresh meat, cooked meat, dairy products, eggs and edible oil is extremely tight. People need to queue for hours to buy. Many women and old people began to line up in front of the grocery store in the early morning, hoping to buy some meat, but many people lined up for hours and still couldn’t buy anything. Coffee is a must drink for Romanians, but the shops have been out of stock. You can get it through the back door, but the price needs to be doubled. Since the second half of 1987, the supply of drugs on the market has also begun to be tight. At the door of the drugstore, people also lined up. Many drugs were out of stock for a long time.

Romania has a severe cold in winter, and the lack of civil gas, heating and power supply in winter also brings greater troubles and problems to people’s life. The elderly and children are cold and ill. The ward, delivery room and operating room of the hospital cannot carry out normal medical operations due to lack of appropriate temperature. The shortage of fuel has also affected public transport.

fraud became common.

in the 1980s, Romanian party and government organs became popular from top to bottom.

Ceausescu announced that in 1989, Romania’s national grain output was more than 60 million tons, but actually only 18.23 million tons. The actual yield of wheat per hectare is 3170 kg, and the false yield is 8160 kg; 1913 kg of corn and 16500 kg of false report; 440 kg of soybeans, 8100 kg of falsely reported soybeans, etc. Fraud has become a fashion. Truthfully reflecting the situation will be criticized and rejected, or even lose official position, while lying will be praised and reused. Every time Ceausescu visits a factory, he must make full preparations in advance. The whole factory will shut down three days in advance, clean up, decorate the facade, post slogans, and hang up a report reflecting how the production performance is “booming”. The “August 23rd” factory in Bucharest is a popular place for Ceausescu. Ceausescu instructed the plant to achieve a “high speed” of production development and produce 10000 motors a year. The actual situation was that all Eastern European countries at that time could produce 10000 such motors a year. Ceausescu also visited the canteens of employees in some factories. From the TV, the dining hall we visited was more colorful than the restaurant. In fact, due to the extremely poor supply of non-staple food in the market, the canteens of most factories have been closed. During his visit to Romania in 1987, former Soviet leader gromiko visited a state-run food store in Bucharest and saw that there were abundant goods and shoppers were filled with plastic bags. As soon as the Soviets left, the shoppers immediately handed the plastic bags in their hands to the officers of the Romanian interior ministry standing aside. It turned out that the people in line were designated by the Ministry of the interior, and the abundant vegetables and food in the store were temporarily placed before the Soviet guests came.

under the circumstances of Romania’s own economic difficulties, tight market supply and the decline of people’s living standards, Ceausescu is full of lies. On April 19, 1989, at a mass meeting to celebrate romania’s repayment of all its foreign debts, Qi said: “Romania repaid its foreign debts under the condition of ensuring the country’s economic and social development and the continuous improvement of people’s living standards.” He also said that by 2000, Romania will become a “country that is very developed in all aspects”. He even said that at the end of this century, Romania will begin to implement the communist principles of work and life. After hearing this, Romanians can’t cry or laugh.

at Ceausescu’s 70th birthday in 1988, Romanian newspapers and periodicals hyped the grand occasion of the publication of Ceausescu’s works abroad. Romanian newspapers and periodicals reported that Qi’s works were published and distributed in Vienna, New York, Canada, Turkey and other countries. People familiar with the matter said that Romania sent a large amount of money to buy the copyright.

on October 8, 1989, without notifying his subordinates, he inspected several major non-staple food shopping malls in Bucharest and saw that the shelves there were empty. He was very angry and criticized the relevant departments. Two days later, after saying hello, he went to these shopping malls and found that there were many kinds of fresh meat, cooked meat and dairy products. He believes that his “inspection” has changed the market supply. But after he left, agricultural and sideline foods were removed from the shelves.